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29.3.2023

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grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs):
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Englisch Seite Titel Inhaltsverzeichnis gelernt Abiturerlass 2023 -ENGLISCH- grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs): Robert Mulligan (1962): To Kill a Mockingbird (Verfilmung des gleichnamigen Werks von Harper Lee) - Q1 George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant; Hanif Kureishi: My Son the Fanatic; Zadie Smith: The Embassy of Cambodia - Q2 erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs): - Harper Lee: To Kill a Mockingbird sowie die Verfilmung von Robert Mulligan (1962) - Q1 - insbesondere George Orwell: Shooting an Elephant; Hanif Kureishi: My Son the Fanatic; Zadie Smith: The Embassy of Cambodia - Q2 - William Shakespeare: Othello - Q3 Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation (Die USA - die Entstehung einer Nation) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) - development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution (Entwicklung und Prinzipien der amerikanischen Demokratie und der Verfassung) - landmarks of American history (Meilensteine der amerikanischen Geschichte): insbesondere Civil Rights Movement, Black Lives Matter erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) - recent political and social developments (aktuelle politische und soziale Entwicklungen) Q1.2 Living in the American society (Leben in der amerikanischen Gesellschaft) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) the American way of life (die amerikanische Lebensart): [...] Einstellungen und Haltungen, Mobilität - migration and the American Dream (Migration und der amerikanische Traum) erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) - values and beliefs (Werte und Überzeugungen): [...] Religion, Puritanismus, Patriotismus Q1.3 Manifestation of individualism (Erscheinungsformen des Individualismus) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) the American Dream as a manifestation of individualism (der amerikanische Traum als...

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Erscheinungsform des Individualismus) concepts of life (Lebenskonzepte): [...] Leben in der Stadt und auf dem Land, Ausstieg aus der Gesellschaft - stories of initiation (Initiationsgeschichten) erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) - visions and nightmares (Träume und Albträume): [...] individuelle Schicksale (Vietnamkrieg, 11. September 2001 und Irakkriege) Q2.1 Great Britain - past and present: the character of a nation (Großbritannien - gestern und heute: der Charakter einer Nation) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) Great Britain - tradition and change (Großbritannien - Tradition und Wandel): [...] wesentliche Veränderungen auf sozialer, kultureller, politischer oder wirtschaftlicher Ebene (British Empire - insbesondere colonization, Industrialisierung [...]) being British: national identity and national stereotypes (britisch sein: nationale Identität und nationale Stereotypen) erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) [...] Q2.2 Ethnic diversity (Ethnische Vielfalt) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) Great Britain as a multicultural society (Großbritannien als multikulturelle Gesellschaft): [...] Auswirkungen der kolonialen Vergangenheit - prejudice and the one-track mind (Vorurteile und eingleisiges Denken) erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) - integration versus assimilation (Integration und Assimilation) Q2.3 The English-speaking world (Die englischsprachige Welt) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) [...] erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) country of reference: [...] Ireland country of reference: past and present (Vergangenheit und Gegenwart) insbesondere Emigration, die geteilte Insel, der keltische Tiger living together (Zusammenleben): z. B. Sozialstruktur der Gesellschaft, Multikulturalität - [...] Q3.1 Human dilemmas in fiction and real life (Menschliche Dilemmata in Fiktion und Wirklichkeit) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) extreme situations (Extremsituationen): [...] der Kampf ums Überleben being different (Anderssein) erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) insbesondere Elizabethan England - an introduction to the Golden Age drama by William Shakespeare (Drama von William Shakespeare): insbesondere Othello Q3.2 Modelling the future (Die Zukunft gestalten) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) science and technology (Wissenschaft und Technik): insbesondere biotechnology, electronic media, artificial intelligence possibilities and responsibilities (Chancen und Verantwortlichkeiten) erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) - power and ambition (Macht und Ehrgeiz) Q3.3 Gender issues (Geschlechterfragen) grundlegendes Niveau (Grundkurs und Leistungskurs) [...] erhöhtes Niveau (Leistungskurs) - [...] - culture and gender - now and then (Kultur und Gender - früher und heute): [...] Schönheitsideale im Wandel (Sonette von Shakespeare), Genderkonstruktionen in der Werbung - [...] Operator(en) delineate skizzieren describe beschreiben outline präsentieren/ vorstellen/nennen summarize zusam- menfassen analyze analysieren compare/contrast vergleichen/gegen- überstellen explain erklären Definition put into the context of einordnen/zuord- nen Anforderungsbereich I relate in Beziehung setzen einen Sachverhalt oder Gedankengang in seinen Grundzügen angeben Aussagen, Sachverhalte, Strukturen o.Ä. in ei- genen Worten strukturiert und fachsprachlich verdeutlichen zielgerichtet Informationen zusammentragen, ohne diese zu kommentieren ausgehend von einem Einleitungssatz die we- sentlichen Aussagen eines Textes in strukturier- ter und komprimierter Form in eigenen Worten herausstellen examine untersuchen Sachverhalte unter bestimmten Aspekten be- trachten und belegen Anforderungsbereich II Merkmale eines Textes, Sachverhaltes oder Zu- sammenhanges kriterienorientiert bzw. aspekt- geleitet erschließen und zusammenhängend verdeutlichen nach vorgegebenen oder selbst gewählten Ge- sichtspunkten Gemeinsamkeiten, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede begründet darlegen point out/depict dar- Sachverhalte o.Ä. und deren Bezüge sowie Zu- stellen sammenhänge aufzeigen Materialien, Sachverhalte o.Ä. in einen Begrün- dungszusammenhang stellen, z.B. durch Rück- führung auf fachliche Grundprinzipien, Gesetz- mäßigkeiten, Funktionszusammenhänge, Mo- delle oder Regeln Texte oder Sachverhalte unter Verwendung von Vorwissen begründet in einen genannten Zusammenhang stellen Zusammenhänge unter vorgegebenen oder selbst gewählten Gesichtspunkten begründet herstellen Beispiel(e) Delineate the concept of integra- tion. Describe the living conditions of the family Summarize the text. Analyze the rhetorical devices in Obama's speech Outline the author's view on love, I marriage and divorce. Compare X's and Y's views on edu- cation. Contrast the author's con- cept of multiculturalism with con- cepts you have encountered in class. Examine the author's use of lan- guage. Explain the protagonist's obsession with money. Point out the author's main ideas on multiculturalism. Depict the mean- ing of the cartoon. Put this speech into the context of the Hispanic experience in the U.S. AFB Relate the protagonist's principles to a text read in class 1-11 1-11 1-11 || ||-||| || || 1-11 1-11 || write a characteriza- tion charakterisieren assess beurteilen discuss erörtern evaluate/comment (on) bewerten/Stellung nehmen interpret interpretie- ren write gestalten/entwer- fen/verfassen Vorgänge, Sachverhalte, Personen/Figuren in ihrer jeweiligen Eigenart treffend und anschau- lich kennzeichnen und ggf. unter einem be- stimmten Gesichtspunkt zusammenführen Anforderungsbereich III zu einem Sachverhalt oder einer Aussage unter Verwendung von Fachwissen und Fachmetho- den eine begründete Einschätzung geben eine These oder Problemstellung unter Abwä- gen von Pro- und Kontraargumenten hinterfra- gen und zu einem eigenen Urteil gelangen wie Operator ,beurteilen', aber zusätzlich die eigenen Maßstäbe begründet darlegen auf der Grundlage einer Analyse Sinnzusam- menhänge aus Materialien methodisch reflek- tiert erschließen, um zu einer schlüssigen Ge- samtauslegung zu gelangen Aufgabenstellungen kreativ und produktorien- tiert bearbeiten, z.B. auf der Grundlage eines Materials und seiner inhaltlichen oder stilisti- schen Gegebenheiten eine kreative Idee in ein selbstständiges Produkt umsetzen Write a characterization of the hero- || ine. Assess the importance of ethics in scientific research. Discuss the influence of terrorism on civil liberties in the United States. Evaluate the chances of the protag- onist's plan to succeed in life. Com- ment on the thesis ... expressed in the text. Interpret the message the author wants to convey Write a letter to the editor/a per- sonal letter/a dialogue/a speech ... III ||-||| ||| 1-III E rhetorical devices Rhetoric device alliteration allusion anaphora antithesis choice of words euphemism exaggeration/ hyper- bole image irony (Leit)motif manner of speaking metaphor paradox Explanation/ Function the repetition of a sound, usually a conso- nant, at the beginning of neighboring words indirect reference to a famous event, per- son, or piece of literature successive sentences starting with the same word contrast; opposing words, phrases, views, characters etc. the decision to use particular words based on such aspects as style, register, connota- tion, etc. using polite expressions for sth. unpleasant a word intended to appeal to the reader's imagination and to bring a new perception to an object saying the opposite of what you mean a theme, expression or object which recurs throughout a text, and which refers to a cer- tain person, situation or atmosphere a style that is typical of a particular person, e.g. politician or worker, etc. poetic comparison without using like or as (e.g. an ocean of love) Example Girl's power leaves lazy lads lagging be- hind making sth./ sb. sound better, more exciting, "I was walking along when suddenly this dangerous etc. than in reality enormous dog walked along. It was as big as an elephant" "He whiffed the aroma of brewed coffee.' seeming impossible at first glance but recog- nized as true on second thought "This place is like a Garden of Eden." - This is a biblical allusion to the "garden of God" in the Book of Genesis. "So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heighten- ing Alleghenies of Pennsylvania..." (Martin Luther King) "Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing." - Goethe. "I am one, sir, that comes to tell you your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs." (Othello, Shakespeare)→ refers to the act of hav- ing sex A post on Facebook complaining how use- less Facebook is. "Your eyes are the windows of your soul" "It's weird not to be weird." - John Lennon parallelism personification pun reference register/level of speech repetition rhetorical question simile symbol syntax hypotactical structure paratactical structure tone repeating similar or identical words/phrases in neighboring lines/sentences/paragraphs presenting ideas/objects/animals as persons (e.g. a smiling moon) a play on words a connection to sth. else (→ allusion) The words, style and grammar used, e.g. for- mal/informal English, colloquialisms, slang, non-standard English, etc.; such aspects are typically adjusted according to the address- ees deliberately using a word/phrase more than one question to which the answer is obvious or to which no answer is possible/expected comparison using like or as sth. concrete (object, character, event) standing for sth. abstract (cross = Christian- ity; horseshoe = luck) arrangement of words in a phrase/sen- tence/text rather complicated and long sentences, in- volving sub-clauses a rather simple sentence structure, mostly consisting of main clauses, sometimes con- nected with the conjunctions and, or the manner or mood, e.g. macabre, optimis- tic, etc. "We've seen the unfurling of flags, the lighting of candles, the giving of blood, the saying of prayers." -George W. Bush "The wind is whispering outside." "The tallest building in town is the library - it has thousands of stories!"→ stories in books and stories (floors) in a building. "Oh, woeful, oh woeful, woeful, woeful day!" - Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet "...O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?" -Percy Bysshe Shelley "Watching the show was like watching grass grow." They dressed in black to the funeral of their friend. (The color black is associated with death.) airy, comic, condescending, facetious, funny, heavy, intimate, ironic, light, play- ful, sad, serious, sinister, solemn, somber, and threatening Q1.1 THE USA A FORMATION OF A NATION The USA - The formation of a nation LANDMARKS OF AMERICAN HISTORY Year 1492 1620 1765-183 1773 1775 1776 1783 1787 1791 until 1850 1861-1865 1863 1917 1930s December 9th 1941 1947-1991 1950-1953 1955-1968 1964 1955 1975 september 11th 2001 2003 2009 2017 March 2020 May 25th 2020 2021 Actions and Events Columbus discovers America. European Colonists began to arrive - The Puritans American Revolution Boston Tea Party Revolutionary War of Independence starts Declaration of Independence Treaty of Paris Implementation of the US Constitution Bill of Rights Manifest Destiny Civil War Emancipation Proclamation USA enters World war I the Great Depression USA enters World War II Cold War Korean War Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act the Vietnam War 9/11 Invasion of Iraq and the begin of the Iraq War Barack Obama the first African American President Inauguration of Donald Trump national emergency declared due to thethe Covid- Pandemic George Floyd Protest Joe Biden got elected as the new president of the united states what happened? History of the United States as a Nation begins first contact with the Native Americans ; Pilgrim Fathers; Mayflower compact. 13 American colonies reject British government; desire to practise their own religion "hated that their had little control over their lifes wanted freedom Colonists threw tea into the Baston haibour as a protest against Great Britain 4th of July; the 13 colonies declared their independence from England Britain officially recognizes its former colonies as an independant nation U.S. of America new ideas of a democratic state; Founding Fathers first ten amendments to the American Constitution exploration of the West. the North American continent. between the United States official abolition of slavery (frees the slaves of the Confederate States) worldwide economic crisis at it's peak more than 20% of Americans unemployed on Pearl Harbor (warsaw Pak) between NATO and Russia a war between North Korea (with the support of china and the Soviet Union) and south Korea (with the principal support of the United States) outlawing of racial discrimination and segregation conflict between the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam and it's principal ally, the United States. The conflict was intensified by the ongoing Cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union. terrorist attacks on the world Trade Center and Pentagon after the Japanese Attack the 45th President of the U.S. Nationwide protest break out following the killing of African-American George Floyd by Police American History. - a deeper look. The Puritans they believed that Religion would help them to live a fullfilling life →→→ leaving England because of religious persecution The Puritans came to America for freedom 1620 a group of people left England for America on a ship called "the Mayflower"-MAYFLOWER COMPACT = a set of rules for self-governance established by the First contact with the native Americans English settlers who travelled to the New World on the Mayflower War of Independence the colonists fought against the British to gain their Independence George Washington was a leading figure in the war Manifest Destiny, a "movement" Stands for the belief that America is the one nation ordered by God to expand across the North American continent • America as a country that is superior to all other countries American patriotism is deeply rooted in the concept of Manifest Detsiny, Proxies the American Dream attitude that nothing was going to stand in the way of progress of Manifest Destiny • encouraged the Americans to spread over the Whole Continent →→ territorial growth THE FRONTIER = expansion of the American nation from Coast to Coast History of slavery and abolition 1619-1808-Approximately 300.000 people were shipped from Africa to work as Slaves in the US. They lived mainly in the Southern States and worked on the Cotton, tobacco and Sugar Cane plantations Locrops made the plantation owners extremely rich and were major products for export After 1808-no more Slaves were transported to the US but many more were born in the country • 1833 the national Anti-Slavery Society, an abolitionist Movement, was founded, although most of its supporter came from the northern states rather than the Southern States were the most Slaves lived 1865 1868 -1870 1890 Lo-moral questions about slavery and the treatment of blacks as second-class human being triggered the American Civil War - Slavery was abolished after the American Civil War 13th Amendment -The 14th Amendment of the constitution gave black Americans the statue of citizens - All male American citizens were given the right to vote, regardless of their race -Jim Crow Laws were introduced Loslavery is replaced by segregation and racism ESTABLISHING A NEW NATION 1789 Establishment of the Constitution of the United States Federal System: Power is to be shared and representatives need to be elected Establishment of the system of checks and balance: to Legislative Executive Judicial => each of the branches can limit the others - none of the branches becomes too powerful consistent control LEGISLATIVE BRANCH CONGRESS Developments and principles of American democracy and the constitution The U.S. Capitol House of Representatives Senate BRANCHES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT CONSTITUTION EXECUTIVE BRANCH DOO ADMINISTRATION 100 The White House The President 0 The Vice President Cabinet Go JUDICIAL BRANCH SUPREME COURT g The Supreme Court Chief Justice 8 Other Justices Courts of Appeal District Courts RIO poo good to know → FOUNDING FATHERS They were the leaders of the Revolution that brought independence to the colonies. responsible for shaping those colonies into a new nation by drafting the United States Gründungsváter" signed the US Constitution and the Declaration of independence Mayflower Compact • first political agreement for self-government, signed 1620 by the Pilgrim leaders on bord of the Mayflower colonist's create one society and work together to aduance it but still loyal to King James despite their need for Self-governance 4th July 1776 Declaration of Independence Continental Congress adopted the Declaration mainly written by Thomas Jefferson ↳ the first format statement by nationals people asserting their right to chose their own government announced the separation from Great Britain Symbol of American democracy and symbol of human rights Opportunity for every American (women were excluded from this definition) to lead his life the way he wants to, making his own personal dreams come true → "we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" Bill of Rights The first ten amendments became a permanent addition to the Constitution in 1719 and are known as the Bill of Rights They include the basic rights of the people and forbids the government form denying these liberties Main thought: "We will protect the individual form big government' I Freedom of religion, speech, press assembly and petition 2. Right to keep and bear arms to own a gun to defen yourself and your properly Lewear weapons" 3. No quartering soldiers in home 4. No search and seizure -> the government can't just baige into your home and take your stuff without a warrant 5. Every citizens gets legal protection 6. you get a speedy trial and an important jury 7. No retrial after a jury decision 8 no cruel and unusual punishment 9. Constitutional rights do not cancel peoples rights 10 States retain all powers not specifically to the federal government The Civil Right Movement • The Civil Rights Movement was an Organizer effort by black Americans to end racial segregation, discrimination and racism that took place in the US in the 1950s and 1960s The protestors seeked after justice and equality The most non-violent protest led by Malcom X and Martin Luther King People who were seen as representative figured surrounding the Civil Right Movement were Rosa Parks, the Little Rock nine and many more LIFE BEFORE THE START OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS Jim Crow Laws laws to enforce segregation officially to protect the blacks, but in reality laws were used to maintain the unfair treatment and limitation of the rights of the blacks • Divided society in the southern United States into black and white. They enforced segregation in public places, such as schools, transportation, restrooms and restaurants. They also made it difficult for black people to vote The Supreme Court rules that the Jim Crow laws were constitutional Slogan "seperate but equal " making African Americans inferior to whites → beginning of segregation CIVIL RIGHTS ACT of 1964 repeal of all remaining Jim Crow Laws LANDMARKS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT 1909 African-Americans founded the National Associating for the Advancement Colored People (NAACP); the aim was to call attention to discrimination 1954 Supreme Court declares the racial segregation of school to be unconstitutional 1955 1956 Supreme Court declares the racial segregation of busses to be unconstitutional · 1957 Little Rock Nine" vine black students were sent to Central High School in Arkansas in all white school and were harrassed so badly that they needed federal troops for protection Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act in order to protect voters rights March on Washington 250.000 300.000 people march to the capital in washington D.C to demonstrate peacefully for jobs, freedom & an end to racial segregation "I have a dream" speech by Martin Luther King Civil Rights Act banned discrimination based on race, colour, religion or nation origin Voting Rights Act restored and protected voting rights for every US citizen Martin Luther King get assassinated (murdered) President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, which provided equal housing opportunities regardless of one's race, religion or national origin 1963 1964 1965 Rosa Parks (NAACP member) refuses to give up her seat in a bus for a white person > gets arrested Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Martin Luther King 1968 Malcolm X 1925: birth in Omaha, Nebraska wish: becoming a lawyer → "not a realistic goal for a nigger" (as one of his teachers told him) → becomes criminal believed in Allah (joined the organization: Nation of Islam → minister, national spokesman → became famous fast, media magnet because of his charisma, drive, conviction) goal: independent state for Blacks only (goal of Nation of Islam) used violence "let's make war" (against non-violent Martin Luther King) Assassination: February 21, 1965 (while speaking at an engagement in the Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom) Ku Klux Klan . Martin Luther King born January 15th, 1929 died April 4th, 1968 (was shot by James Earl Ray) Civil Rights leader and activist he led non-violent protests to fight for e rights of all people he hoped that America and the whole world would become a "color-blind society" • he led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (= his first Civil Rights action) positions: white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration, they use terrorism (Physical assault, murder) to frighten African Americans costumes (robes, masks, hats): designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities ideological opponent opposition Black Life's Matter is a decentralised political and social movement that seeks to highlight racism, discrimination and inequality experienced by black people Protest incidents of police brutality and racially motivated violence against black people GOAL reaching peoples awareness of police discrimination then: international Movement since July 2013 founded by three women of Color after a black teenager was killed killing of the African American George Floyd in 2020 by the Police caused a series of protest and civil unrest "I can't breathe" = Battle cry and slogan of the protestors Demonstrators want to peacefully draw attention to the police violence / racism against African Americans prevailing in the USA - accusations of racism now O 4 Recent political & social developments 4 SITUATION OF AMERICANS TODAY racial discrimination still exists even though it is not institutionalised like it was before Blacks in the US Stil have a higher risk of unemployment, poverty and imprisonment Spirit of slavery / racism is still part of the police and law system →2009 Barack Obama is elected as the first black president in the USA 2020 Kamala Harris is the first black woman to be in an official position in the US (vice president) → America under Trump • Donald Trump was elected as the next president of the USA in 2016 * Slogan = " America First", "let's make America great again" → Ecology: rejection of consensus of the climate change and the global warming Economy: Anti-globalisation, trade protectionism, US seeking independence Border control in order to protect the country from ravages → Society: Stop an illegal immigration, wall between Mexico and the US Political System: threatens judges, fires important political aids • He said a lot of dehumanising things, racist attitude, misogynist (frauenfeindlich) critics say it will take years for America to regain its formerly good reputation worldwide Gun Legislation School Shootings The second Amendment is closely linked to the American settlers revolution against British rule, when they took up arms to fight for their rights and freedom this regulation still grants every citizen the right to keep and bear arms to defend his freedom and his rights Despite calls for limiting the right to bear arms, especially after bloody school shootings, many Americans are unwilling to give up their guns Me Too Campain → # a hashtag that gave women space for speaking about harassment and sexual abuse • Feminist voices have become louder →→One cause is Trump himself, because he is sexualising women, is misogynist towards them Abortion Laws With the overturn of Roe v. Wade by the US Supreme Court in June 2022, abortion policies and reproductive rights are in the hands of each state Abortion is now banned in 13 states (Georgia even bans abortion at about six weeks of pregnancy, before many women know they are pregnant) COVID 19 and Trump actions As the virus brook out, Trump acted irresponsible blamed China →→→ "America First" Trump didn't take the virus serious, is responsible for many deaths that one could have avoid Election of Biden *Joe Biden won against Donald Trump and got elected in November 2020 Trump didn't want top leave the White House "the elect was an election fraud caused by Biden" = acts like a child The American Government today (Democracy) The United States is a representative democracy Power is divided between federal government and state government •People elect men/women who represent them and these elected leaders will vote on laws "Two-party-System" Overview of the Parties PARTY POLITICAL TREND VOTERS Democratic Party more liberal promotes social welfare, more taxation of the rich, tougher environment laws less international interferences, etc. supported by working class people, minority groups, acedemics unions, especially in big cities Republican Party more conservative: believes in private enterprise, military strength, a hard line on crime, minimal state intervention, etc. Supported by the wealthy, the middle class, big business, farmers etc. Q1.2 LIVING IN THE AMERICAN SOCIETY The American Way of Life > this term simply means the unique lifestyle of people lead in the USA Principles life freedom (statue of liberty as a symbol) pursuit of happiness criticism execessive consumption exploitation of human rights American Dream • The American Dream represents the idea of equality, Freedom and that anybody can achieve anything no matter how great the odds are against him or her. With a strong will and hard work anybody can be successful on his "Pursuit of happiness" and go "from rags to riches " • Equality opportunity and a higher standard of living are equally granted to every American citizens through hard work, totally undetermined by their current level of wealth, class Ellis Island: The American Dream Realisation of personal fulfilment Basic idea that in America = Key Aspects= everybody is free and equal everybody can better themselves economically and have a secure future everybody can fulfull their personal potential everybody has the opportunity to escape poverty everbody with a strong will and hard work can go from rags to riches Statue of liberty Idea: you can achieve everything if you just work hard enough based on the will of being free, individual and wealthy • at the center of the American way of life is the American Dream The Puritans: big gap between rich and poor • pollution New Canaan: Manifest Destiny • The place where most immigrants first set foot on American soil Represent the gateway to a new, better life for the majority of immigrants Located on Ellis Island. Symbol of independency, freedom and the welcoming of immigrants Believe that America was the promised land Strict moral principles Hard work leads to success interpretations of the American Dream of • early settlers personal dreams. economic dreams. social dreams religious dreams political dreams national identify The land God promised to the Israelities Puritans hope America would become their promised land freedom, self-fulfilment, dignity, happiness, health prosperity and success, no poverty (rising from poverty to fame and fortune), progress equality (of opportunity), classless society religious freedom in a "promised land" in which they are god chosen people democracy and justice, basic human rights freedom, individualism, optimism, hard work, mobility, progress stands for the belief that America is the one nation ordered by God to expand across the North American continent America is a country that is superior to all other countries American patriotism is deeply rooted in the concept of manifest destiny The stars and stripes: nickname of the American flag represented the founding states colours ● Political/Historical steps Uncle Sam • 1791: ● Foundation declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) States that all people are equal and that every citizen has the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness → restricted powers of the central government and strengthened the freedom and equality of all American citizens →now exist for all adults of all races and skin colours segregation (in buses or schools,..) and discrimination in the workplace are now prohibited 1870: 1964: Popular nickname for the American government a man with a beard wearing Stars & Stripes • represents freedom and independence symbol (red- bravery; blue -justice) Bill of Rights voting rights → Critism ↳ Early settlers hope for a better life freedom self-fulfilment and equality Present inequality: minorities are being discriminated Concept of a class last society has never become reality gap between rich and poor Melting pot has never become reality Lconcept of salad bowl was suggested as more accurate Melting pot Immigrants assimilate in order to become one common culture immigrants give up their cultural identity and adapt/ accept the new culture Salad Bowl new image people retain their national identity different cultures exist next to each other - this or that America is home to immigrants from all over the world which has resulted in such a high amount of multiculturalism immigrants are constantly coming to America bringing their culture with them the term melting pod is no longer accurate LP Immigrants were proud of their own culture and assimulation has not necessarily been their goal new metaphor to describe this change salad bowl Means the idea that every ethnic group keeps its own culture • like in a salad all ingredients come together but you can clearly see the differences seems much better to describe today's American society because it represents cultural pluralism and multiculturalism accepting America as multicultural Irish Italian AMERICAN •Concept of personal fulfilment becomes an obsession with material wealth →→→→ highly competitive consumer society Irish Italian Russian Examples of American nightmares of the Vietnam war, 9/11 and the financial crisis starting in 2008 The American dream as an illusion, as not everyone has access to the opportunities usually associated with it It's the fact that not everybody can live the American dream there's still so many people struggling People are limited from achieving their goals because of their social status, race etc Certain groups have been disadvantaged • Unrealistic values / unreachable ideal All in all, it can be said that the American dream is a good concept, but a concept that doesn't succeed in reality every time because not every person in America is born into the same situation and they will be always groups that are disadvantaged Furthermore, there is still racism and racial prejudice, which does not correspond to the ideal of the American dream regarding equality Is the American Dream still alive? PRO People still need to fight for their personal dreams & wishes Everybody is able to go to school & get education -> opportunity to live their dream; even poor people have the right to get education & live the AD - People having a dream are given hope by American's history - Lots of examples of people who lived the AD (A. Schwarzenegger, successtories like bill Gates) - Many immigrants have a better life there than in their home countries -> It's a good way to motivate others - Free education for everyone - Everybody has a different understanding what is included in their personal American Dream, what has not only depend on material goods CON For unprivileged people the AD is unrealistic to reach -> only a few people can reach their aims USA in involved in too many wars Huge gap between rich & poor racism, racial prejudice There are not enough well-paid jobs to bet ahead -> Many Americans have to work two or more jobs to make ends meet Concept of a classless Society has never become reality - High quality schools or universities are very expensive, the college have the students to pay by theirselves - If one is handicapped one will not get the finical help people would get in Europe - Minorities have to face racism and discrimination -> AD for rich whites only Immigration in general The movement of non-native people in the country in order to settle there means to come to the country to live there There are different types of push-and-pull factors that motivate individuals or groups to emigrate (and immigrate) Values and beliefs of Americans Economic reasons Educational reasons Religious reasons Political reasons Personal reasons Fundamental and God-given rights: Liberty: pursuit of happiness: Equality: Life: • ● Patriotism Puritanism open and dynamic society: religion: wage rates, infrastructure. job opportunities, standards of living school system, college and university facilities oppression, discrimination and persecution because of religious beliefs. oppression, discrimination and persecution of political conviction, war, human rights situation marriage, transferred patriotism, evasion of criminal justice etc ● Importance of national symbols (eg state of liberty, declaration of independence, the consitution, US. Flag, national anthem) strong identification with ones station · personal and religious freedom succeed and wealth individual way of reaching one's dream equal rights protective government, law and military With hard work and discipline you can achieve everything belief of being the member of the gods chosen people (Manifest Destiny) • protecting the personal rights of people ● generally open to new ideas and inventions being generally open to immigrants Impact of the early puritan settlers can still be felt today- America has become a largely Protestant country. belief in strict interpretation of the Bible importance of traditional values ● The USA as a country of religious diversity strict separation of church and state Q1.3- MANIFESTATION OF INDIVIDUALISM The American Dream as a Manifestation of Individualism • The idea that everyone, no matter where they come from, can achieve anything they want if they work for it and become happy (pursuit of happiness) • Individualism is an illustration of how the American dream relates to immigration immigration as an individual decision and the hope of the land of opportunity appeals to individuals social achievements Looking at the educational system, the economic system, polarization of politics and immigration works the American dream is fundamentally individualistic focusing on the person rather than the community Leveryone fights on their own to achieve their goals Individualism ↳Self-reliance and responsibility for one's own fate and goals equal opportunities Concept of life= Living in a landscape • Calm life little mass of people ● a good neighbour connection mostly good neighbour connection stands for equality interested in raising the children knowing the values of life represents free development • open friendly wise conservative Long distance to important places (schools hospitals) Bad Internet connection little places to work lots of dirt and smells little shopping possibilities loneliness Example To kill a Mockingbird Atticus Finch (Lives in the landscape) Calm life Stands for equality Interested in raising his children to citizens knowing the values of life Represents free development Open, friendly, wise Living in the city Stressful and busy life Stands for materialistic values • overpopulation interested in social standards more liberal easy move (public transport) lots of jobs Noise/environmental pollution stress (everything is fast) • over population drugs / criminality homeless people prostitution expensive life Aunt Alexandra (Lives in the city) Eccentric life Stands for materialistic values Interested in social stand /role Represents rule compliance Snooty, snippy, deterministic Stories of Initiation Stories of initation of special American short stories Usually they present a deeply confusing incident in a Childs or adolescent persons life, usually a confrontation of the protagonist with an aspect from adult life for example death, evil, old age, loss of ideals Loss of innocence and gain of experience and maturity introduction to manners and values given by society process of self-discovery and self-realisation TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD visions and nightmares • Vision = idealized idea of living in the American Dream Nightmare while trying to reach the American dream, the dream can turn into a nightmare life can get even worse (no possibility to realise the American dream) General examples no classless society In reality workers have no chance of rising up on the social mobility millions of jobs are gone → unemployment rate rises No job, no money, no home increase in crime More inequality Big gap between rich and poor People do not get access to health care or good education Example of 9/11 Vision America as peaceful global mediator → unreachable America as open and friendly to other nations/people Fighting against terror as fight for peace America is save (because of trustful government, military, law system) Vietnam War (1955-1975) Vision fighting for peace in the world winning as God-chosen ones Reality Terror attacks Thousands of people died Rising of sentiment against Muslims Thousand more people died Were successful attacked America as a peace actor for the word critism on the American Dream Nightmare Against idea AD of general right for Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness) Against American value of being open-minded Against AD (right for Life...) Against the idea of the being "God-chosen" Reality kill the civilian population brutally a nightmare for the soldiers >Many of them were forced to go there by draft (were very young) ↳ lost a war after fighting there for years and taking many innocent lives Loseeing their comrades die devastating for the soldiers and for the American public • Promised Land" American Dream ● Endless opportunities • Birthplace oft he American Dream ● Pursuit of happiness ● → many immigrants (legal or illegal) came tot he USA to have a better life/future independance → right to wear arms/weapons → second amendment (since 1791) freedom → freedom of speech Equality → Equality of opportunity Co-existence of many different cultures → Melting pot → Salad bowl • ,,from rags to riches" ● Self-made millionaires ● Earn much moey with their ideas ● Hard work to success ● One big America ● • pursuit of material wealth/richness deportation of Immigrants (they have to go back to their old land) → border fence/ border control • many migrants are seperated from their families and are punished or arrested ● American Nightmare Native Americans were forced to give up their land (by the europeans/England) → They have to live in reservations ● public shootings/much gang violence → ongoing debate about gun controle total control → NSA • Slavery • Segregation/ discremination of minority (between 1865 and 1980s but still there) Police brutality against African-Americans BLM fight for their rights . Gap between rich and poor get bigger ● segregation • Ist more a dream for people who life in the upper income househould than for once who get low paid (minimum pay) • For poor people ist almost impossible to live the dream because you have to add money • Most oft he people will never reach their aim/dream • You can quickly lose everything you have build up though hard work • Become homeless over night . No health insurance • No welfare (social welfare problems/ social justice problems) Ameica is seperated in republicans and democrats and rich and poor No unity 02.1 GREAT BRITAIN Landmarks of British Colonialism 16th 19th century: Transatlantic Slave Trade by European imperialists 16th century: First British Empire early 17th century: 1775-83 Second British Empire (18th-20th) 1807-33 1881-1902 loss of American colonies → enlargement of existing colonies in India & the Far Eastern 1914-1918 1931 • slavery making Britain wealthy as it provided slave owners with unpaid labour to farm expensive items like sugar, tobacco and cotton, which they could sell for huge profits funded Britain's industrial revolution that made Britain richer "Age of discovery: new thinking about the world • more exploration led to discovery of new lands 1949 beginning of the British territorial acquisition foundation of colonies in all parts of the world for: • exploration & discovery establishment of trading posts along the Coast (eg East India Company) emigration and settlement turning point loss of huge parts of its empire in the American War of Independence → colonies in North America fought to be free from British rule →gained independence United States of America - end of First British Empire unjust treatment of indigenous people local people were taken advantage of by greedy traders, robbed of their land and faced violence and death at the hands of British settlers - abolition of the slave trade in British colonial possessions people continued to suffer in racist societies: considered less important > "Scramble for America": huge parts of Africa came under British rule →British Empire larger and more powerful than ever →→First World War: feeling of nationalism sweeping the globe → countries should have the right to be independent → formation of the British Commonwealth of Nations by UK, AUS, NZ, SA ⚫owed allegiance to the British government British Empire →→ Commonwealth of Nations voluntary union of former British colonies that now are independent states group of 54 states working and trading together, sharing a common set of values of democracy, freedom, peace, rule of law and opportunity for all Head: British Queen • purpose international cooperation and advancement of economics, social development and human rights Great Britain tradition and change ↳ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island (commonly known as the UK) compromises England Scotland and Wales and the six north- eastern countries of Ireland (Northern Ireland). From the British Empire to the head of the Commonwealth As a group of island nations the UK has developed separately from the rest of Europe In the 7050s the beginning of the industrial revolution made Britain the worlds first industrial nation. Until World War II it was also one of the most powerful nations with an empire that spanned the globe Within the Commonwealth the UK maintains strong links to its former colonies which are now all are independent 4 today 16 of the 54 independent states within the Commonwealth including the United Kingdom share the same monarch changes in cultural, social, political and economical level ● ● ● Colonisation • has always been connected with the idea of the British Empire essential to territorial expansion Living in the colonies: natives were severely mistreated by the British Positive effects: British influence brought technology, education and a general economic uprising attempt to improve welfare Industrial Revolution England as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution *Definition: process of economic transformation: from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing beginning in the 18th century, from there spread to other parts of the world introduction of novel ways of working and living transformation of society ● technological changes use of new basic materials such as iron and steel • use of new energy sources (steam engine, electricity...). • invention of new machines increased production transportation steam locomotive, automobile, airplane.... • as a result of increased production the standard of living increased especially for the upper and middle class ● the workers, on the other hand, could hardly earn their living low wages, child labour, malnutrition and overcrowded housing, no Social Security system →pauperism Changes Social • abolition of slave trade (1807) and slavery (1833) ● social inequality gap between rich and poor increased standard of living for upper and middle classes (Industrial Revolution) working class struggling with low wages, child labor, malnutrition.... impoverishment & poor living conditions • urbanization increased population in cities ● changes in kinds of jobs: most people being workers in factories, less farming - cultural ● Britain has a vast amount of immigrants 4 ● immigration into Britain started with the years of the British Empire and has had another major peak in the years of Commonwealth such as after World War II Britain became a melting pot Political • Once having the crown roll over everything Britain is now a constitutional monarchy crown now being no more than the present of the prime minister is the head of state The head of state is the source of all legislative executed and judicial how are in the UK granted by the Bill of Rights the monarch has the right to be informed and consulted about government policies, open sessions of Parliament, appoint the prime minister after election and hold weekly meetings with the prime minister the UK has not written constitution but a body of law including statutory and common and law Economical With the industrial revolution in the years of British Empire came a vast upswing of the British economy it remains a country with a strong economy till this day mechanized production replaced human labor → increased and more efficient production. economic profit increased international trade The British Empire Empire = • group of countries that are ruled over by a ruling power British Empire the British Empire is the term used to describe all the places around the world that were once ruled by Britain built over many years it grew to include large areas of North America, Australia, New Zealand Asia and Africa it began in the 16th century it was the largest and most powerful empire in history Meaning- countries build empires to control lands outside the borders and expand their powers Collapse= • political power exploitation of natural resources in the colonies trade the colonies were used as a market for British products colonial subjects could be enlisted as soldiers to fight for the British army ● the British wanted to spread Christianity and progress throughout the work ● ● independence movements like Gandhis quit India movement • the world wars →→ they had to became focused on itself • political pressure What legacy did they leave behind? PRO The English language as a lingua franca and also in the extinctions of some native languages democracy • infrastructure the drive on the left con • some were left confused about their cultural and national identity • racis structures are still in today struggles in financially socially and political aspects Commonwealth of Nations Loose political union between the UK and former colonies within the Commonwealth UK maintain strong links to its former colonies which are now all are independent Cooperating on trade and other international issues • The Commonwealth realms are independent countries that recognises the British queen as the head of state ▶ Until 1962 all citizens from the Commonwealth could settle in the UK which triggered a large-scale migration from countries such as Pakistan and India L▷so this is also decisive for the multicultural population nowadays Being British Stereotype a fixed belief about a particular group or class of people can lead to prejudiced (feeling of dislike for someone because of race, sex, religion) Great Britain: largest island on the British isles England country on this Island, part of the UK UK/Britain England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland National identity A feeling of being a part of Great Britain British identity has nothing to do with the heritage of a person but with what they feel / think Great Britain is the nation of diversity > therefore there isn't one specific national identity as being British means different things to every individual POSITIVE Drink lots of tea Well-mannered Apologize a lot Good in small talks - Sense of Irony Love of Countryside - National Pride (Patriotism) - Beer / Fish & Chips Football Polite NEGATIVE - Snobbish - Arrogant - Bad weather all the time - Class society - Conservative, stick to tradition -> not innovative British values Traditional British values are based on six basic ideas 1. Fair play in a competitive situation 2. A caring attitude towards the vulnerable, including animals 3. Respect and tolerance for the customs of others 4. Dislike of extremism 5. Common sense 6. Believe in inviolability of the home ( my home is my castle) Not open-minded - Mistrust of European ventricle - Bad in speaking other languages -stiff upper lip Identity confusion: Little national coherence: Britishness: state or quality of being British or embodying British characteristics →traditions, habits, behaviors, stereotypes that are readily identifiable with the UK → anyone can be British, regardless of their origin National stereotypes: Politeness: British often associated with good manners • Humor: British humor known for its use of sarcasm, dark comedy and irony • Tea: drinking tea as a key part of British culture Associations: Queen, London, The Union Jack, Fish and Chips, Tea,... Values: respect, tolerance, strength, appreciation, freedom of expression, acceptance of diversity/open mindedness, pride National identity: multiculturalism, cultural and religious diversity, tea, loyalty & respect, monarchy, pride enforced by today's multicultural society → different ethnicities mixed together each ethnicity adds their own culture & identity to the British society & shapes it No common perception of being British: feeling of being British cannot be forced upon people but has to grow naturally no valid definition of Britishness → means different things to different people Q2.2- ETHNIC DIVERSITY Great Britain as a multicultural society • A multicultural country encourages immigrants to retain their traditions without fully assimilating into mainstream culture after respective house nation • The term multiculturalism promotes cultural diversity after World War II many immigrants came to Great Britain LCultures from all over the world (India, Pakistan, Poland, China, Australia, USA etc.) • Multiculturalism and immigration has been a part of the British Empire ever since it started to establish this empire in the 16 century the population has change from ethnically British and Christian to one constituted by cultures and communities all over the world Benefits • Cultural enrichment (music, fashion, clothes, languages) ● • innovation · economic growth ● creativity tolerance linguistic varietx Prejudice and as one-track mind Prejudice prejudice among the white minority in Great Britain One-track mind Thinking into one direction and none other they think that immigrant families steal their jobs, don't belong here and poison the idea of being British Challenges= • Discrimination against immigrants • lack of integration = · social and religious conflicts . Stresses differences between groups ● no tolerance for difference (prejudice) people can not set themselves apart from prejudice, are not open-minded, not willing to accept other opinions and stick close to their ow thought Integration vs. Assimilation Integration many cultural traditions and identities coexist within one country as equals Means no loss of cultural and rituals (+benefits of multiculturalism) Loss of rituals and cultural (is that even possible?) Assimilation immigrants completely take on the host country's cultural traditions and identity ✪ Completely becoming part of the society no conflicts of identity because everyone assumes the host culture common values/identity ASSIMILATION VERSUS MULTICULTURALISM Visit www.PEDIAA.com ASSIMILATION Assimilation is a social process where minority groups or cultures within a mainstream culture come to reflect the mainstream group in terms of their values, beliefs, and behaviours Involves reducing differences A dominant culture is visible within assimilation MULTICULTURALISM Multiculturalism is a process where a mainstream culture acknowledges and accepts the cultural, ethnic or racial differences of the minority groups for their uniqueness Recognizes and valorizes those differences There is no dominant culture within multiculturalism Living between two cultures Many immigrant families choose immigration over assimulation. • Consequences formation of ghettos • Creates a stronger pride any local identity instead of a British one • Different ethnical groups lead their lives apart from each other ● Parents might don't allow the children to get familiar with the way of british life meaning they will also cling to old traditions Leads to identification problems once they grow up and get from confronted with the British way of life migrants between two cultures • Many young second generation immigrants feel like they are living between the culture of the parents home country and the culture of the country they live in • Pressure to assimilate to just one culture or they feel like they are half of each other => Those identification problems lead to disintegration Islamism extremism and radicalisation to define the new identity • ● • ● ● Challenges for immigrants Detached between the parents culture and a society that insist on viewing them simply as Muslims (second generation Muslims) A few are drawn in for extremist Islamist groups where they discover a sense of belonging identity that makes them open to radicalisation Language barriers feeling of not belonging being excluded by society Ist generation immigrants moved to UK for economic reasons badly paid jobs poverty not really influenced by the british culture = double-moral-standards • D • 2st generation immigrations • • want to be accepted by the society but don't accept the British lifestyle want to fit in /be accepted Develop two identities torn between parents culture and British culture Trying to fulfil the parents expectations while trying to fit in Q2.3- THE ENGLISH SPEAKING WORLD Country of reference: Ireland Republic of Ireland . ● independent republic historically divided into four provinces Leinster, Munster, Connacht, Ulster Capital Dublin Catholicism >>>> Protestantism currency Northern Ireland province of the UK consists of 6/9 Ulster counties Capital Belfast • Protestantism > Catholicism • currency £ Past and Present 1690: Battle of the Bone 1801: → Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland have separate governments share water, transport and energy systems → most sporting, cultural and religious organizations function on an all-Ireland basis areas in which the countries act as a single country: football 1845-51 1845-47: Irish Potato Famine period of mass starvation, disease and emigration 1916: the Easter Rising: € 1919-1921: Anglo-Irish war 1922-1923: Civil War Northern Ireland) (United Kingdom) Republic of Ireland Dublin (European Union) • Protestant King William of Orange defeats deposed King James to confirm claim to English throne and Ireland restrictions for Catholics rebellions and opposition parliamentary union of Ireland and Britain Belfast 7 Irland in 1641 division of opinion in Ireland IRISH SEA 60% inedibility of potatoes as the stable food of a then growing population caused by a blight starvation, malnutrition & deaths Irland In 1688 7 Irland Republic of Ireland gaining independence from Britain LIRA (army of newly declared Irish Republic) waged a Guerilla war against British forces 1921= partition of Ireland: Irish Free State (mainly Catholic): home rule North (mainly Protestant): remains part of UK, but with own parliament in 1703 British response: contribution to the disaster by London controlling trade agreements While people were suffering, Ireland was forced to export abundant harvest of wheat and diary products to Britain further overseas Death of 2 million people and enforced emigration population never reached pre famine level emigration history continued from this point onwards with the majority of Irish emigrants going to the US Uprising in Dublin against British rule defeat and execution of leaders Indicating catholics In Mand ● 1949: 1950s 1960s • pro and antie treaty forces 1972: Bloody Sunday 1990s period of political instability Irish Free state becomes full republic IRA (Irish republican army) starts campaign of violence; aim uniting Ireland civil rights campaign for equal rights for Northern Ireland Catholics Increased violence the troubles clash of nationalist/ republicans and loyalists ● Fire and the Catholics for the rights march opened by British forces Ireland turned from a long considered country of emigration to a country of immigration Celtic Tiger due to worlds highest economic growth rates in 1980s 1998: Good Friday Agreement All-Ireland policies, cooperation between both countries (tourism, transport, environment, agriculture, food-safety) considerably stability and peace Emigration 'Most countries send out oil or iron, steel or gold, or some other crop, but Ireland has had only one export and that is its people.'- John F. Kennedy on his presidential visit to Ireland, June 1963 Republic of Ireland Independent historically divided into four provinces: Leinster, Munster, Connacht, Ulster Northern Ireland republic, Province of the United Kingdom, consists of six of the nine Ulster countries (northern part of island) Capital: Belfast Capital: Dublin Main religions (2006): Main religions (2001): Catholic 86,8%, Protes- Protestant 53%, Catholic tant 3% 44% Pre-independence Irish Emigration: 19th century Reasons for emigrating: dire economic conditions that destituted families: rising rents and prices, lack of jobs social and religious persecution against most nonconformists and Catholics (the dominant segment of Irish society) Great Famine in 1840s: main cause for emigration, notable period of mass emigration establishment of huge Irish communities abroad (particularly in the US) vast networks helped to facilitate millions of more Irish to emigrate in the following decades Celtic Tiger = nickname for Ireland during its boom years (1995-2001) rapid econimc growth Tiger global symbol of power and energy, associated with passion, ferocity, beauty,speed, power celtic Ireland as one of the Celtic nations root causes: low corporate taxes, EU membership, foreign investment, economic boom in the US immigration to Ireland decline of general poverty but wider social inequality much emphasis on work and competition more selfish and materialist approach to life The Rise and Fall of the Celtic Tiger Social structure of the Irish society social hierarchies are widely disfavored within Ireland Lemphasis on egalitarianism Persons level of education and wealth does not necessarily earn them status or respect 4 emphasis on efforts and hard work no class distinctions, however, not entirely without class categories: social classes usually based on income and power social divisions particularly for chronically unemployed multiculturalism Ireland known for being a friendly and accepting nation of diverse backgrounds several distinct regional cultures rathger than a single national one ● 1990s beginning of immigration in Ireland due to rapid economic growth start of the Celtic Tiger Lincrease diversity of people multicultural state leader integration = eg non nationals are allowed to vote in local elections Introduction of several policies helping non Irish nationals to integrate into Irish society by the Irish government Q3.1 HUMAN DILEMMAS IN FICTION AND REAL LIFE • extreme situations ● An extreme situation is a special or unconventional situation human beings often react to extreme situations with extreme behaviours which can then result in unwanted consequences in case of the American Dream= • Considerable pressure to perform • Dependence of self-esteem on the performance achieved Psychological factors such as mental illness influences the emotions of individuals The effect of wars on the psychological and physical condition of soldiers or their families Toxic relationships Trauma of any kind Political (war, racism, gender issues) ecological (natural catastrophes, bad living conditions) economical (unemployment, dept) being different Most society's have their own rules and belief system and might not be welcoming to people who are different or who do not fit perfectly within these frameworks usually the ideal norm represents several aspects which are common in the majority of people In order to deconstruct discrimination, a society has to acknowledge that there can never be an Ideal category of people no person will be perfect to fit in Humans as individuals simply differ on so many levels. Some of these differences might be visible (skin colour or clothing style) some of them might only become apparent when you get to know that person → A society that acknowledges the individualism of every member enables its people to celebrate their own uniqueness and appreciate the differences of others and a tolerant and emphatic society can be created The Elizabethan England The Elizabethan era was named after Queen Elizabeth also known as the virgin queen and is set in the age of renaissance in Europe The Renaissance Elizabeth reign came near the end of the renaissance Period that consists of many cultural changes The Elizabethan Age ruled over over 50 years The Elizabethan world view her reign was seen as the golden age stability, economic growth etc. but also as a time tyranny inspiratin of shakespeare religin as a source of conflict Catholicism versus Protestant reformation Catholic divides France and Spain where a threat to stability Renaissance at the time of transition The great chain of being → all things take their place and hierachical order any change in this other leads to chaos The Elisabethen World View: • Based on Aristoteles and Ptolemy's model of the universe o Idea that everything has an specific order ▪ Breaking out of order = Chaos • Thinking of the earth being in the center of the other planets • Women are always ranked under men (Woman has to obey the next higher ranked man) • sound of language more important than formal structure o use of imagery, metaphor, insult and world play blank verse for dramatic situations Often uses soliloquys • sources: popular folk-tales, mythology, history, daily life o dramatized in plays o influenced by the social classes • What is a Soliloquy?: "talking by oneself" - character communicates thoughts directly to audience --> rather thinking then speaking - character revelation/manifestation - information about plot and character's feelings towards it --> development of play /B3 Introducing Shakespeare (S II) Reihe 7 Verlauf Material S 27 LEK Kontext The Elizabethan view of the world: The Great Chain of Being If you want to understand what Shakespeare's plays are all about, you will have to read the following text. Just think what happens if a villain or other character challenges "The Chain of Being". Which motives- apart from ambition - might lead to such foo- lishness or vanity? And what are the underlying causes for characters being driven by exaggerations of any kind whatsoever? Find out everything about order and disorder. The Great Chain of Being Among the most important of the continuities with the Classical Period was the concept of the Great Chain of Being. Its major premise was that every existing thing in the uni- verse had its "place" in a divinely planned hierarchical order, which wes pictured as a chain vertically extended. ("Hierarchical" refers to an order based on a series of higher 5 and lower, strictly ranked gradations.) An object's "place" depended on the relative proportion of "spirit" and "matter" it con- tained the less "spirit" and the more "matter," the lower down it stood. At the bottom, for example, stood various types of inanimate objects, such as metals, stones, and the four elements (earth, water, air, fire). Higher up were various members of the vegetative 10 class, like trees and flowers. Then came animals; then humans; and then angels. At the very top was God. Then within each of these large groups, there were other hierarchies. For example, among metals, gold was the noblest and stood highest; lead had less "spirit" and more matter and so stood lower. (Alchemy was based on the belief that lead could be changed 15 to gold through an infusion of "spirit.") The various species of plants, animals, humans, and angels were similarly ranked from low to high within their respective segments. Finally, it was believed that between the segments themselves, there was continuity (shellfish were lowest among animals and shaded into the vegetative class, for example, because without locomotion, they most resembled plants). ähnelt 20 Besides universal orderliness, there was universal interdependence. This was implicit in the doctrine of "correspondences," which held that different segments of the chain reflected other segments. For example, Renaissance thinkers viewed a human being as a microcosm (literally, a "little world") that reflected the structure of the world as a whole, the macrocosm; 25 just as the world was composed of four "elements" (earth, water, air, fire), so too was the human body composed of four substances called "humours," with characteristics corresponding to the four elements. (Illness occurred when there was an imbalance or "disorder" among the humours, that is, when they did not exist in proper proportion to each other.) Mediothek 30 "Correspondences" existed everywhere, on many levels. Thus the hierarchical organiza- tion of the mental faculties was also thought of as reflecting the hierarchical order within the family, the state, and the forces of nature. When things were properly ordered, reason ruled the emotions, just as a king ruled his subjects, the parent ruled the child, and the sun governed the planets. 35 But when disorder was present in one realm, it was correspondingly reflected in other realms. For example, in Shakespeare's King Lear, the simultaneous disorder in family relationships and in the state (child ruling parent, subject ruling king) is reflected in the disorder of Lear's mind (the loss of reason) as well as in the disorder of nature (the rag- ing storm). Lear even equates his loss of reason to "a tempest in my mind." Introducing Reihe 7 kespeare (S II) Verlauf Material S 28 LEK Kontext Mediothek 40 Though Reraissarce writers seemed to be quite on the side of "order," the theme of "disorder" is much in evidence, suggesting that the age may have been experiencing some growing ciscomfort with traditional hierarchies. According to the chain of being concept, ail existing things have their precise place and function in the universe, and to depart from one's proper place was to betray one's nature. 45 Human beings, for example, were pictured as placed between the beasts and the angels. To act against human nature by not allowing reason to rule the emoticrs-was to descend to the level of the beasts. In the other direction, to attempt to go above one's proper place, as Eve did when she was tempted by Satan, was to court disaster. [...] Political Implications of the Chain of Being so The fear of "disorder" was not merely philosophical - it had significant political ramifi- cations. The proscription against trying to rise beyond one's place was of course useful to political rulers, for it helped to reinforce their authority. The implication was that civil rebellion caused the chain to be broken, and according to the doctrine of cor- respondences, this would have dire consequences in other realms. It was a sin against 55 God, at least wherever rulers claimed to rule by "Divine Right." (And in England, the king was also the head of the Anglican Church.) In Shakespeare, it was suggested that the sin was of cosmic proportions: civil disorders were often accompanied by meteoric disturbances in the heavens. (Before Halley's theory about periodic orbits, comets, as well as meteors, were thought to be disorderly so heavenly bodies.) [...] Source: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/ren.html, abridged and slightly adapted English Department, Brooklyn Collage, City University of New York Vocabulary Aids 1 continuities: a connection or line of development with no sharp breaks-1 Classical Period: associated with classical culture in ancient Greece-2 premise: a statement or an idea that forms the basis for a reasonable line of arguments - 3 hierarchical: hierarchy: a system, especially in a society or an organization, in which people are organized into different levels of importance from highest to lowest - 5 ranked gradations: position of so. on a scale - 6 spirit: Geist - 6 matter: Materie - 8 inanimate: not alive in the way that people, animals and plants are - 13 lead: Blei 14 Alchemy: Alchemie - 19 locomotion: movement or the ability to move - 20 interdependence: depending on each other - 20 implicit (in sth.): forming part of sth. 23 microcosm: a thing, a place or a group that has all the features and qualities of sth. much larger-35 realm: kingdom - 44 betray (sb./sth. to so.): to give information about sb./sth. to an enemy or here not to be true to one's own nature -48 court: to try to please sb. in order to get sth. you want, especially the support of a person, an organization, etc. - 50/51 ramifications (pl.): number of complicated and unexpected results that follow an action or a decision- 51 proscription: saying officially that sth. is bannad - 54 dire: very serious Tasks Work together in small groups. One group works on task 1 and the other on task 2: 1. Find out in which respect the above text deals with disorder. Write down keywords so that you can tell your classmates about what you have found out. 2. Draw a visualization of the most important elements of the concept of the Great Chain of Being. 11/B Q3.2 MODELING THE FUTURE Science and technology Genetic Engineering - in general DEFINITION: Process to alter the structure and nature of genes in human beings, animals or foods using techniques like molecular cloning and transformation In other words, it is the process of adding and modifying DNA in an organism to bring about a great deal of transformation PRO • Can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance ● An opportunity to begin producing substances that can enter the human food chain It is a process that could improve human health at the cellular level Can be used to help current food resources by producing more of them It allows patients to be treated with their own cells • Improves pharmaceuticals Able to develop a stronger understanding of life by examining it & possibly improving i • Helps to prevent/ cure illnesses possibility of a child ,,Children will be smarter, stronger & better looking con: • Creates the potential for problematic pathogens (Krankheitserreger) → Because bacteria eg. becomes resistant to pharmaceuticals or gene changes could get out of control • Creates a series of unknown hybrids through the natural cross-pollination process that would provide unpredictable results for society Unfavourable level of diversity • Unpredictable outcomes, could create new diseases Puts agricultural workers at risk for financial harm Abusive purpose ,,designer baby" Creates unwanted side effects Playing god, manipulating God's creature .Less individuality Genetic modified Food →genetically modified foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally PRO Economic benefits increased productivity resistant to insect damage increase income for farmers Medical benefits production of proteins and vaccines plant- produced pharmaceutical Health benefits nutritional value environment: less use of pesticides decreased infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens • less waste reduce need of agrochemicals decrease the number of tillage • GMO crops helps to decrease CO2 emissions con Controversial aspects: Religion: Threat to Farmers: not enough testing to ensure complete safety potential risk on human health environment and biological diversity belief interfering with nature is wrong ethical problems companies have their own patented GM seeds are allowed to accuse farmers who use GMO's prohibitions EU allowed 85 different GMO foods ● possibilites to prevent negative aspects: • allergy tests Loss in biodiversity The process of cloning an animal human health modifications mixes proteins that are not belonging to the original plant triggers new allergic reaction (f.e soybean with proteins of Brazil nuts) specific chemicals are known to cause cancer toxicity: Cloned Lamb • production mostly in USA, china, argentina, brasil, canada, pakistan, india ● A donor cell is taken from a sheep's udder. ● Cloning ↳>Cloning means the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another • It's a type of genetic engineering that uses cells from another organism to create a second living organism An egg cellis taken from an adult female sheep. • testing in terms of the side effects • reduce amount of contamination There are three types of artificial cloning: Gene Cloning produces copies of genes or segments of DNA Reproductive cloning means that an Embryo is grown and then implanted This is not allowed with humans, but with animals, for example "Dolly the Sheep" • Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments aimed at creating tissues to replace injured or diseased tissues. The embryo develops normally into a lamb-Dolly affecting the wild populations enter the conventional crops ● Egg Cell facilitate antibiotic resistance development in pathogens that are a threat to human health sudden mutations can generate toxins and therefore join the food chain at least no transfer of toxicity over generation Foster Mother Donor Nucleus The nucleus of the egg cellis removed. The two cells are fused using an electric shock The embryo is placed in the uterus of a foster mother. Fused Cell The fused cell begins dividing normally - Embryo cloning animals PRO It can help to prevent the extinction of a species • It can help couples who wants to have children. • human development medical development ⇒ • Conclusion= Overall, the developments of scientific research seem to go faster than the actual and real needs of humans, who are the ultimate recipients of such process. Because of that, there is a pressing need to determine whether such practical applications are timely or are indeed necessary for human survival. To date, many people still believe that the process of cloning itself is not ethical In fact, many countries have prohibited all research and actual cloning processes, making it. Nevertheless, the process of cloning is still up for further studies PRO Designer Babies A baby whose genetic make-up has been screened, selected or altered in order to remove specific genes "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) -PGD is a procedure in which it is determined whether a baby (whose parents have a genetic abnormality) will have a genetic abnormality This screening process can only be applied on embryos who are created artificially (in a petri dish) I Determining whether the parents have a genetic abnormality 2. Determining whether the child will have a genetic abnormality 3. The baby's genes are selected or altered 4. "IVF" (In vitro fertilization) Implantation of the embryo into the mother or a surrogate Eggs PGD is used to avoid the implantation of embryos with a genetic disorder • Based on the results, further genetic methods are used to select/alter an embryo's genes to avoid a disease or a medical condition Genetic methods can also be used to favor traits such as intelligence, height, gender etc. ● + Sperm Embryos con The process is not entirely safe and accurate. It is not yet fully developed. It is regarded as unethical. Embryo Biopsy Should humans be allowed to play god ? PGD Genetic Testing ALTERATION/SELECTION OF GENES ensure that a particular gene is present Choose Embryo Embryo(s) Transfer Parents decision: Parents have the chance to give their child a healthy life or even save their life Progress in Science Genetic diseases can be prevented (Down Syndrome, Alzheimer's disease etc.) •Reduces the risk of inherited medical conditions (cancer, diabetes, anemia, obesity etc.) The alterations can increase human lifespan for up to 30 years If this genetic method is applied more often there could be major breakthroughs in science (new cures, discoveries) con Risks: Costs: Gap in Society: A human beings Rights Religion: Complications are very likely If the process is not done carefully the embryo can be terminated • The alteration of genes can lead to the malfunction of others (Unintended changes)→this might give rise to new unknown diseases • The technology is in experimental stage-Long-term effects are unknown A designer baby is extremely expensive (150 000 € or more) not everyone could afford a designer baby → this could lead to a division among the quality of life and life expectancy between the rich and the poor → not only could diseases be prevented: the physical appearance could be "enhanced", intelligence or social capacities could be improved → "normal" people would be disadvantaged • Comparison to the Nazis' idea of creating a "superior race" PRO A baby cannot consent to having its body altered A human being's will is not taken into account violation of a child's rights Parents treat unborn child like "property" Embryos with genetic abnormalities are destroyed in the process unnatural ending of human life • This process disrespects a human being's dignity Superficial motives Parents could use the technology only "enhance their children or choose specific physical traits (gender, eye-color etc.) →that would mean to put a life at risk without it being necessary Legality • As long as the technique is not fully developed it can't be applied in Germany (3 years in prison) In the USA it is legal in many places Saviour Siblings ↳ children who are artificially conceived to help their sick sibling with the genetic material needed The sick child can receive the help they need ● a perfect match is instantly found ● Con sibling can feel used or forced to help their sick sibling sibling is born for the wrong reasons, not because their parents wished for a child but to help their sibling sibling acts like a spare part Artificial Intelligence (AI) Artificial Intelligence is the Development of computer systems performs tasks that normally require human intelligence → Perceives, synthesizes and inferes Examples ● Companies like Google and co Recommendations by streaming services Face Recognition on smartphones Translation of user manuals Al generated images Driverless Cars= PRO Reduces Vehicle crashes More efficient traffic Increases traffic flow Easier access for the disabled and elderly ulit. Medicine Al can serve as a means of support to physicians internationally Al can employ data to generate a predictive diagnosis Business data analysis is fundamental property of artificial intelligence - enable it to be used Innenverteidigung facet in life The business market for Al was valued at 51 billion dollars in 2020 • Al uses deep learning algorithms to identify potentially cancerous lesions • - improves to provide the patient with early diagnosis con • Wide adoption is necessary to make it work • Massive job loss in the transportation sector Hackers and Cyber threats • Moral dilemma Q3.3 GENDER ISSUES Gender and identity →Gender isn't only determined by the sex you were born with Gender is a social construction being held up by society and society's values / norms Gender is a construction people try to identify with because they have been taught to do so ever since they were little Gender is a construct which is defined by society and changes over time → There are (conservative) attributes for a typical woman and a typical man, which people follow ↳ recently more people have started to break out of these norms to do their own thing are thought of being masculine, strong, rational and powerful • WOMEN →→ are considered to be feminine, weak, emotional and submissive → Society creates stereotypes and people who don't fit in to these are perceived to be different and not normal. Traditionally MEN One is not born a woman, but rather becomes, a womagimone de Beauvoir Common topics women quotas, gender pay gap, nonbinary gender identity, gender norms, beauty ideals Gender ideals in movies and literature through the ages women= Men = from the shy, obedient women, dependent from the men (Desdemona) through the boyish and independent women (Scout) to the rebellious and strong independent women (Katniss Everdeen) always tall, having muscles, being strong change in their behaviour towards women from being the commanding behavior to an acknowledging one look at gender roles in Othello & To kill a mockingbird 68 Gender issues 14. Gender issues 14.1. Gender and identity For a long-time, sex and gender were used synony- mously. However, nowadays, these terms are consi- dered to be distinct terms. Sex refers to the biological differences between female and male, whereas gender is considered to be a performative act, which situates a person on a spectrum ranging from femininity to masculinity. As certain aspects and traits are attributed to either femininity or masculinity, people usually express their gender through a combination of feminine and mascu- line tralts. A person's gender identification is often indicated by their outer appearance, their voice, facial expressions and gestures. Therefore, gender could be considered to be a performative act, where others read and interpret the gender. her ground-breaking book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990), the philosopher Judith Butler argues that gender is kind of improvised performance. However, the concepts of masculine and feminine and what is considered to be an indication of is based on cultural norms. Hence, these concepts are constructed by society. Society creates stereotypes and people who do not fit into these are perceived to be different and not "normal". Moreover, media, friends and family also play major roles in reinforcing gender norms. Young children often imitate their family and thus internalize gender norms. If children break the gender norms, they tend to get scolded and thus, do not get the opportunity to freely decide on their own gender and/or gender perfor- mance. For example, in our Western society the color blue is commonly associated with baby boys whereas the color pink is commonly associated with baby girls. Interestingly, this was not always the case. At the begin- ning of the 20th century, some stores began suggesting "sex-appropriate" colors: pink was the intended color for the boys while blue was considered the appropriate color for girls. The fact that this association was turned around in the 1950s illustrates the arbitrariness and constructedness of gender constructs. In a nutshell, gender is a construct which is defined by society and changes over time. Furthermore, in reality, there is no singular ideal of masculinity or femi- ninity, but instead people who situate themselves on a spectrum, ranging from masculine to feminine. For example, someone can be designated male at birth but still display feminine traits and vice versa. Therefore, people can have and display both feminine and mascu- line traits, regardless of their sex or gender. A person may also be assigned a certain sex at birth that does not align with their gender and they may choose to have gender reassignment surgery, a procedure that is also known as gender affirmation surgery. Quote: "One is not born a woman, but rather becomes, a woman" ~Simone de Beauvoir Something to think about: If gender is performative-an act-then there is no real gender, as there is no true or false. Gender as an "act" represents one's self, which is created internally. Per- forming a gender, which does not fit into any of our current cultural stereotypes or having a stereotypical gender are all just different ways to express oneself. The range of genders reflects the individuality of each human and is thus endless. There are also people who do not identify as either specifically male or female but instead refer to their gender as nonbinary (nonbinary gender Idently). These individuals may identify as gen- derfluid, agender (without gender), genderqueer, or something else entirely. Some non-binary or gender- queer people use gender-neutral pronouns. In English, usage of singular "they", "their" and "them" is the most common. Prüfungsanalyse! Es kann vorkommen, dass in einem Prüfungsteil ein Auszug aus einem Buch präsentiert wird. Hier könnten die Protagonisten gemäß der Genderideale analysiert werden sowie diese geschichtlich eingeordnet werden. So kann z.B. bei der Analyse des Charakters Scout Finch ein Schwerpunkt Gender Issues sein. Folgende Begriffe könnten hilfreich sein: inde- pendent, strong-minded, confident, self-es- teem, ladylike, innocent, active, sharp minded. Man sollte versuchen die Protagonisten mit Charakteren aus anderen Büchern oder Erzäh- lungen zu vergleichen. Auch können diese mit Menschen oder Gruppen aus der heutigen Zeit verglichen werden. 14.2. Gender construction Gender roles are based on stereotypes. For a long time, the ideal family consisted of a working husband and a stay-at-home wife, who cares for the children and manages the household. Society and media, like movies and literature, reinforce these ideals and there- fore, recreate this same image again and again. However, with the emancipation of women, these stereotypes are becoming more and more irrelevant. Nowadays, there are many women who pursue a career (2021 75,8% of women in Germany were employed). There are also families in which both parents work. The structure of an ideal family is also changing. There is an Increasing number of families consisting of a single parent raising a child, or patchwork families and fami- lies where the parents are gay/homosexual. 14.3. Culture and gender - now and then - the ideal beauty of women over time 14.3.1. Sonnet 18 by Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: pandes Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date: die lieblichen Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd; Pratere mit dem Tool But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st; So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee In Sonnet 18, Shakespeare compares the beauty of a lover to a summer day, saying that she is even more beautiful. A summer day can have an unpleasant moment; however, her beauty is perfect. He explains that although everything has an end and is mortal (like a summer's day), her beauty will become Immortal due to this poem. Even centuries after her death, readers can still imagine her beauty by reading this poem. In this sonnet, a man writes about the beauty of a woman. Her beauty is described as something very dell- cate and, to some extent, fragile which makes it neces- sary for him to preserve it in this sonnet. Nowadays, medla commonly portrays women's beauty as fragile Gender construction and delicate, or in more strikingly explicit ways. There are various advertisements and programs portraying both sides. Especially in product advertisements, the female form is portrayed in a way that can range from delicate to explicit. Media often uses the allure of femi- nine beauty to achieve higher sales. In the last few decades, various movements have been I created with the goal to give women agency over their own body and control over how it is portrayed. These movements aim to break societal stereotypes and beauty ideals. Women want to show themselves in a manner in which they feel comfortable. However, by doing so, they create a body ideal themselves. This is why representation is important. It is dangerous to only have one type of woman be prominent in media as this creates body and beauty ideals that are quite limited. Instead, various types of women should have a voice and format. The beauty ideal for women in the western world is constantly changing. Figureheads of typical beauty over recent years have ranged from Marilyn Monroe to Barbie and then to Kim Kardashian. What is considered to be beautiful is constructed and thus, is susceptible to change. Nowadays, people emphasise the need to love oneself and one's body, regardless of imperfections and body shape. The emer- gence of plus-sized models and Barbie dolls in different body shapes and skin colours reinforces this positive message. As beauty is subjective, the idea of one "ideal beauty and body shape" is being deconstructed. Similarly, the ideal "handsome" masculine man is also changing. Nowadays, men are also able to express themselves more freely regarding their emotions and appearance. In Hollywood, androgynous looking men such as Timo- theee Chalamet or Harry Styles are well known for their gendernonconformism.