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Science and Technology

Science and Technology

 Science and Technology
Genetic Engineering
Definition:
PRO:
Can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance
An opportunity to begin pr

Science and Technology

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11/12/13

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Abitur Zusammenfassung Englisch GK NRW 2022

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Science and Technology Genetic Engineering Definition: PRO: Can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance An opportunity to begin producing substances that can enter the human food chain ✓ It is a process that could improve human health at the cellular level Can be used to help current food resources by producing more of them ✓ It allows patients to be treated with their own cells ✓ Improves pharmaceuticals Able to develop a stronger understanding of life by examining it & possibly improving it Helps to prevent/ cure illnesses possibility of a child ✓ ,,Children will be smarter, stronger & better looking" CON: ● Creates a series of unknown hybrids through the natural cross-pollination process that would provide unpredictable results for society ● Unfavourable level of diversity ● Unpredictable outcomes, could create new diseases ● Puts agricultural workers at risk for financial harm ● Abusive purpose „designer baby" ● Creates unwanted side effects Playing god, manipulating God's creature Less individuality ● ● Process to alter the structure and nature of genes in human beings, animals or foods using techniques like molecular cloning and transformation In other words, it is the process of adding and modifying DNA in an organism to bring about a great deal of transformation PRO: Genetically modified food ❖ Consist of, contains, or has been produced from genetically modified plants, animals or microorganisms Creates the potential for problematic pathogens (Krankheitserreger) → Because bacteria...

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e.g. becomes resistant to pharmaceuticals or gene changes could get out of control CON: Income can be increased and costs reduced ✓ Genetically modified plants are resistant to disease and pest infestation ✓ Therefore fewer pesticides and chemicals are needed Helps fight hunger in the world (reliable harvests) Genetically modified food is an important part of the agricultural market —> statistics show that three years ago 40% of all food was produced with the help of genetically modified organisms Genetically modified plants are necessary to adapt to the process of climate change Genetically modified plants are tested before approval ■ When genetically modified plants spread nature, they displace natural plants and thus damage biological diversity ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Artificial intelligence Simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems PRO: CON: Possible side effects and dangers have not been adequately researched yet Production can lead to the development of new allergies and further antibiotic resistance Morally and ethically justifiable? Industry puts profit over people's health Fierce competition -> farms that do not use genetic engineering are at a disadvantage Genetic pool is limited Al is making humans lazy with its applications automating the majority of the work High costs of creation Lacking out of box thinking Unemployment (Al is replacing repetitive tasks and other works) ◆ Human interference is becoming less No emotions PRO: Reduction in ,,human error" (with Al, the decisions are taken from the previously gathered information applying a certain set of algorithms) We can overcome many risky limitations of humans by developing an Al robot which in turn can do risky things for us Available 24/7 Designer babies CON: * Every new invention will have advantages and disadvantages, but we need to take care of that and use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world Ensure the rise of robots" doesn't get out of hand Products of genetic engineering Baby whose genetic makeup has been selected in order to eradicate a particular defect or to ensure that a particular gene is present Life spans will increase ❖ Could fit into the society's expectations regarding the look ❖ Parents could customise the look of their kid -> to maybe identify more? Reduce genetic and inherited diseases Better chance to succeed in life (no diseases) Expensive, only rich people can afford it -> unfair for poor families Terminated embryos have no choice Loss of individuality Unpredictable consequences ◆ Who tells us what bad and good trades are? ◆ Where do we draw the line which we should not cross? ◆ What about the people, who cannot afford this process or who have a disease that cannot be cured at the moment -> social outsider? Looks should not be important in this society -> diversity is the key Augmented reality (AR) Virtual reality (VR) Cloning Extended reality technologies Interactive experience in which an image is superimposed on the viewers real world Enhanced by visual overlays, haptic feedback and sensory projections AR is interwoven with real-life environments and alters perception of physical world Can be used on smartphone, in education, medicine or entertainment + other commercial industries Extended reality technologies Completely replaces viewers world with a simulated environment generated by computers Can be used with VR headsets and motion controllers Issues involved in cloning for reproductive purposes PRO: People move around and interact with the 360-degree virtual world Used in gaming, marketing, education, entertainment (virtual events like in Helsinki) Can affect a persons perception of reality Creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another Means that every single bit of DAN is the same between the two Dolly: a female sheep, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell body Lived until the age of 6, when she developed severe diseases Issues involved in cloning for therapeutic reasons CON: • Human lives may be reproduced to the state of tools • Human live created in order to be destroyed →→whose life has more value (unborn, ill, born) • Are embryos already individuals? when does human life start? • It may erode/reduce respect for life ● ❖ • Safety of cloning is not guaranteed and clones might die (quickly) • Cloned children may suffer identity conflicts • Children as "products" or commodities Children are "designed" (defects are not accepted) ● Conjugal relations as means of procreation may become unnecessary --> against the dignity of natural precreation --> could also weaken family ties • Negative effects on the society (will they accept the clones? Gene farming Process of genetically modifying plants and animals so that they produce substances Refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that Might support/lead to manipulation human life (genetic manipulation) Crosses the divide between sexual/asexual reproduction Growing plants is much cheaper that producing vaccines ❖ Plants cannot host most human pathogens, so the vaccines will not pose a danger to humans Plants are living organisms that change, so the vaccine production might not be guaranteed The edible vaccines could be mistaken for regular fruits and consumed In öager amounts If the vaccines were grown in fields or trees, security would become a big issue Energy Transition Refer to the global energy sector's shift from fossil-based systems of energy production and consumption (including oil, natural gas and coal) to renewable energy sources like wind and solar Transhumanism Theory that science and technology can help human beings develop beyond what is physically and mentally possible at the present time Asserts that with all the new technologies available, mankind will be able to solve every challenge it faces Self-driving cars Pro No human errors ܀ Con Multitasking while in the car (even though the driver needs to be attentive) Pro Less accidents due to communication with other self-driving cars Less accidents = less traffic jams Con ❖ ✰ Better for environment -> electric cars decreased fuel consumption Disabled or elderly might have a better chance to be part of the society * ◆ Less drunk or drugged drivers Machines do not get tired (benefit for commuters (Pendler) and prevents accidents because of tired truck drivers) Robots are able to constantly focus Costs a lot ܀ Loss of privacy, everything will be tracked, constant surveillance -> data security Loss of jobs - -> taxi & truck drivers There still always has to be someone who can react just in case ❖ Programmers have to make tough decisions —> safety of the driver >> safety of others ❖ Criminals and hackers could manipulate the system and create errors Systems could have mistakes Driverless cars should save their driver and passengers at all costs No road marking - -> system might not work careful enough In case of an accident -> whose fault is it? ✰ Marketing ◆ Cars are made to protect their passengers There is a safe system, if people don't Follow the rules -> not the drivers fault Value of life is not countable The driver is not responsible If more people are safe, more people are happy (utilitarianism) Car could make mistakes As a human you wouldn't just drive over the people You would feel miserable, if you would be safe -> car would People who are innocent shouldn't die ❖ Passengers did not make the mistake but they bought the car so its their responsibility Cyborgs Regular people who have integrated technology in their bodies to improve or monitor some aspects of their health Bionic limb -> bionische Gliedmaßen Biohacking -> Selbstoptimierung durch Technologie oder Genetische Veränderung NFC chips Augmentation To enhance -> verbessern

Englisch /

Science and Technology

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l i n d a  

Follow

94 Followers

 Science and Technology
Genetic Engineering
Definition:
PRO:
Can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance
An opportunity to begin pr

App öffnen

Abitur Zusammenfassung Englisch GK NRW 2022

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Science and Technology Genetic Engineering Definition: PRO: Can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance An opportunity to begin producing substances that can enter the human food chain ✓ It is a process that could improve human health at the cellular level Can be used to help current food resources by producing more of them ✓ It allows patients to be treated with their own cells ✓ Improves pharmaceuticals Able to develop a stronger understanding of life by examining it & possibly improving it Helps to prevent/ cure illnesses possibility of a child ✓ ,,Children will be smarter, stronger & better looking" CON: ● Creates a series of unknown hybrids through the natural cross-pollination process that would provide unpredictable results for society ● Unfavourable level of diversity ● Unpredictable outcomes, could create new diseases ● Puts agricultural workers at risk for financial harm ● Abusive purpose „designer baby" ● Creates unwanted side effects Playing god, manipulating God's creature Less individuality ● ● Process to alter the structure and nature of genes in human beings, animals or foods using techniques like molecular cloning and transformation In other words, it is the process of adding and modifying DNA in an organism to bring about a great deal of transformation PRO: Genetically modified food ❖ Consist of, contains, or has been produced from genetically modified plants, animals or microorganisms Creates the potential for problematic pathogens (Krankheitserreger) → Because bacteria...

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Mit uns zu mehr Spaß am Lernen

Hilfe bei den Hausaufgaben

Mit dem Fragen-Feature hast du die Möglichkeit, jederzeit Fragen zu stellen und Antworten von anderen Schüler:innen zu erhalten.

Gemeinsam lernen

Mit Knowunity erhältest du Lerninhalte von anderen Schüler:innen auf eine moderne und gewohnte Art und Weise, um bestmöglich zu lernen. Schüler:innen teilen ihr Wissen, tauschen sich aus und helfen sich gegenseitig.

Sicher und geprüft

Ob Zusammenfassungen, Übungen oder Lernzettel - Knowunity kuratiert alle Inhalte und schafft eine sichere Lernumgebung zu der Ihr Kind jederzeit Zugang hat.

App herunterladen

Knowunity

Schule. Endlich einfach.

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Alternativer Bildtext:

e.g. becomes resistant to pharmaceuticals or gene changes could get out of control CON: Income can be increased and costs reduced ✓ Genetically modified plants are resistant to disease and pest infestation ✓ Therefore fewer pesticides and chemicals are needed Helps fight hunger in the world (reliable harvests) Genetically modified food is an important part of the agricultural market —> statistics show that three years ago 40% of all food was produced with the help of genetically modified organisms Genetically modified plants are necessary to adapt to the process of climate change Genetically modified plants are tested before approval ■ When genetically modified plants spread nature, they displace natural plants and thus damage biological diversity ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Artificial intelligence Simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems PRO: CON: Possible side effects and dangers have not been adequately researched yet Production can lead to the development of new allergies and further antibiotic resistance Morally and ethically justifiable? Industry puts profit over people's health Fierce competition -> farms that do not use genetic engineering are at a disadvantage Genetic pool is limited Al is making humans lazy with its applications automating the majority of the work High costs of creation Lacking out of box thinking Unemployment (Al is replacing repetitive tasks and other works) ◆ Human interference is becoming less No emotions PRO: Reduction in ,,human error" (with Al, the decisions are taken from the previously gathered information applying a certain set of algorithms) We can overcome many risky limitations of humans by developing an Al robot which in turn can do risky things for us Available 24/7 Designer babies CON: * Every new invention will have advantages and disadvantages, but we need to take care of that and use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world Ensure the rise of robots" doesn't get out of hand Products of genetic engineering Baby whose genetic makeup has been selected in order to eradicate a particular defect or to ensure that a particular gene is present Life spans will increase ❖ Could fit into the society's expectations regarding the look ❖ Parents could customise the look of their kid -> to maybe identify more? Reduce genetic and inherited diseases Better chance to succeed in life (no diseases) Expensive, only rich people can afford it -> unfair for poor families Terminated embryos have no choice Loss of individuality Unpredictable consequences ◆ Who tells us what bad and good trades are? ◆ Where do we draw the line which we should not cross? ◆ What about the people, who cannot afford this process or who have a disease that cannot be cured at the moment -> social outsider? Looks should not be important in this society -> diversity is the key Augmented reality (AR) Virtual reality (VR) Cloning Extended reality technologies Interactive experience in which an image is superimposed on the viewers real world Enhanced by visual overlays, haptic feedback and sensory projections AR is interwoven with real-life environments and alters perception of physical world Can be used on smartphone, in education, medicine or entertainment + other commercial industries Extended reality technologies Completely replaces viewers world with a simulated environment generated by computers Can be used with VR headsets and motion controllers Issues involved in cloning for reproductive purposes PRO: People move around and interact with the 360-degree virtual world Used in gaming, marketing, education, entertainment (virtual events like in Helsinki) Can affect a persons perception of reality Creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another Means that every single bit of DAN is the same between the two Dolly: a female sheep, was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell body Lived until the age of 6, when she developed severe diseases Issues involved in cloning for therapeutic reasons CON: • Human lives may be reproduced to the state of tools • Human live created in order to be destroyed →→whose life has more value (unborn, ill, born) • Are embryos already individuals? when does human life start? • It may erode/reduce respect for life ● ❖ • Safety of cloning is not guaranteed and clones might die (quickly) • Cloned children may suffer identity conflicts • Children as "products" or commodities Children are "designed" (defects are not accepted) ● Conjugal relations as means of procreation may become unnecessary --> against the dignity of natural precreation --> could also weaken family ties • Negative effects on the society (will they accept the clones? Gene farming Process of genetically modifying plants and animals so that they produce substances Refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that Might support/lead to manipulation human life (genetic manipulation) Crosses the divide between sexual/asexual reproduction Growing plants is much cheaper that producing vaccines ❖ Plants cannot host most human pathogens, so the vaccines will not pose a danger to humans Plants are living organisms that change, so the vaccine production might not be guaranteed The edible vaccines could be mistaken for regular fruits and consumed In öager amounts If the vaccines were grown in fields or trees, security would become a big issue Energy Transition Refer to the global energy sector's shift from fossil-based systems of energy production and consumption (including oil, natural gas and coal) to renewable energy sources like wind and solar Transhumanism Theory that science and technology can help human beings develop beyond what is physically and mentally possible at the present time Asserts that with all the new technologies available, mankind will be able to solve every challenge it faces Self-driving cars Pro No human errors ܀ Con Multitasking while in the car (even though the driver needs to be attentive) Pro Less accidents due to communication with other self-driving cars Less accidents = less traffic jams Con ❖ ✰ Better for environment -> electric cars decreased fuel consumption Disabled or elderly might have a better chance to be part of the society * ◆ Less drunk or drugged drivers Machines do not get tired (benefit for commuters (Pendler) and prevents accidents because of tired truck drivers) Robots are able to constantly focus Costs a lot ܀ Loss of privacy, everything will be tracked, constant surveillance -> data security Loss of jobs - -> taxi & truck drivers There still always has to be someone who can react just in case ❖ Programmers have to make tough decisions —> safety of the driver >> safety of others ❖ Criminals and hackers could manipulate the system and create errors Systems could have mistakes Driverless cars should save their driver and passengers at all costs No road marking - -> system might not work careful enough In case of an accident -> whose fault is it? ✰ Marketing ◆ Cars are made to protect their passengers There is a safe system, if people don't Follow the rules -> not the drivers fault Value of life is not countable The driver is not responsible If more people are safe, more people are happy (utilitarianism) Car could make mistakes As a human you wouldn't just drive over the people You would feel miserable, if you would be safe -> car would People who are innocent shouldn't die ❖ Passengers did not make the mistake but they bought the car so its their responsibility Cyborgs Regular people who have integrated technology in their bodies to improve or monitor some aspects of their health Bionic limb -> bionische Gliedmaßen Biohacking -> Selbstoptimierung durch Technologie oder Genetische Veränderung NFC chips Augmentation To enhance -> verbessern