• mostly chattel slavery legal in most of the 13 original colonies • slaves not regarded as people → no Civil Rights C • no education O 0 G Historical overwiew Slavery • 17th century • slaves bought in exchange for goods from Europe 4 sold for raw materials in America 4 many Africans died during the journey. 0 0 O 9 с 0 O english abi Anti-slavery societies banned in northern states "Underground Railroad organisation Bloodhound Kaw → escaped slaves had to be brought back - Civil War and Reconstruction Period slavery partly reason for Civil War 4 about economic and political power and supremacy O Emancipation Proclamation 1863 - declared slaves free 4 Reconstruction era began rebuilding Onion and reviving economy. three Amendments adopted by the Congress • 13th Amendment abolished slavery for ever O 14th Amendment US citizenship for all former slaves 15th Amendment granted African Americans the right to vote concept of sharecropping was developed 0 O O "Seperate but equal" idea extended to nearly all areas. 2 signs saying "Whites Only". "Whites Only" or "Coloured" appeared Black's facilities in worse shape. almost impossible to vote for Black citizens due to certain regulations • all- While jurys who biased the White community O C O english abi Segregation Amendments were out of reach for African Americans "made to restrict activities of Black citizens. ↳ Whites could maintain control. Jim Crow Laws replaced slavery used to limit rights, not protect the African Americans African Americans today relationship changed considerably Gracial divide still exists G Obama's (re-)election - looked...
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like "post-racial society. s still discrimination and disadvantages for African Americans • social and political progress for Blacks ↳ easier now to achieve the American Dream Legal aspects • incarceration rate five times higher for Blacks more prone to be drawn into crime. 6 racial profiling رع • more impacted by police violence • killing rate (from the police) tevice as high for Black people 4 Black Kives Matter Movement diverging criminal sentences in disadvantage for Black people prisoners work for pro-fit companies - compulsorily America's criminal justice system perpetuates slavery a 0 english abi lot AA have little or no regular income -> living in dire poverty. O 4 have to depend on welfare programmes. ↳ twice as much Black people than White people. Economic aspects wealthy African American middle class has developed 4 prosperity still an unattainable goal • increase of Black people without health insurance since passing of Obamacare twice as much jobless Blacks than Whites C wealth gap is alarming 4 average wealth of whites about sixteen times higher financial reserves of Black people is often precarious "one quarter has very little or no money in resense 4 any setback can be devestating 0 0 • lower educational and vocational achievements ↳ lack of funds make Black schools unable to provide proper education wage gap is increasing " better 4 racial prejudice • poor families are stuck in a cycle of poverty young people think odds are stacked against them qualification for Whites because of the educational gap Social aspects •70% of Blacks are born out of wedlock s absence of a father figure can result in negative effects s higher rates of teenage pregnancy and poor educational performance ↳ contributes to juvenile delinquency. 4 Critics say this deflects attention from issues of structural racism equality is still a long way. off American Dream is still hard or even impossible to reach lachieve • country is still struggling with issues of race → bad influence on younger people growing up in a rough neighbourhood increases risk on a criminal career in later life 4 percentage of Black people in these areas is increasing African American literature The roots - oral tradition and early African American literature beginning of 17th century when first slaves came to America • used to express feelings and hopes sang and told of depressing slavery + hopes of being freed one day "contained coded or secret messages. D O Lucy Terry: author of earliest known work of AA literature • Phillist Wheatly: first AA to publish a book as was set free shortly after the publication 0 english abi O realities, suffering and pain of O 4 such protest usually expressed after escaping in first-person accounts dominant form of AA writing in the 19th century. () Slave narratives of the 19th century. George Moses Horton: first AA slave to protest his bondage in verse 5 was still enslaved when his poems were published "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas" one of the most powerful and influential works. 4 son of black slave and unknown white father "became dedicated fighter for the Civil Rights • some memories were recorded by other people ↳, 1853, David Wilson published story of Solomon Northup's life 4 "Twelve Years a slave" The post-slavery era • two African American writers who gained prominence Booker T. Washington with his autobiography "Up from Slavery" (1901) Blacks shouldn't demand equality but win respect through hard work William Edward Burghardt Du Bois with a collection of 14 essays called "The souls of Black Folk" (1903) " demanded equality immediately english abi Great Migration and Harlem Renaissance 0 Tim Crow laws turned AA into second-class citizens and made them leave the south • Harlem turned into culture centre 4 fashionable spot and great place for entertainment in the 1920s and early 30s - even for White Americans 5 Harlem Renaissance let AA literature find it's way into American culture 4 lasting influence on music, arts, literature, religion and cuisine rebirth of AA culture O mainstream 4 social standing still didn't improve • Kangston Hughes expressed his subjects through poems and plays demanded equality Claude Mckay treated subjects of identity, race and class in poetry-collections s called for courage, dignity and fighting back Recent African American literature • Alex Haley important Black Writer • Alice Walker works noted for insightful treatment of AA culture Toni Morrison → first AA woman to receive Nobel prize for literature C Cultural impact • styles like gospel, jazz, soul etc. have all AA roots Sinfluenced musicians all over the world • Cotton-Club- Whites only establishment, Black entertainers performed • "hip hop" and "rap" were developed developed in late 1970s by AA youths spread to other sections of population and other countries Black English variety of English spoken by most A4 from working and middle class called African American Vernacular English (AAVE) Tipove " developed during time of slavery - features with southern American englis • differences with regard to grammar and pronuncation "Consonants are dropped: th→  : mouth -2 [mauf] ".no -s ending in present-tense third-person singular she walk -> she walks in present tense "to be" is often dropped. he my brother -> he is brother genitive -s may be ommitted my momma sister ·couble negation occurs quite often → he ain't got no money my O O O 0 2 english abi From the Great Depression to the Civil Rights Movement era Harlem Renaissance Great Depression of the stock market in 1929 -> caused by collapse Richard Wright: best-selling novel "Native Son" (1940) " insight into appalling live conditions of 44 during Great Depression Gwendolyn Brooks: first AA to win Pulitzer Prize for Poetry James Baldwin: successful şemi-autobiographical novel "Go tell it on the Mountain" (1953) ""Notes of a Native Son (1955) - reflection of life as a Black American gay man Ralph Ellison experiences as a young man struggling with life in a hostile society the theme of novel "Invisible Man" (1952) Civil Rights Movement - new phase of Ad literature " playwrights came to national attention 2 Lorraine Hansberry: first A4 women having her play performed on Broadway with her work "A Raisin in the Sun " (1959) used their craft as weapons in the campaign to free 4 AS Black America 4" The autobiography of Malcolm X" is regarded as an important and influential piece of AA literature.