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 Final English Exam
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The American Dream....
Utopia / Dystopia….........
William Shakespeare / Romeo and Juli


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Final English Exam summary of all topics The American Dream.... Nigeria... Utopia / Dystopia…......... William Shakespeare / Romeo and Juliet... British Empire / Multicultural Great Britain..... Globilization.. XXXX In CONS wwwwww ה העוקץ יווד .4 .5 ..6 .8 .10 2 Definition ● The American Dream term was first used by the historian James Truslow Adams in his book "The Epic of America" published in1931 and was quickly assimilated into the American mindset there is no universal definition of what the American Dream actually is, it varies for each American the basic idea: anyone can achieve anything if they work hard and passionately, anybody can go "from rags to riches" inspiration and motivation for Americans to improve themselves and get on in life set of beliefs and ideals which (in theory) allows every American to prosper and advance socially, as well as financially - → often unrealistic expectations are created Historical background ● America is built on immigration 1620: Pilgrim Fathers, members of the English Separatist Church (a radical faction of Puritanism that represented the protestant reformed principles) fled from Great Britain to escape persecution at home they sailed across the Atlantic on the Mayflower and found the first permanent colony, the Plymouth Colony in what is now Massachusetts many others were also sent there for criminal offences and others were given land there many Native Americans lived in America before the pilgrims arrived → instead of assimilating...

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the Native's culture, they stole their land and started to kill thousands of them → the Pilgrim Fathers formed a society based on bloody fights they had permission as God's chosen ones: Americans have the right to guide the whole world and to overspread it completely "e pluribus unum": people from many colonies, states or ancestries came to America, lived there together and became a unity the idea of the American meritocracy, based on the divine blessing of the people, became the national mindset Declaration of Independence the basic democratic idea and the American dream were summarized in the Declaration of Independence (4th of July 1776) "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these, are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." Beliefs and Values freedom: Americans regard their society as the freest and best in the world, everyone can participate, individual freedom, no oppression equality: no class distinctions, equality in court individualism: idealization of the self-reliant, self-sufficient, independent individual mobility / flexibility / optimism: social mobility (upward and downward) on the “ladder of success" hard work: heritage is not important if you work hard, key to prosperity education and self-improvement: education is the key to individuals realizing their full economic, social and personal potential progress: desire to progress personally by making use of opportunities patriotism: patriotic symbols e.g. national holidays like (like Thanksgiving), a lot of flags Interpretation ● personal dream: reach and preserve personal aims such as family, property, freedom, happiness, health, but also materialistic wishes for self-fulfillment The American Dream today economic dream: prosperity and success, newness, desire to get continually better social dream: equality and opportunity, classless society, belief in the melting pot (multicultural society) political dream: democracy and justice, basic human rights ● ● nowadays: very critical and negative view of the American Dream critics see the American Dream as a clever political and economic marketing strategy many values are not reflected "hard work will pay off / social standard is changeable": huge gap between rich and poor, different social classes, no welfare system When the American Dream was endangered - 9/11 11th of September in 2001 inspired by the American Dream, many people migrated to the United States in the hope of leading a better life through hard work the World Trade Center employed many people who were living the American Dream on the morning of the respective day, four airplanes were hijacked by terrorists: two flew into the Twin Towers, one into the Pentagon, and the fourth crashed somewhere else "heritage is irrelevant": racism directed against the black population ("Black Lives Matter") "education is the key to success": costs of higher education leave many no choice but to stay where they are the American Dream is projected mainly on material prosperity → main idea has changed, mindset is consistent the terrorists were supporters of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda, founded by Osama Bin Laden, who wanted to continue the so called "Holy War" When the American Dream endangered other nations - The Vietnam War started in 1965 →→ America started interfering on 8th of March after the second world war, North and South Vietnam were devided into a communist state in the north and a democratic state in the south established by the western world → a in the north the communist-influenced "Vietcong" was founded which destabilised the south civil war in the south began and so the United States interpreted this as a danger for their interests American Dream: spreading their idea of democracy all over the world as god's chosen ones America's military problem: the Vietcong had much more experience in the jungle soldiers' psychological problems: didn't know anymore who is evil or good and didn't know what they are fighting for protests in America and the world followed America lost the war in 1975 around 3000 people died, the whole country was in shock and it is an unrecoverable event in the history of America the American Dream had failed, society was let down and many soldiers were left disabled → the losers of the war (surviving soldiers) were excluded from the community and suffer from the circumstances of the war to this day 3 4 Geographical subdivision BENIN SOUTH- WEST Lagos NIGER DELTA REGION Languages ● NORTH ● ● ● NIGERIA Jos Abuja 0 Benin City ● Kano Benue SOUTHEAST Resources and attractions Maiduguri Port Harcourt CAMEROON Dangers and challenges Loke Nigeria capital: after declaring independent Lagos, but since 1991 Abuja parted into three major regions by mountains as well as two rivers called Niger and Benue → effectively form a boundary between the areas the north is populated by the Hausa Fulani, the southwest by the Yoruba and the southeast by the Igbo mainly English, followed by Hausa Nigerian Pidgin (Naijá) as the Nigerian lingua franca: mixture of English and a local language, spoken by Nigerians of every age, social class and regional origin, has no standard rules for spelling, grammar or an official dictionary, oscillating tones and playful imagery many different resources spread across the country Niger Delta region: used to be land of the Ijaws' but is under heavy criticism for careless handling important source of income for Nigeria's future north: natural gas, dairy products south: natural gas (mostly to be found in the Niger Delta region), rubber, oil palms artistically committed youth blooming film industry ("Nollywood") socially active women who stand up for diversity Lagos being one of the most populated and touristy places in Nigeria poverty (many missing accesses to supplies and facilities)and overcrowded cities flooding on the streets during rainfall, lack of infrastructure, pollution human trafficking, terrorism inefficient financial system → money made from oil is not managed in a clever way cannot deal with the projected growth in population (will grow from 200 to 390 million by 2050) threat from the terrorist organization "Boko Haram” (= "western education forbidden”) → kidnaps girls to prevent them from going to school / refusal of education bad education system Educational system high illiteracy level → low financial investment of the government in the education system 13.2 million out-of-school children, most of them live in urban slums or are effected by “Boko Haram” Makoko in Lagos: majority of the people live in wooden houses that are built on stilts or float → day- to-day activities take place on the water's surface so it would be dangerous for many children to go to school on land (e.g. because of traffic) The Makoko Dream School: school on water where the children learn basic English Language, Arithmetics and Communication in both their native and a foreign language The Makoko Dream School Bus: because many families own only one canoe due to poverty and cannot afford a taxi canoe, the Makoko Dream School Bus picks up the children free of charge Definition Utopia and Dystopia Utopia (Greek: “no-place” / “good place"): imagined place (community / society) where everything is perfect, especially concerning social, political and moral aspects Dystopia: imagined place in which the condition of life is extremely bad / considerably worse than in our contemporary society, often criticizes present-day society by exposing trends and tendencies towards totalitarian control Features of utopian fiction ● peaceful government, safe environment equality for citizens, individuality and freedom egalitarian distributions of goods → often total abolition of money access to education, employment healthcare, absence of death, no illness or suffering Features of dystopian fiction controlling/totalitarian government, regime suppression, total surveillance, no democracy, propaganda no individualism, conformity among citizens eerie & depressing atmosphere; conditioning gap between rich and poor ● modern technology used to keep humanity enslaved; meant as criticism on current trends in own society protagonist often an outsider who realizes that something goes wrong Language in utopian fiction positively connoted vocabulary → conveys a happy and lighthearted atmosphere long, complex sentence structure → richness of detail and variability stylistic devices: metaphors, similes, neologisms → figurative language represents figurative environment figurative language / detailed descriptions (such as colors, or shapes) → narrator has imagination and freedom of thought point of view: first person narrator → individuality is expressed Language in dystopian fiction negatively connoted vocabulary - → conveys a depressing and hopeless atmosphere short and simple sentence structure → sounds bored without joy / enthusiasm, just like how the dystopian world seems to be descriptions straightforward and just facts → monotony, no imagination stylistic devices: enumerations, repetition, contrasts → transmits the hopeless situation little figurative language does not fit intended atmosphere/ tone; difficult to have an individual imagination because of the lack of freedom/ individualism point of view: third person narrator → no emotions arise 5 6 About William Shakespeare ● ● William Shakespeare ● born in 1564, died in 1616 most important writer of world literature wrote 37 dramas and 154 sonnets he lived in the Elizabethan age (1558-1603), which was characterized by the ideas of awakening and change and was the golden age of literature The Sonnet ● the belief in prophecy and the role of fate in the life of each individual was strongly represented in his works, e.g. by the influence of astrology in our destiny in his works he also often spoke about eternity and beauty, as well as about nature as the source of all human life → these poems often addressed an unnamed person, now believed to have been a man, although it has been handed down that Shakespeare was married and the father of three children consists of 14 verses, which are divided into three quatrains and a heroic couplet rhyme scheme: three cross-rhymes and one couplet (ABAB CDCD EFEF GG) metre: iambic pentameter Shakespearean play painted scenery, furniture, fittings, backdrops, lightning effects and props were not a thing - it depended much more on the audience's imagination (actors were the only real element) the audience area was lit up, not darkened, because the actors also played in it to involve the audience they were not "produced” because it took only a few hours to prepare for a play stage took place everywhere Shakespeare could take the characters to mountaintops, forests, battlefields, dungeons, palaces, hovels, etc. contains many more words compared to contemporary plays → strongly figurative language so the audience could imagine the setting better connection between form and content: structure has a reinforcing effect for content first two quatrains deal with a specific thesis, which then undergoes a turning point in the third quatrain and finally comes to a conclusion in the couplet Today's play a lot of scenery, props and lightning and sound effects are used to make the play more exciting – much less interpretation by the audience is needed the audiences area is darkened so the spectators can fully focus on the stage since many props are used and there is a detailed script, the production can take a while every situation can be played because of content enhancing scenery less words than Shakespearean plays strongly figurative language can be confusing Summary of "Romeo and Juliet" takes place in Verona, Italy two feuding families: the Capulets and the Montagues young men of each faction fight until the prince of Verona intercedes and threatens to banish them the head of the Capulet family plans a feast with the goal to introduce his daughter Juliet to a Count named Paris who seeks to marry Juliet ● ● ● Montague's son Romeo and his friends Benvolio and Mercutio attend the party hoping Romeo might forget his beloved Rosaline → he actually falls in love with Juliet, but the moment he does, Juliet's cousin Tybalt recognizes the intruders and forces them to leave Romeo lingers near the Capulet house, when Juliet appears in the frame of her window and they declare their love for one another ● with the help of Juliet's nurse, they secretly marry the next day at the cell of friar Laurence Tybalt sends a challenge to Romeo, but he refuses to fight which angers Mercutio who then fights with Tybalt ● Mercutio is accidentally killed as Romeo intervenes to stop the fight; it follows that Romeo kills Tybalt and is then banished by the prince Juliet learns about Romeo's banishment and arranges for Romeo to spend the night with her before he leaves for Mantua The role of women in the Elizabethan Age women were seen as idealized love objects who had no rights of their own and whose job it was to do housework, raise the children and satisfy the husband they had no freedom of movement and speech and the man of the house always had the last word it was a crime to mistreat a woman Friar Laurence helps Juliet to prevent her wedding with Count Paris by providing a sleeping potion that will make her seem dead the friar sends a letter to warn Romeo about Juliet's plan but it does not arrive in time and when Romeo hears about the death of his beloved, he goes straight to the pharmacy and buys a poisonous draught he kills Count Paris when he meets him at the tomb, lies down next to Juliet and poisons himself Juliet awakens from her drugged coma, sees her dead lover and stabs herself their deaths lead the families to make peace The Globe Theater social conventions were built on the biblical prejudice that women are weak, foolish, sensual, emotional and not to be trusted objects whose natural ability of breastfeeding was even demeaning these social conventions went so far that single women were declared witches or women who had lost their virginity unmarried were considered unmarriageable and worthless in Shakespearean plays this view is often emphasized by uncomplimentary references, after all the audience was mainly male, yet Juliet was credited with her honesty, intelligence and courage and this can be seen as the first step in the right direction Today's relevance Poetic texts are still present in today's world, whether in song lyrics or short quotes, as can be found on social networks built in 1599 on the south bank of the Thames in the suburb of Southwark rectangular stage audience surrounded the stage from three sides audiences area was lit up, not darkened at least one trap door existed → could indicate a grave / dungeon / hell / etc. theme of eternal love: many relationships break up nowadays, some people do not want a relationship at all and thus do not believe in eternal love theme of astrology: although in younger generations astrology is still a trend, its credibility has decreased significantly, since everything can be explained rationally by now theater visits occur much less → movies that were edited are much more exciting and full of action so plays seem boring in comparison 7 8 Expansion of the British Empire a powerful and wealthy nation which defeated other European countries and conquered indigenous people thanks to its army and navy → gained much land through war and colonization they had an advantage over countries with poor infrastructure because of inventions such as the telegraph, railroads or steamships in the 19th century, about a quarter of the world's land surface was covered by the British Empire including Australia, Africa, Asia, North America and Europe (India was seen as the “Jewel in the Crown") ● ● Achievements ● Great Bertain "The Empire on which the sun never sets” → they had many colonies all over the world, when the sun set in one of their territories, it rose in another → the motives: economics → desire to increase Britain's wealth; politics → the urge to prevent other nations to become more powerful; religion spread Christianity; adventure & curiosity longing to explore; trade → e.g. East India Company (= trade of Asian goods) part of the transatlantic triangular trading system: Africa, the Caribbean and the United States as well as Europe was involved→ they traded goods, slaves and crops such as cotton or tobacco Downfall of the British Empire in both world wars the British Empire lost prestige and political influence, e.g. in Australia, New Zealand or Canada, as those were given the power to rule themselves in 1931 the destruction of the wars forced Britain to focus on the reconstruction of their own country and they realized that it was no longer feasible to run a great empire even India separated in 1947, consequently also many other countries that got their independence sometimes only possible through wars (e.g. Ireland) ● they mapped Africa they improved infrastructure, education and medical care in their colonies they abolished cannibalism and slavery (even though they profited from it a century before) they were said to be liberal: they handed over to some colonies the possibility of governing themselves Britain and Europe Britain joined the Common Market in 1973 in the 1980s there was a strong conflict concerning the “United States of Europe" - Single European Act in 1978 and the Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1990 1994: Eurotunnel counteracted Britain's geographical isolation Britain's currency (pound), however, they always held on to Brexit 2020: The United Kingdom is leaving the EU alliance after a long delay and disagreements within the population → still signed the Social Classes typical three-class system now only applies to 39% of the population in Great Britain system instead a class is made up of three components: economic, social and cultural capital 1. Elite: most privileged group, wealthy, highest level of all three capitals 2. Established middle class: second wealthiest, largest and most prosperous group → seven-class ● Clash of Cultures describes the differences caused by different lifestyles and the resulting social problems loss of identity of the homeland: immigrants are afraid of becoming too British they stop adapting racism and discrimination: some Britons are of the opinion to be superior ● 3. Technical middle class: small but prosperous group, low for social and cultural capital because of its social isolation and cultural apathy 4. New affluent workers: young group, socially and culturally active, middling levels of economic capital 5. Traditional working class: scores low on all forms of capital, members have high house values though 6. Emergent service workers: new and young urban group, relatively poor, high social and cultural capital 7. Precarious proletariat: most poorest and deprived class, scoring low on all forms of capital ● confusion due to overlapping identities: sense of unbelonging among second generation immigrants traditional role expectations lead to exclusion from society (e.g. the father is the absolute authority) arranged marriages: based on social standing, appearance or income, children are held captive in the retrogressive era Ethnic Minorities in Britain today a cersus in 2011 revealed a reduction of the purely white and British people in Great Britain the percentage of ethnic minorities rose from 9% to a total of 14% within 10 years and the number of people with mixed-ethnic backgrounds eve doubled in this amount of time (many interracial relationships) the English way of life includes all ethnic backgrounds now → Britain is absolutely capable of absorbing a large number of foreigners Caribbeans: partners are often in the working class; 48% ob black Caribbean men and 34% of black Caribbean women in couples are with partners of a different ethnic group; black Caribbean children are outnumbered two-to-one by children who are a mixture of white and black Caribbean Asians: concentrated in cities like Leicester and London boroughs like Tower Hamlets and Harrow; mixed Asian children are more common in the largely middle-class white suburbs of Edgbarton, Moseley and Harbone Bangladeshis: mostly remain in cities; mix slowly; if born in Britain they are far more likely to socialize with white; just 7% of Bangladeshi men are with people from a different ethnic group (Bangladeshi women even less) Indians: arrived in large numbers in the 1960's; mix slowly; Indians with a degree are far more likely to marry whites Pakistanis: mostly remain in cities; mix slowly; older Pakistani men are more likely to have partners of another ethnicity due to their early immigration as single men → better adapted over time; Pakistani men born in Britain socialize with whites a lot more; just 8% of Pakistani men are with people from a different ethnic group (Pakistani women even less) 9 10 Definition ● ● Causes ● ● globalization process of increasing global conformity with regard to cultural, economic and technical convergences transfer of goods, capital and services Positive consequences innovation is followed by growth in employment → many new jobs, even in developing countries hopes of spreading democracy, human rights and universal values while conflicts can be prevented possibility of international relations, fighting racism significant health benefits talented individuals influence the market ● ● simplifies communication and interaction with foreign speakers due to the lingua franca English economic globalization: companies produce in countries where the costs incurred are lowest, focusing on profit, efficiency and speed technological globalization: mobile communication through technological innovations enables international exchange Negative consequences developing countries fear increasing dependence on foreign support, investment and credit erosion of national cultures ● cultural globalization: spreading of cultural characteristics, which are expressed e.g. in sports, fashion, art, food or music; religions also belong to it The first Industrial Revolution (18th century) and the second Industrial Revolution (100 years later) were characterized by numerous inventions such as the light bulb, the automobile or the steam engine. Old structures were renewed, society was transformed. The third great wave is characterized by innovations in the technological field, which include artificial intelligence, the Internet, mobile technology, drones or even mobile translation. Finance and education are also affected, as there are now cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, as well as numerous opportunities for education and training in all possible directions on the Internet. massive illegal immigration "The survival of the fittest" could be seen as a caricatured representation of the widening gap rich and poor / gap between skilled and unskilled workers industrial sctor drops as agricultural labor is reducing exploitation because of cruel working conditions in developing countries increased mobility can promote the spread of diseases (such as the Covid-19 virus) small family businesses cannot compete against international competition financial crises of a state can cause international damage between ● Copyright matters Font used for the headings: Chellyne Font · 1001 Fonts Sketch of the Tower Bridge on the title page: Big Ben Poster Clock Tower - Clip Art Library (clipart-library.com) Map of Nigeria: Food Assistance Fact Sheet - Nigeria | Archive - U.S. Agency for International Development (usaid.gov)