Analysis Fictional Text + Analysis Non-Fictional Text
Analysis Fictional Text + Analysis Non-Fictional Text
Analysis Fictional Text + Analysis Non-Fictional Text
Basic thoughts on the analysis task, stylistic devices, structure of a speech analysis, characterization, mediation, comprehension and comment
how to analyse a fictional text NARRATOR a first-person narrator → The narrator is a character in the story and refers to him - or herself as. "I". a third-person narrator → POINT OF VIEW The narrator is not a character in the story and refers to the characters as he" she" or they" or by their names MODE OF PRESENTATION · scenic presentation. → if. CHARACTERS • a round character → 1. a first-person narrator → can only have a limited point of view; a character in fictional works does not know everything that occurs therefore he or she impases his or her understanding and interpretation on the action a third-person narrator → can have a limited point of view: the narrator Looks at the events and. characters from the perspective of one of the characters or from the outside and does not have access to the thoughts and feelings of all the characters; or can have an unlimited /omniscient point of view: the narrator can move freely in place and time and enter the minds of the characters at will, a flat character → 20 " you can also have a narrator with can move freely in place and time of characters in the story.. " he author shows an event in detail as it occurs, using dialogue, depicting thoughts and emotions, describing a scene, etc., he or...
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she uses scenic presentation panoramic presentation → if the author tells the story as a condensed series of events, limited - omniscience the narrator and enter a limited set of minds summarizing in a few sentences what happens over a longer period of time, he or she uses panoramic presentation may be similar to real individuals and have several traits and behave in a way that is life-like, usually changes in the course of a story. has only a limited number of traits or represents only a single quality a crude representation of a character which is meant to be. laughed at is called a caricature. CHARACTERIZATION • direct or explicit characterization → The reader is told about a character's personality directly by the narrator; another character or by the character him - or himself. · indirect or implicit characterization → The reader is expected to draw conclusions about a character by studying his or her behaviour, opinions or choices of words and or way of talking ACTION external action → The author describes what the characters do and the events that take place ・ internal action → The author describes what is going on in the minds of the characters, i.e. the reader is shown the thoughts of the characters. FLASHBACKS → Authors do not always tell their stories in a chronological order; in some stories the authors make use of flashbacks 1 i.e.. the narrator goes back into the past to describe a scene that has relevance to the plot FORESHADOWING → Foreshadowing (also called anticipation) is the technique of hinting at Laler events in a fictional text so that the reader is prepared for them or can anticipate them. 33 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 BASIC THOUGHTS ON THE ANALYSIS TASK → An analysis has always the same basic rules. → no matter whether you are asked to analyze L structure - Language - characters - stylistic devices, etc. •The analysis works always the same: 1. Write in PARAGRAPHS (each focusing on one specific aspect) 2. pay attention to the basic 3-slep-pattern for every new issue : a statement b. proof c.interpretation/intention /effect..... 3. pay attention to the overall structure : intro - main part - conclusion NEWSPAPER ANALYSIS When analysing a newspaper article you have to focus on different aspects; in general you can be asked to consider Language and Structure /Argumentative Strategie to ultimately say whether the article is meant to inform (neutral/balanced) or manipulate (biased, one-sided) the reader. LANGUAGE Tone, register, Style, choice of words/wordfields / adjectives/stylistic devices STRUCTURE / ARGUMENTATIVE STRATEGIE argumentative Structure framework, quotes sources, experts, facts and data Structure: " positive or negative connotation (Assoziation) choice of words tone → humerous, playful, depressive, warm-hearted aggressive register → everyday english, formal, informal, colloquial (umgangssprachlich) communicative strategies. → pronouns "we", "us" or our" → create togetherness and arouse. responsibility; adressing the reader directly → make them think about an issue in order to change something or make them feel involved i providing quotes from persons or experts → supports author's opinion and makes text more convincing ; providing data, number, Statistics, etc. → creates trustworthiness and reliability, reffering to history → understanding the context " STYLISTIC / RHETORICAL DEVICES • personal pronouns adress audience directly, establish connection, create togetherness hypothetical sentence → make arguments more believable (based on opinion/personal belief) anaphora repitition of a word /phrase ; easy to follow; stays in readers mind • alliteration → shows the importance of several words or draw attention to key words antithesis → emphasize how different two aspects are more vividly Climax or enumeration → creates intensity and structure hyperbole → create a serious or comic effect Oxymoron → dramatic effect. personification → a means for vivid description quotation/repitition → easier to follow/understand imperatives rhetorical question → to emphasize a point metaphors → influence audience emotionally examples /personal references → make audience think about it STRUCTURE OF A SPEECH ANALYSIS 1) Introduction → Introductory sentence (author, title, type of text, date and place); purpose of delivery/audience 2) Main part → Devide text or speech into different parts and briefly summarize the content analyse structure, content, language and tone 3) Conclusion → summarize your findings; personal Statement : Is it convincing? Why? Why not ? The speaker's intention: 1. The speaker wants. to adress audience / establish a connection between audience and speaker by: using pronouns. using imperatives choice of words → colloqual, simple sentence. Structure making allusions (Anspielungen) to aspects speaker and audience have in common 2. The speaker wants to make it easier for the audience by: • using a dear structure using everyday language referring to common knowledge. using images like: stmilies, metaphors using examples/ ennumerations 3. The speaker wants to put emphasis on certain aspects by: • using repititions. (key words) Strong (emotional) images 4. The speaker wants to make arguments more believable by: giving (historical) facts talking about personal experience reffering to experts words: sure, surely. Of course 5. The speaker wants to influence audience emotionally by: appealing to audience fear/responsibility choice of words (negative/positive) · humour 3 3 3 3 3 CHARACTERISATION Direct Characterisation → narrator, character, another character tells reader directly about character's Looks, traits → information not always reliable → influenced by view of character / narrator Indirect characterisation → information about character is transferred by their language, behaviour, interactions → reader interprets those situations → more objective view How to write a characterisation /useful words and phrases 1. mark and collect all important information given on the character 2. Introduction: name, general basic information introduce character, situation he/she is in, social background, position, job, role in family. 3. Main part: structure aspects of character Logically → outward appereance - relationships 1 → behaviour, habits - Language - character traits - function if necessary, contrast general traits to mood etc. in current situation prove findings characterize him/her directly → name, age, describe outward appearance, consider what is said directly about person → indirectly → What does the character, how he/she behaves, what he/she thinks/feels, mood they are in, how they respond to others 4. Conclusion: try to sum up → character develops changes in the course of events / attitude or if he/she does not change. Useful phrases and words: → presented /described → It is said that he/she seems to be... → On the one hand he/she is portrayed as a person who... → It is characteristic / typical of him/her.... → which is revealed/underlined by.... → he/she behaves... Carrogantly) → he/she speaks in Low/Loud voice → he/she seems to feel insecure / be convinced of himself analysing relationships: > describing : → mutual respect for /acceptance of the other → understanding /empathy for each other → closeness /harmony between ... relationship based on equality... → lack of respect and acceptance.... → emotional distance between... → little interest in the other... › a relationship can be.... → friendly close trusting → steady / lasting / long-term →working /business. → brief / casual / fragile → poor / troubled / disfunctional > other useful expressions : → to keep close contact with..... → to share information... → to show real interest → to keep one's distance from • feelings /attitudes : → passionate Love → jealously → affection → rivalry → Sympathy the mediation → It should only give pieces of information which are relevant for the purpose. → It can insert extra information if it is needed to understand the text correchy → It should use the vocabulary the adresse is used to → Information should be left out, if it is not important. at all → The task determines what type of text. I have to write → My text should be considerably shorter than the original comprehension Only focus on information relevant for the task → Introduction phrase → Content: The <text type> <title> by <author> published in /by <publisher/media > on /in. : <dale / year >, is about /deals with <topic, which must not be the headline, . write only about aspects asked in the task, not in every detail, but as detailed as possible own words, no quotes, simple present shorter than original text no personal opinion • direct into indirect speech connect main ideas in order to show ho they're related avoid enumerations Comment If you comment an issue, you do not necessarily need to consider pros and cons, but express your opinion. → Introduction : : Refer to the topic : e.g. I would like to discuss/comment on → Main part: Refer to authors arguments in a more detailed way •In discussion you present pros and cons of issue On the one hand / on the other focus on arguments you want to support. → Conclusion