Nigeria Vorabi zusammenfassung
Nigeria Vorabi zusammenfassung
Nigeria Vorabi zusammenfassung
Nigeria in a nutshell, biafra war connection to the british rule boko haram oil industry wealth gaps before and after colonization timeline
Nigeria in a Nutshell: Biggest economy and population in Africa ➡36 States Link between west- and central Africa Surrounded by countries of Benin, Chad, Niger and Cameroon 3rd biggest English-speaking nation Federal presidential republic Founding member of African Union Country of variety: nigeria 250 ethical groups (biggest: Hausa Fulani, Yoruba) More than 500 languages and dialects beside English Christianity and Islam almost equally distributed Various colonies with various traditions Part of commonwealth of nations Growing agriculture industry (service and exporting) "Nollywood" -> biggest film industry in Africa Rich elite (e.g., Lagos) Minerals, Diamonds, Gold, Oil Biafra war: The Northern tribes have a higher pupulation. The Igbo in East felt suppressed by their dominance. Idea of the republic of Biafra The Northern tribes had more seats in the federal Legeslature and thus had more power. Northern tribes control the Oil region in the east-south. The Igbo aid not want to cope with that wish to seperate from Nigeria. Wish to become independent ➜ 3 years lasting war between the Nigerian government and the Igbo in the east →Biafra lost the war A compromise was found after all Consequences for the Population: Many deaths caused by hunger ➡ The east was surrounded by a blockade during the war, which was installed by the military of Lagos The Igbo tribes had to share their land and accept the power to the North Connection to the British rule: Formed a country of a huge variety of tribes; forced to get along Split the country into two parts Forced the south to follow their rules (direct...
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rule9 while ruling the North indirectly as well Created superficial districts Boko Haram: i Direct rule the state conquering the colony provides the model for its organisation, which means that bureaucracy, Laws, etc. are implemented in the colonies by means of a centralized authority. Indirect rule = The colonizers work with local authorities and keep up native traditions. There is no centralized authority, the colonial intervention is limited. ➜ Boko Haram = "western education is a sin" Islamist terroristic group Discontent towards the western influence (including values and education) Frightened by the "enlightening power of education" ⇒ In their belief, it corrupts the value of Muslims It enables people to challenge authority, oppressive religious orthodox and to liberate the human mind Oil Industry: Quality education leads to freedom -> they want to keep the "enlightenment" far from people, especially from girls Ethnical Cleaverages and Political friction a roughly split country Muslim dominated north Christian dominated south Various people that had little in common have been merged Wealth gap Economic inequality: oil plays a major role One of the continents poorest population despite its biggest economy Depends on oil industry (75% of its rereview) ➡ Oil price crashes -> Nigeria's economy crashes Money from oil industry is not invested in schools nor healthcare debts Nigeria needs to ship out oil Political corruption -> Elites have a long maintained and tight hold on oil revenues Corrupt government ministers is used to pay off Positive impact Oil and gas industry: more than 60% of Nigeria's economy Shell BP creates workplaces: 6.000 directly, 20.00 indirectly (90% Nigerian) Invests in local infrastructure (healthcare, social sectors, electricity, running water, education) Help people to build their own businesses ➜ Oil companies contribute to the country's development and lead to a significant income for the local economy and government Nigeria's wealth gap: Poverty rate: from 27% to 69% in 30 years Most houses don't have: ➡ Toilets Running water Electricity Most people have no access to: Education (especially in the North) ➡ Internet Medical treatments new generation of millionaires (young & trendy) Negative Impact hot spot for young entrepreneurs Nigeria aims to make the whole continent Successfull. Living conditions don't improve for everyone: bad working conditions, (e.g., heat), educational- and health support is limited Problems to find work for young Promises made by the Government generations Taking profit from Nigeria (recourses) Environmental impact is menacing ➡ Gas is burned (oil flaring) ➡ Oil spills and leaking pipes cause pollution of the creeks and grounds 8destrpying water and food supply) ➡ Cannot fix leaking as fast as needed Bunkering: organized criminal gangs damage the pipes in order to steal the oil ➡ Causes environmental damage ➡ Theft on an industrial scale "In Lagos you I can become whatever you want." "the impossible can be possible." Before the arrival of the colonizers: •The clashes between kingdoms moving through the country and the conflicts concerning the different cultures and religions led to a constant change of the territories in the Nigerian country Agriculture, animal breeding and markets were the most important aspects of the Nigerian economy until the 1400s. After Throughout history, the British slowly took over the whole Nigerian country. It began in the 17thcentury, when Britain introduced commercial interactions by trading with certain parts of Nigeria. They traded goods like palm oil, but they also traded slaves. There were about 3.5millions of Nigerian slaves shipped from Lagos to the United States of America. Finally, the slave trade was abolished in 1807. Afterwards, Britain tried to expand their influence on the Nigerian people and started military campaigns until they took control of southern Nigeria in 1885, today known as the modern Nigeria with western values. There, they built up a strong economy taking advantage of the numerous resources the land offered. Moreover, they created many jobs and an infrastructure. Additionally, they made a majority of the Nigerian people convert to Christianity and introduced a currency and a tax system. The North of the country, that mainly stuck to their Muslim confession had a weaker economy. After some years, the British ruled the North indirectly and introduced a tax system as well. •In 1914, the British decided to unite the North and the South to one colony. This evoked a lot of cultural conflicts, since the different ethnic groups were mixed all of a sudden. •Eventually in 1960, there was the declaration of independence •In 1967there was a civil war, caused by several militaries of the different ethnic groups wanting to take control of the country. The Igbo wanted to declare their independence and to create the Republic of Biafra. In the end, after numerous series of military dictatorships, the Nigerian government won the war. In 1999, Nigeria was introduced as a democracy and from then on, northern and southern presidents were elected by turns. Slavery raw materials sea trade rules Colonialism clash of cultures new Lanas Imperialism (military base) spreading own culture 15th century – Portugal and other European countries Trade slaves & goods 18th century – the British displace the Portuguese as leaders of the slave trade 1807 century – missionaries' campaign against slavery (slowly starts to ban slavery) early 19th century – holy war & spread of the Muslim empire (especially in the North) 1861 annexation of Lagos 1884 – expand of the British control and creation of oil river protectorates - 1900 - Britain has control of Nigeria 1914 - six Africans were brought into the government 1922 - legislative council for the south + 10 Nigerians 1947-council's authority was extended to the whole country (28 Africans & 17 Europeans) 1951-constitution gave balance of power to Nigerians 1954 - Nigeria becomes a federation 1957 - eastern and western regions --> self-government 1959 - new government elected 1st October 1960 - Nigeria becomes independent