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10.4.2022

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Seite | 1
1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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1. Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
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Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
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The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
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The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
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Seite | 1 1. Loose change Background information The National Portrait Gallery London 2005: unrest in Uzbekistan Windrush generation ■ ■ . 1.1 Key facts about the short story ▪ Author: Andrea Levy (1956-2019), born in London to Jamaican parents Year of publication: 2005 Genre: short story . ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 1.2 Plot ▪ The narrator is short of change and receives coins from a young woman (Laylor) in the lavatory of the National Portrait Gallery in London . SHORT STORIES Laylor - collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people - today also portraits of Black British personalities, but these were for a long time marginalized in collective memory of the country ■ - examples that narrator shows to Laylor are all of White people -> narrator's view of British history seems to be "White" - protests against violation of basic human rights -violence against protesters and persecution of journalists and dissidents 1.3 Characters -1948: HMT Empire Windrush brought the first large group of immigrants from the West Indies and marks the beginning of mass immigration to the UK - narrator's grandmother probably belonged to Windrush generation Setting: London (lavatory and café of National Portrait Gallery) Narrative perspective: first-person narration (first-person central -> narrator is also the protagonist) The narrator ■ Content: The narrator is given a few coins by a young woman, who turns out to be a political refugee. She feels sympathy for the girl, but fails to...

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help her Explanation of title: few coins as element which connects the two women, symbolizes the narrator's feeling of obligation, but also her final desertion of Laylor Judging from her accent, Laylor is obviously a foreigner (narrator conjectures she could be a Spanish tourist) While the narrator is in the lavatory, Laylor leaves to look at pictures in the gallery The narrator finds her there and together they look at several pictures, their tastes are quite different The narrator invites Laylor for a cup of tea to give her back her change In the conversation the narrator learns that Laylor is from Usbekistan Laylor's brother comes to the café and they argue in their language After he has left, the narrator learns that Laylor and her brother had to flee from Uzbekistan and are sleeping rough on London's streets ■ Londoner, third-generation immigrant (grandmother from Caribbean to UK) Single mother, working at school, middle-class background with comfortable three bedroom house Describes herself as a typical Londoner. keeps herself to herself, rather distanced to stranger Rather out of obligation and responsibility, gives up her unapproachable manner and becomes more open with Laylor However, sees this change in her behavior ("this fraternization") as defeat When she realizes that the homeless girl is in a desperate situation, two conflicting interests: would like to be welcoming and helpful (like a stranger was towards her grandmother), but not wants to be involved in Laylors poverty Finally leaves the girl alone in a rather cowardly fashion The narrator begins to observe details about Laylor'S scruffy appearance (dirty fingernails, crumbled collar) She knows deep down that she has the means to put Laylor and her brother up at least for some time She thinks of how warmly her grandmother, who came from the Caribbean and was also sleeping rough, remembered a stranger helping her tissues for However, putting these considerations and memories aside, the narrator simply leaves on the pretext of fetc Laylor 18-year-old refugee from Uzbekistan, parents politically prosecuted Black hair, wide black eyes, round face, a solid jaw line, speaks with an accent Partly unrefined manners (narrator's view): loud voice in public, drinks teadespite specks of dust in it, "forces" story on stranger Disarming openness: only person to help the narrator out with coins (despite poverty), innocent good mood, interested in arts Desperate and helpless: homeless, scruffy outer appearance, fears for her parents The narrator's grandmother · Does not appear in the story in person, but important influence on narrator Came to UK as an immigrant from the Caribbean keeps praising her "Good Samaritan" who put her up when she first arrived passionately opposes immigration, denouncing refugees and asylum seekers as scroungers and troublemakers memories of being a helpless immigrant and her current hostility and xenophobia seem to influence narrator's attitude Seite 2 She shall not be moved 2.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Shereen Pandit (born in Cape Town), went into exile in the UK in 1987 Year of publication: 2005 Genre: short story Setting: London (on the bus) Narrative perspective: first-person narration (first-person central -> narrator is protagonist) Content: the narrator, a political refugee to Britain, fails to live up to her principle because she does not stand up against racists hindering a Somali woman from parking her pram in the pram space on the bus Explanation of title: Somali woman refuses to be moved and takes offences with dignity; based on spiritual "I shall not be moved" that became a protest song among Civil Rights acitivities 2. 2.2 Plot The narrator boards a crowded bus with her daughter Mariam The aisle is blocked by a Somali woman with a toddler and a pram The bus driver shouts at her to move down the aisle but she cannot ■ Narrator ■ 2.3 Characters Mariam . Two White women are occupying the fold-up seats where the pram should be parked and refuse to give up their seats despite there being free seats elsewhere on the bus ▪ Instead of telling off the White women, the bus driver yells at the Somali woman to fold up the pram of leave the bus The narrator is shocked by the driver's behavior but does not say anything The Somali woman remains standing proudly despite the diver's attack, the White women's racist remarks and the narrator's attempt to offer her seat to her When an eldery White lady enters the bus, the narrator does not want to give up her seat for her despite her usual manners ("reverse racis[m]") Mariam cannot understand why her mother neither helps the Somali woman nor lets her give up her seat for the elderly White lady When the Somali woman leaves the bus and the narrator advises her to report the driver, she says it is no good and calls him a slave Somali woman ■ To make up for being a bad role model for Mariam and betraying her values, the narrator takes her daughter out for an extra treat but cannot stop thinking about her failure to speak out ■ Woman with two small children Wearing traditional clothing Strong and proud character, puts up with insults and discrimination with dignity Calls the bus driver a "slave" and stresses that she is not a slave Bus driver · " Black woman, who came to the UK because of her fight for political rights Strong convictions about right and wrong, which she also attempts to teach to her daughter However, when she witnesses racism on the bus, she does not interfere and offers numerous excuses for not getting involved Still she regrets keeping quiet and feels ashamed that she has betrayed her own principles Two White women ■ Narrator calls them "Cardie" and "Mac" (because one of them is wearing a cardigan, the other a colorless stained Mac) Both in their 50s Look rather poor, rough and uneducated to the narrator Prejudiced against Black People: racist remarks and comments, deliberately refuse to move seats (to teach "who is boss her") The narrator's daughter Rather delicate little girl Has been brought up to be respectful and outspoken when she witnesses wrongdoing Tries to urge the narrator to speak up against the White women's racist behavior -> disappointed and confused when she sees her mother's "wrong" behavior (not offering a seat to elderly lady, not coming to the aid of woman in trouble) Despite being Black himself, aggressive towards Somali woman Turns a blind eye to the White ladies' behavior, does not stand up for the Somali woman Seems to have accepted racism and is apparently afraid of getting into conflict with racist women herself Seite 3 3. The Escape Background information Eid ul Fitr Lahore Data Darbar Enoch Powell (1912-1998) Uganda under Idi Amin ■ 3.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Qaisra Shahraz (*1958), born in Pakistan, has lived in Manchester since the age of 9 Year of publication: 2009 Genre: short story ■ I ■ 3.2 Plot Samir, a 73-year-old widower, Pakistani immigrant, tells his family he will visit his homeland Pakistan for a view months Three days later in Pakistan, he is put up by his brother's family and amicably welcomed He visits his parents' graves and muses about his wife's recent death as well as his own burial, which he is sure will take place in Manchester 3.3 Samir " ■ - "Festival of Breaking the Fast" - religious festive day celebrated by Muslims to mark the end of Ramadan -second-largest city in Pakistan - capital of Punjab province shrine in Lahore - considered to be the most sacred place in the city - conservative British politician - held a notorious speech against immigration in 1968 - in the 1970s, Asians who had successfully settled in Uganda were forced to leave the country by dictator Idi Amin - Many sought refuge in the UK afterwards Setting: England (Manchester area) - Pakistan (Lahore) Narrative perspective: third-person narration (Samir's viewpoint) Content: 73-year-old Samir, a Pakistani immigrant, who arrived in the UK in the 1960s, visits Pakistan, his land of origin, and realizes that his real home is now England Explanation od title: Samir makes several "escapes", the last two are his trip to Pakistan and from there back again to England Flashback: Samir remembers the days of his arrival in England where he stayed and worked in various places until he finally settled in Manchester and established a successful knitwear manufacturing business Samir calls at the home of a widow his wife supported and promises to continue sponsorship and pay for the education of the widow's daughters Samir's Manchester family He leaves to visit he Data Darbar in Lahore and prays for his wife's soul as well as for himself Samir returns to his brother's and informs the family that he will fly back to England On the plane he meets Ibrahim, a man of his age, and both wonder whether their homeland is Pakistan or England Samir asks Ibrahim to join him in his new home (elderly home) He leaves his house to his children, instructs them to continue the support of the widow in Pakistan and moves into an elderly home Samir feels his escapes are over and he has finally arrived Characters 73 years old Born and raised in Pakistan, immigrated to the UK in the 1960s, based in Manchester area Religious Muslim, devoted family man, loves his children and grandchildren Has made it from shy, insecure man, who moved from place to place and job to job, to successful business and house owner Feels lost since his wife's recent death Fueled by his loneliness, he searches from his homeland (and comes to the conclusion that it is now England) Samir's Lahore family Samir has four children: two sons and wo daughters as well as several grandchildren All seem financially secure and well-integrated Treat Samir with kindness and respect, want to make him feel comfortable Cherish Pakistani traditions, but feel that England is their home -> cannot believe that Samir wants to go back to Pakistan Receive Samir very hospitably Still Samir feels like a burden and not really at home there Surprised when Samir calls England his home Seite 4 4. Mala 4.1 Key facts about the Short story Author: Jhumpa Lahiri (*1967), born in London to Bengali Indian parents; family moved to USA when she was three Year of publication: 1999 Genre: short story ■ ■ . 4.2 Plot 1964: narrator leaves India (Bengal) with a certificate in commerce on board an Italian ship bound for England In London he lives in a house crowded with penniless Bengali single young men, attends lectures at the London School of Economics and works at university library · ■ 4.3 Narrator ■ Mrs. Croft . ■ ■ ■ The third and final continent I Helen Setting: mainly Boston/USA, also London/UK and Calcutta/India Narrative perspective: first-person narrator (first-person central: narrator is also protagonist) Time: mainly 1960s (1964: India -> UK: 1969 -> USA; 1990s (end of the story) Content: the narrator, an immigrant from Calcutta, overcomes his loneliness and alienation with the help of his 103-year-old landlady and makes his way up in American society Explanation of title: after living in South Asia (India) and Europe (England), the narrator finally finds his place in America (USA) -> his third and final continent of his journey 1969: he flies back to Calcutte to attend his wedding arranged by his older brother and meets his future wife Mala for the first time Accepts a full-time job in America at library of MIT in Boston At first lives in a very basic and noisy room at YMCA Moves to a room in the house of an eccentric 103-year-old lady, Mrs. Croft He stays there for six weeks and both get on very well together Leaves Mrs. Croft when Mala arrives At first: distant relationship between the newly-wed couple When he shows Mala the house where he used to live for six weeks and they meet old Mrs. Croft, who expresses her administration for Mala, the relationship between the narrator and Mala becomes more intimate Later, her learns that Mrs. Croft has died and deeply mourns her death About 30 years later, the narrator still lives in Boston area, he and his wife are American citizens and their son attends Harvard Characters In his thirties in the 1960s (*-1933) Educated and ambitious Lives in modest circumstances both in London and Boston, but does not complain Finds it hard to adapt to America at first and is quite lonely Polite and kind to Mrs. Croft, admires her for her old age and finally grows quite attached to her Dutifully complies with the traditions of his home country (arranged marriage, cremation ceremony) At first rather disturbed by his wife's presence and his responsibilities towards her Treats Mala with understanding and respect and they grow very close and end up having a loving marriage Tiny 103-year-old widow, almost fierce-looking, speaks in a loud, commanding voice Raised her children by giving piano lessons after the death of her husband Quite fit for her age, although not fully mobile and tends to be forgetful Independent-minded, cannot really take care of herself Fixed routine (same dress, same place, same food) Patriotic (proud of American moon landing) Eccentric (rents only to students from MIT or Harvard, insists on narrator using the word "splendid") Old-fashioned ideas but decency Values narrator's manners and consideration (handing her the rent money), grows attached to him and also approves of Mala Daughter of a schoolteacher, a good housekeeper and well-educated 27 years old at time of arranged marriage, not very pretty, has been rejected by several men At first very unhappy and lonely in her marriage to a stranger and a foreign country Narrator discovers her kind side during visit to Mrs. Croft They grow very close and both adapt to American as their new home Misses her son when he has moved out Mrs. Croft's daughter, 68 years old, short, thick-waisted, silver hair, pink lipstick Looks after her elderly mother regularly Down-to-earth, pragmatic, not overtly emotional about her mother (narrator seems to be more concerned about Mrs. Croft's well-being than her daughter) Seite 5 5. Themes and interpretation Postcolonial experiences - refers to the study of how colonialism continues to shape the world even after the British Empire or other colonial ventures ended. Both people from formerly colonized lands as well as the colonizers can still feel the impact of earlier power relations Questions of belonging and identity - displaced people are forced to leave their homeland, usually for reasons that endanger their lives or well-being. Their arrival in a foreign country where they are often met with suspicion, prejudice and rejection can result in profound crises of identity and belonging. Issues of identity and belonging can also impact later generations of immigrants who might feel torn between several cultures "Loose change" Narrator influenced by two different sets of values: her grandmother's own experience of being dependent on a stranger's help and her self-assessment of being a "true Londoner", who keeps out of and aloof from other's trouble Grandmother's own development from dependent immigrant UK citizen, who is indignant and prejudiced towards refugees Laylor and her brother: because of their sudden hasty flight from Uzbekistan life has changed completely within a week As soon as Laylor's true status as homeless and poor refugee is revealed, met with suspicion and rejection Laylor and her brother do not seem to know where they could turn to for help "She shall not be moved" Example of racism against Somali woman, ignored by Whit passengers, tacitly accepted by narrator by narrator, even corroborated by bus driver Narrator's feeling that she should solidarize with Somali woman, but afraid to endanger her own and possibly her daughter's safety and comfort Pride of Somali woman vs. cowardice and insecurity of both narrator and bus driver ("slaves") Narrator has been raised to "show the we're better", i.e. with strong moral principles Mariam witnesses her mother's weakness and might internalize seeming inferiority in the long run Narrator behaves like a "reverse racist" (her own words), which shows her bitterness and the entrenched mutual distrust "The Escape" Samir as a typical example of feeling torn between two homes (wants to escape loneliness in England, but realizes that Lahore is no longer his home either) Inner loneliness connected to homelessness though this might not be the real problem Samir has made it in England and has always believed in the country His children represent second generation of immigrants: cultural ties to Pakistan but completely at home in England "The third and final continent" Narrator goes through several stages of alienation and privation (UK, USA) Overarching theme of loneliness (new country, marriage to a stranger) Mrs. Croft, who is quiet lonely herself, helps narrator to overcome these feelings Move to USA especially difficult for Mala: speaks only little English, only moves there to follow a husband she hardly knows, loneliness and homesickness 30 years later: narrator and Mala's integration has been successful: mix of cultures: American citizenship, keeping in touch with their Bengali roots Narrator encourages his son to follow in his footsteps of overcoming challenges, but muses that the next generation might even go one step further and give up Bengali traditions Experience of migration Negative experiences Fear, anger, loss of identity, isolation, depression In loose change: grandmother's experiences appears to have been difficult Positive experiences Finding a home, safety, potentially financial security, improving education/work prospects In Escape: found his home, became financial stable in the UK; Third and final continent: education, finds a home Reasons to migrate Push factors are often poverty, persecution and war; pull factors are often improvement of living standards, freedom Integration Assimilation Identification with the host culture, rejection of the heritage culture; threat of losing one's identity Adopting aspects of the host culture without rejecting one's heritage culture ! Also important: Experience of discrimination, prejudice and racism; experience of cultural differences ! Seite | 6 1. ■ ■ 2. Walt Kowalski ▪ ■ ■ Sue Lor Thao Vang Lor Key facts about the film Director/producer: Clint Eastwood Release date: 2008/2009 Genre: modern-day Western -> centering on "lone Cowboy"/hero Walt who takes law into his own hands; action movie -> scenes with violence and fights; psychological drama -> focus on psychological conflicts, relationships, heartbreaking ending Structure: frame of two funerals; development of Walt and Thao's friendship, escalation of gang violence and Thao's process of growing up Setting: Detroit, Michigan Characters Nickname: Wally (by Sue, form of endearment) Age: in his 70s . Ethnicity: European American, descendant of Polish immigrants Health: suffers from severe illness, probably lung cancer Job: Korean War veteran, worked in a Ford factory Interests: cars, repairing things, keeping house and garden in order, his dog Daisy, smoking, drinking Character traits: self-reliant and determined, conservative and tidy-minded, grumpy, hostile and racist, conscience-stricken and lonely ■ Relationship with other characters: loving marriage with Dorothy, difficult relationship with his sons and their families, "manly" banter with Martin, the barber, Tim, the construction supervisor, and other drinking buddies, develops respect for Father Janovich whom he rejects and ridicules at the beginning, gradual friendship with Thao and Sue, who become like a substitute family, feels responsible for them, finally sacrifices his life for them GRAN TORINO Nickname: Toad (by Walt, no effort to pronounce his name correctly) Age: about 16 Ethnicity: Hmong Job: does not go to school, later gets a job at a construction site Interests: cars, handiwork Character traits: shy, self-conscience, insecure, gains self-confidence by working and through friendship with Walt Relationship with other characters: lives with sister, mother, grandmother, but is not seen as "man of the house", pressured by cousin Fong to join his gang, in love with Youa, torn between two worlds of White American and traditional Hmong culture, gradually becomes friends with Walt and learns a lot from him Age: a little bit older than Thao Ethnicity: Hmong Father Janovich Job: goes to school/college Character traits: self-confident, outspoken, intelligent, witty -> after being rape: broken Relationship with other characters: feels responsible for her brother, speaks up against Smokie and Spider, but gets beaten and raped by the gang, sees Walt's good heart beneath his hostile behavior, well-adapted to American society Age: 27 (according to Walt) Ethnicity: European American Other minor characters Job: Catholic priest Interests: his parish, philosophical questions about life and death Character traits: young and inexperienced, persistent, really cares for the people in his parish Relationship with other characters: was close to Dorothy Kowalski, learns a lot from Walt and gains his respect Fong ("Spider") and Smokie: ringleaders of violent Hmng gang, Fong is Sue and Thao's cousin Mitch, Karen, Ashley and Josh Kowalski: Walt's son and his family, difficult relationship with Walt -> feel like Walt is never contempt with and always disappointed in them; but they are mostly materialistically interested in him Steve, wife, Daniel and David Kowalski: Walt's older son and his family, little contact to Walt Martin: Italian-American barer, Walt's friend Phong Lor: Thao and Sue's grandmother, suspicious of American culture and rather hostile towards Walt Vu Lor: Thao and Sue's single mother, does not speak English Youa: Thao's love interest Trey: Sue's rather cowardly White boyfriend Seite 7 3. 4. Plot Walt lives with his dog Daisy alone in his house after his wife died Walt is in a conflict with his family because they want him to go to a retirement home In the house next door, the Lor family moves in -> they want to get in touch with Walt, but he is rude and racist The Asian gang forces Thao to steal Walt's Gran Torino -> Walt catches him One night, the Asian gang tries to get Thao to join them aggressively -> Walt saves him (he just doesn't want any trouble on his lawn) The neighborhood sees him as a hero, invites him, brings him gifts Thao is forced by his family to work for Walt as a thank you and apology -> neither likes the idea at first Sue goes out on a date with Trey -> they get in trouble with the Black gang -> Walt gets Sue out of the situation Walt starts to get along with the Lor family Sue invites Walt to a BBQ-> Thao wants to go on a date -> Walt lets him take the Gran Torino Walt starts coughing up blood -> is very sick Thao and Walt get along very well -> Walt shows that manly "behavior" Thao gets harassed by the Asian gang -> Walt gets Thao a job as a construction worker and starts threatening the Asian gang The Asian gang wants to take revenge -> they shoot up the Lor family's house and rape and beat up Sue Walt prepares himself to take revenge on the Asian gang -> Thao wants to help but Walt locks him into his basement Walt makes peace with Father Janovich and confesses -> Janovich is worried and calls the police Walt confronts the Asian gang -> gets his Zippo out -> the gang shoots him There were witnesses of the crime -> the Asian gang gets arrested Walt's family hopes to inherit Walt's valuable belongings -> Thao gets the Gran Torino Themes and interpretation Cultural clashes - "culture" refers to the way of life, especially the values and norms of certain group of people: Language, religion, habits or traditions are typical cultural expressions. A cultural clash can arise when people with different cultural values interact; particularly in an immigration context, but also I contexts of different, but also in contexts of different age groups, genders. It can lead to a feeling of disorientation. Walt's racism: Alienation in his neighborhood that does not seem to exemplify his traditional values of cleanliness and order, intolerance further fed by his past as a soldier in the Korean War -> learned to have a low opinion of Asian people Role of religion: Father Janovich's rather shallow religiously at the beginning in contrast to the real meaning of life and death he and Walt learn at the end -> assisted by Hmong shaman telling Walt that he has a troubled soul Generational conflict between Walt and his sons and Walt's resulting loneliness Thao's disorientation: Traditional patriarchal gender roles in Hmong culture, but difficulty for Thao to fill this role -> absent father figure, no male role model until he meets Walt; Harder for him to fit into American society than for Sue ("girls go to college, the boys go to jail.") Gang culture and violence - Disorientation often leads to young boys in particular searching for connection, belonging and a kind of substitute family in youth gangs. Violence is seen as an expression of power in a society where they otherwise often feel helpless and marginalized. In the USA, gun violence is an especially pressing problem due to the Second Amendment which guarantees citizens the right "to keep and bear arms". - Gun ownership often connected to "American values" -> independence, freedom, and individualism; BUT due to mass shootings discussed controversially; witnessing or committing violence can be a result of mental health issues like PTSD, but also due to problems in social relationships and daily life -> emotional numbness, addiction, depressive thoughts etc. Escalation of violence: Insults, threats, physical violence (Smokie burning Thao with a cigarette, Walt beating up Smokie, Walt provoking gang into shooting him dead) Several gangs seem to provide orientation for alienated male teenagers (Hispanic, Hmong, African American); Thao's cousin tries to lure him into his gang by presenting a wrong image of family loyalty Walt probably suffering from PTSD: distanced relationship with other people, emotional numbness, bitterness, recurring feelings of guilt -> also his opinion towards Asian people after he had to kill many in war Walt used to solve problems through violence (war veteran and stereotypical masculinity), but also recognizes how violence can taint the soul; wants Thao to stay "pure"; during his self-sacrifice, he is unarmed Seite 8 1. ■ Chapter 1: ■ 2. Plot ■ ■ Chapter 2: Chapter 3 ■ FRANKENSTEIN Key facts about the novel Author: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851), daughter of political writer William Godwin and feminist writer/activist Mary Wollstonecraft, married Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1816, husband drowned in 1822 Year of publication: 1818 (first edition), 1831 (revised edition) Adaptations: numerous literary, film and musical adaptations, also computer games, comics, toys, Halloween costumes Genre: gothic novel, romantic novel, science-fiction novel ■ Setting: Switzerland, France, Italy, Germany, England, Scotland, Ireland, Russia, North Pole Time: 18th century Narrative perspective: epistolary novel: three first-person narrators -> explorer Robert Walton, Victor Frankenstein, Monster Frankenstein (1-10; 17-24); Monster (11-16); Walton (Letter 1-4 and final letters) O Structure: Introduction (1831), Preface (1818), 4 letters, 24 chapters and 5 final letters Explanation of title: Frankenstein: name of scientist; complete title: Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus; Prometheus: a Titan in Greek mythology, who created human beings from clay, stole fire and gave it to humanity, represents quest for knowledge and defiance of the gods Victor tells Walton about his family background and his childhood born in Geneva, grew up in Switzerland; His father's name is Alphonse and his mother's name is Caroline (Beaufort's daughter) Alphonse and Caroline's father were friends Caroline did everything to help his poor father -> after his death, Alphonse decided to take her to Geneva Two years after the event, they married and decided to move to Italy shortly after this -> his father was very loving and caring towards his wife (loved each other) Showed much care and affection to their eldest child (Victor) -> he was born in Naples and even though his mother wished for another child he remained their only one child for several years His mother saw it as a duty to visit the cottages of the poor for once in a while Caroline notices a blond girl, the daughter of a Milanese nobleman -> After her mother died at her birth and her father also died, she became an orphan -> they adopted her because her forester parents were unable to care for her (Elizabeth) Everyone loved Elizabeth and she was very important to her older brother who loved, protected and cherished her Elizabeth and Victor grow up together moreover, they are drawn to each other by their differences Victor is curious and interested in science When his brother is born, they move into a house in Geneva, where he is indifferent to the children in his class but he makes friends with a guy named Henry Clerval At a party he discovers a book by Cornelius Agrippa about modern science and is fascinated by it With the longing to explore the secrets of nature, he studies the wild fantasies of the scientists Between Victor's and Elizabeth's ages there was not a big difference (not quite a year) His father is not very convinced of the book and says it is a waste of time -> he reads the book nevertheless When he was 15, during a storm, lightning destroys a tree near their house, so when this happened he got interested in electricity He talks about his visions like banishing diseases from the human frame or the raising of ghouls or devils The day is really memorable for him, it even decides his future destiny At the age of 17, his parents send him to the university of Ingolstadt His mother dies (of scarlet fever) and her countenance expressed affection even in death Before he attended the schools of Geneva, his father found it necessary to send him to Ingolstadt -> completion of his education He meets his professor of natural philosophy M. Krempe Elizabeth also caught scarlet fever During his time in university, his professors makes him think about his previous studies, which fundamentals were based on old books and findings His professor M. Waldman says various things that removed his prejudices on modern science and chemistry -> he begins leaming and studying in different branches of science as well Chapter 4: Victor is extremely absorbed in his studies; he becomes friends with M. Waldman; he did not visit Geneva for two years He has a great esteem and admiration at the university but wanted to return home because he could no longer educate himself at the university; incident happens that makes him stay; he is acquainted with anatomy He wants to observe the human body, so he visits vaults and charnel-houses He succeeds in discovering the cause of generation and life-> wants to tell the reader the secret at the end of the story He wants to create a human being; he failed multiple times but he never gives up -> has much hope to success one day He works on his project all winter, spring and summer -> thinks about his family and friends from time to time but still did not visited them due to his project; his enthusiasm is clacked by his anxiety "Every night I was oppressed by a slow fever and I became nervous to a most painful degree; the fall of a leaf startled me, and I shunned my fellow-creatures as if I had been guilty of a crime" His labors would soon end and he was sure that exercise and amusement would then end with it Seite 9 Chapter 5: ■ I Chapter 6: ■ · ▪ Chapter 8: . Chapter 7: Chapter 9: ■ ■ ■ Victor completes his creation on a dreary night in November Now that he is, the beauty of his dreams is damaged > he feels breathless, the appearance of the creature horrifies/scares him he worked almost two years on this project He tries to sleep but has a nightmare ->sees Elizabeth in his dream and thinks that he holds the corpse of his dead mother in his arms ■ ■ He wakes up and sees the monster while it smiles at him -> after that he flees to his courtyard where he spends the rest of the night The next morning he walks into Ingolstadt There he meets his old friend Henry Clerval (brings back memories) Victor is scared that Henry might see the creature while being in his apartment Henry hands him a letter from Elizabeth at the end Elizabeth is convinced about Victor's illness and wants him to write her a letter -> she tells him the story of how Justine Moritz entered the family -> but he left because her independent mother called her home -> after the death of her mother she returned back to the family -> Elizabeth gossips about the people in Geneva Victor introduced Henry Clerval to several professors of the university -> he was scared that seeing a chemical instrument would know his nervousness Victor decides to return back to Geneva at the end of autumn Henry and Victor decide to take a walk through Ingolstadt to revoke their health and spirits -> Victor calls Henry an excellent friend because he taught him to love every aspect of nature and having a better feeling of his heart Victor's father writes him a letter in which he tells him that William was dead -> William and Emest played together and William wanted to hide but he never returned -> he wore a valuable miniature which the murder had killed him for -> Elizabeth blames herself for his death because she allowed him to wear the miniature -> they want Victor to come back to be their comforter Victor drives to Geneva and his journey was very melancholic When he arrives, he walks to the spot where William was found -> he was sure, he saw what he created and begins to think if he is responsible for Williams death (he was shocked) Justine has been accused of being the murder and got arrested -> she has a picture of Victor's mother in her pocket -> she confirms the suspicion due to her confusion Nearly everyone thinks that she is guilty but Elizabeth believes that she is innocent Victor also thinks that Justine is innocent because he believes that his creature is guilty Their father wants them to rely on the law in this case At the trial at 11 o'clock Justine swears that she is innocent -> "god knows" Elizabeth tries to defend her -> even though she claims her innocence, Justine in convicted of the crime -> is sentenced to death the following day Victor and Elizabeth went to see Justine in prison afterwards where they find out that she made a false confession and is actually innocent Victor feels guilty because he knows that the monster killed William and is now also responsible for Justine's death After Justine's death, Victor gets depressed because he feels guilty -> he considers suicide His father (Alphonse) takes them to their vacation house in Belvue -> Victor is still depressed and wants revenge against his creation Victor travels to the valley of Chamoumix in France (rides there on horseback) Chapter 10: -> hope that this trip will relieve his dark thoughts -> sees waterfalls and the Mont Blanc on his way Can't keep him happy for long time Because he is still desperate he spends more days in the nature -> should relieve his spirits ->he climbs on the Montanvert mountain -> when he crosses the mountain he recognizes the monster ->he curses the creature and tells him to go away The monster tells him that it only turned violent because Victor abandoned it The monster convinces him to listen to his story inside of its cave and makes Victor think about his responsibilities as the creator of the monster The monster begins to tell his story by the fireplace Seite | 10 Chapter 11: · I · The monster describes his first impressions after being created -> he tells about his flight from Victor's apartment into the world, seeing light and darkness for the first time, feeling hungry and cold . -> he also discovers fire (gives light, heat and is useful for cooking food) and that he can keep the fire alive by adding wood to it While searching for food, he sees a hut and enters it -> the man inside ran away when he saw him He decides to travel on to a village -> there he realizes that his appearance terrifies other humans, because they try to flee or attack him -> that's why he decides to stay away/avoid people Chapter 12: ■ After that he escapes to the open country and takes refuge in a small hovel next to a cottage -> the next morning he recognizes that he can see through a crack in the wall into the cottage ->he observes his neighbors doing their tasks (old man, young man, young woman) ■ He continues to observe his neighbors -> notices that they seem to be unhappy but he is unsure why -> maybe because they are poor and hungry -> he also stole food from them Then he tries to help them by leaving them their food and wood at night to leave it in front of their door It realizes that family communicates with different sounds -> tries to learn their language (French) by copying sounds to actions Leams the names of the young people: Felix and Agatha De Lacey When he sees himself in a pool of water he is shocked by his ugliness Chapter 13: -> realizes why the people ran away from him Spends the whole winter in the hovel -> his affection for the people in the cottage grows -> looks to his future with hope A beautiful woman in a dark dress and veil arrives at the cottage on horseback (Turkish descent) -> Safie -> wants to see Felix; the family, especially Felix's mood brightens She does not speak French, so Felix teaches her the language from a history book -> the monster benefits from it -> is afterwards able to speak and understand French fluently (2.11) While listening to the family and Safie, the monster learns more about humans and their society -> realizes that it has no society an is alone He asks himself if he is a monster ->wishes that he has never gotten this knowledge about society Safie is Felix last love -> he had rescued her father from death in France and places her in the protection of a convent of nuns Chapter 14: Because he is constantly listening to the cottagers, he can reconstruct their history -> the family was once very well regarded in Paris with wealth and a good social position -> Safie's father was a wealthy Turk, who also lived in Paris, who was wrongly accused of a crime and sentenced to death -> Agatha and Felix were well-respected members of the community/society -> Felix visited Safie's father in prison and meets his daughter and he fell immediately in love with her -> he offers the Turk help to escape from prison; Safie's father offers Felix the hand of his daughter for helping them to escape The three escapes to Italy, but then Felix's role in the conspiracy was discovered -> they lost their wealth and were exiled from the government and moved to their cottage in Germany Her father decides that he don't want his daughter to marry a Christian; Safie's mother who was a Christian Arab (known from letters that she wrote Felix) taught her to be independent -> when her father tried to force her to return to Constantinople with him, she escapes to find Felix Safie's mother was enslaved to marry her father Chapter 15: The monster tells Victor that it found three books and some clothes in the woods -> reads the books to learn more about the world (Goethe's "Sorrow of Werter", Plutarch's "Lives" and John Milton's "Paradise lost") -> the monster sees similarities from him to Adam from "Paradise lost" because he thinks that it is a factional story and not imagination Searching through the things he stole from Victor he finds letters from his journal -> reads them and learns about his creation -> understands why his creator disgusts him The monster wants to introduce itself to the cottagers -> starts with the blind old De Lacey because it thinks that he may convince the others to see past his ugliness When the other three are out of the cottage, he enters the cottage and starts to talk to De Lacey -> the family and Safie return unexpected -> Felix is horrified by the monster and attacks it, Safie runs away and Agatha faints The monster flees Seite | 11 Chapter 16: Because of all the rejection that it feels, the monster swears to revenge itself against all humans and his creator -> gets calmer the next day Decides to visit the cottage again and starts a new try with old De Lacey When he reaches the cottage, the family has moved out -> sees Felix for the last time -> the monster burns down the cottage ▪ I ■ I Chapter 17: ■ He goes towards Geneva because he remembers it as the place of him being created -> on his way, he rescues a girl from drowning but her father shoots at him which took a few weeks to heal When he gets near to Geneva, he runs across William in the forest and has hope that he could be his friend -> the boy mentions that his father is Alphonse Frankenstein (William is afraid of the monster) The monster remembers Victor's last name; therefore he strangles William (he died) out of revenge -> the monster takes the photo of Caroline that the boy holds Places the photo into Justine's pocket who was sleeping in a barn where the monster also spend his night (without Justine noticing him) After explaining everything to Victor, the monster requests him to create him a friend (female -> chapter 17) . Chapter 18: . Narrative perspective back to Victor Victor is scared that two monsters would led to more deaths and destruction -> refuses to create another monster The monster argues that the way he acted in the past are the result of his loneliness -> Victor as the creator is responsible for all of these deaths The monster says that if Victor creates him an companion, the two will flee to South America in the jungle and avoid contact to humans Victor feels both hat and pity for the monster -> he agrees on creating a female friend The monster wants to monitor the progress of the creation and says that he will appear when it is ready Victor wants to put off the creation of the female -> has doubts about agreeing to the monsters request He realizes that he first needs to do some research in England His father senses that his mood is very bad -> he feels still guilty for the death of his brother and Justine Alphonse thinks that it's because he is unsure to marry Elizabeth That's why he wants Victor an Elizabeth to marry immediately Chapter 19: Victor and Henry spend the winter in London (arrives in October), touring that city and making plans to visit the rest of England Victor continues to despair, avoiding people unless they have information that can help him create a second monster Victor and Henry travel to Scotland-> Victor has an acquaintance in a Scottish town, with whom he urges Henry to stay with a friend while he goes alone on a tour of Scotland Victor uses his Trip to England as an excuse for not marry at time (he wanted to cure his problems with the monster First Viktor is supposed to be accompanied by Henry to England stay there for a year at the most Victor departs for a remote, desolate island in the Orkneys to complete his project. He quickly sets up a laboratory in a small shack Chapter 20: Victor worries that the new creature might refuse to live away from humans, or that the two monsters might produce a "race of devils" After following Victor and Henry through mainland Europe and England, the monster comes near Victor's workshop in Scotland to see his mate In a fit of anger and quilt, Victor destroys the half-finished creation in front of the monster and tells the monster he will not continue the Monster disappears angry Hours later, the monster returns to Victor's lab and promises: "I shall be with you on your wedding night" -> he thinks that it will kill him receives a letter from Henry Clerval urging him to come back to London to begin planning a journey to India Victor rushes to leave his island within two days and gathers up his laboratory materials and rows out into the ocean to dump them Victor devotes many hours to working on his new creature He often has trouble continuing his work because ist is a torture for him, knowing how unsatisfying, even grotesque, the product of his labor will be -> Henry is not aware of Victor's determined efforts and carries out his part of the tour with joy Victor is so happy he takes a nap in his boat. But he wakes into rough weather and can't get back to shore -> is affraid of dying on the Atlantic He fabricates a sail from his own clothes to steer him towards a town near shore Soon the winds change and he reaches shore near a town Victor is taken into custody by the townspeople, accused of murder, discovered the previous night and sent to the local magistrate, Mr. Kirwin Seite | 12 Chapter 21: At Mr. Kirwin's office, Victor learns that a man in his mid-twenties was found dead on the shore with black marks on his neck just before finding the body, they saw a boat in the water that resembled Victor's Victor is taken to see the body -> It's Henry Clerval. . Chapter 22: ■ ▪ When Victor sees the body, he does indeed react with horror In shock, Victor falls into convulsions and suffers a long illness Victor remains ill for two months -> while being in prison Kirwin sends a nurse and doctor to return him to good health Mr Kirwin visits him in his cell and tells him that he has a visitor -> his Fahrer Alphonse Victor is overjoyed to see his father, who stays with him until the Court consider him innocent of Henry's murder After his release, Victor departs with his father for Geneva (The pair travel from Ireland to Le Harve, France and overland to Paris) ■ Chapter 23: I They Rest in Paris to recover Victors strength Victor even tells his father he murdered Justine, William, and Henry -> He considers him deranged Bevor leaving to Genvea, Victor receives a letter from Elizabeth who is worried by Victor's recurrent illnesses and asks him if he is in love with another -> Reminds him of the monsters threat and resolves to fight him back (he wants to kill it before it can kill him) He responds that he wants to marry immediately, but adds that he has a terrible secret he will tell her the day after they are married. A week later Victor and his father arrive in Geneva Ten days after his return home, Victor marries Elizabeth Victor and Elizabeth sail to a cottage by Lake Como in Italy for their honeymoon -> Victor's fear of facing the Monster dissolves his happiness Elizabeth tries to cheer him by pointing out the beauty in nature. It doesn't work There is a Storm Rolling in when they arrive at the cottage Victor and Elizabeth walk around the grounds ->Victor can't stop thinking about the monters imminent arrival He sends Elizabeth to bed for her own safety armed with a pistol he searches the house -> hears scream Form the bedroom -> Elizabeth got strangled and is dead Victor realizes that it was never his death that the monster had been intending this night Victor shoots at the monster when he flees, but the monster gets away without being wounded Victor rushes back to Genev The news of Elizabeth's death overwhelms his father Alphonse -> He dies a few days later Victor goes mad for several months and is kept in a cell Victor goes to a local magistrate and tells the entire story to him -> Hopes to enact justice on the monster ->He doesn't entirely believe Victor Chapter 24: Victor sets of search for the Monster ->resolves to devote the rest of his life to seek his revenge on his own and to find and destroy the monster Victor decides to leave Geneva forever While visiting the graves of his family he swears revenge, and then he hears the monster's laughter He tracks the monster for months, guided by slight clues, messages, and hints that the monster leaves for him Both board a ship bound for the Black Sea, journey through Russia, and make their way north to the Arctic Circle Victor and the dogs get closer within one mile of the monster -> the ice begins to crack and separates the two That's when Robert Walton finds Victor Victor (who knows that he is dying) encourages Robert to continue the fight to destroy the monster if he dies The narrative returns to the present -> Walton writes letters to his sister tells her that he believes in the truth of Victor's story Just before the ship is set to head back to England, Victor dies Several days later, Walton hears a strange sound coming from the room in which Victor's body lies -> Walton sees the monster weeping over his dead creator's body The monster begins to tell him of all his sufferings -> deeply regrets everything he did and says that he is ready to die now that his creator is dead He leaves the ship and departs into the darkness Seite | 13 3. Characters Victor Frankenstein . ■ Oldest son of the Frankenstein family, happy childhood in a wealthy family Sensitive, intelligent, passionate and ambitious scientist, smitten with the thirst for knowledge Disgusted by his own creation; in deep remorse of his achievement and guilt for the deaths of loved ones The Monster Isolation and secrecy as result Depression and melancholy turn to obsession with revenge Ambivalent whether he is a positive or negative character: strong feelings and morals, pays a high price for his thirst for knowledge and ambition, but ultimately responsible for Monster's depravity ■ Superhuman size, strength and speed Hideous outer appearance (composed of dead body parts), but originally kind and sensitive Embittered by people's rejection, he turns into a merciless killer Blames his creator Victor for his utter loneliness and seeks revenge Ultimately feels remorse and moums Victor's death Decides to take his own life to end the disastrous development Another ambivalent character: noble impulses ->saving girl from drowning, helping De Laceys); turns evil murderer but only because of desperation, rejection and loneliness, could be seen as tragic victim or cruel villain Robert Walton Ambitious explorer, caring brother, affectionate and interested listener Knows loneliness and is in search of a friend Similar to Victor: on quest for new horizons -> Arctic passage Similarly determined to achieve his aim against resistance, but eventually admits his failure and abandons his plan Elizabeth Lavenza Orphan adopted by Frankenstein family, later Victor's wife Pretty, pleasant, loved by everyone Caring, compassionate, sensitive lover of nature From feminist perspective criticized as a rather passive character Henry Clerval Victor's life-long friend and favorite companion Sensitive lover of nature and enthusiastic university student (first obliged to assist his father, a merchant, later allowed to study) Loyal and caring -> travel companion, nurses Victor during illness But optimism and sense of adventure in stark contrast to Victor's bouts of brooding depression Alphonse Frankenstein Devoted husband of orphaned Caroline Beaufort-> she later dies of scarlet fever Caring and loving father of three sons (William, Ernest, Victor) Wealthy, honored and respected public officer; later travels with his young family Not particularly interested in sciences Concerned about Victor's health Dies of grief on hearing of Elizabeth's murder William Frankenstein Victor's youngest brother, dearly loved by his family Innocent first victim of the monster Justine Moritz Well-liked servant in Frankenstein household Dutiful and caring ▪ Wrongfully accused as William's killer At first desperate, but dies peacefully because of her certainty of being innocent De Lacey family Blind father, son Felix and daughter Agatha, later Felix "Arabian" lover Safie Undeservedly poor, but honest and kind people However, prejudiced against the Monster's ugly appearance Seite | 14 4. Themes and interpretation Background information Paradise Lost (1667) Plutarch's Lives (~100) Sorrows of Werther (1774) - author: John Milton -form: epic poem in 12 books -theme: rebellion of Satan and his followers against God, rebellion of Adam and Eve against devine law in Garden Eden connection with novel Frankenstein: Frankenstein as ambitious as Satan, Monster identifies both with Adam and Satan -author: Pitarch form: 48 autobiographies of famous men -theme: Greek and Roman men's lives juxtaposed to reveal their virtues and vices. - connection with novel Frankenstein: the Monster's source to learn about good and bad -author: Johann Wolfgang Goethe form: epistolary novel Ethics of science - Frankenstein as "dystopian science fiction" -> potentially intimidating future development - she explores limits of science and technology; illustrates how scientists can go wrong and too far -> todays ethical questions/issues - Controversial discussions if everything possible should also be allowed r ruled -> genetic engineering -> unintended and uncontrollable detrimental repercussions -theme: young Werther falls in love with engaged Charlotte and commits suicide out of despair - connection with novel Frankenstein: Monster learns about deep emotions from the novel, can identify with Werther's experiences of unrequited love and also plans to commit suicide at the end The erroneous concept of unrestricted freedom of science As a student, Victor follows Professor Waldmann's misguided conviction that there is no limit to scientific research and science will always turn out for the best successful experiments -> V feels satisfaction & expects gratitude and ultimately a way to conquer death (GOD COMPLEX) Victor's work is seen as "playing God", his secrecy through-out the process shows ->he ultimately knows what he does is wrong Responsibility of scientists Repercussions of unrestricted science Monster is more or less uncontrollable because it is stronger than human beings Victor is responsible for the misery of his creature, whom he abandons, and the deaths of innocent people Destroyed his own life Admits he was blind to the consequences of his actions Victor shunning the responsibility for his creature Victor does not divulge his knowledge towards Walton because he knows of its catastrophic results and wants to prevent him from repeating his mistakes Destroys his second project for fears of his creation completely spiraling out of control Explorer Robert Walton represents the responsible scientist who gives up his quest to save the lives of this man Role of nature - Romantic movement was a strong reaction to the Age of Reason of the 18th century which focused on rationality and thought. Romantic artist were driven by imagination, emotion, passion and the love of nature. nature is the greatest mysterious force in the universe Many scenes where the grandeur of nature makes people feel awestruck (Alps, Orkney Islands, North Pole) Victor aims discovering the secrets of nature, but arrogant ambition has dangerous and unforeseen consequences The beauty of nature elates and provides consolation, eases pain Following unpleasant or disturbing experiences Victor finds relief in nature Even monster feels consoled by springtime Pain of not being accepted Questions of (human) identity Theme of loneliness Victor turns from happy member in society to obsessed scientist, gloomy and disturbed outsider, Walton wants to find a friend; Monster's chief emotion is one of rejection and loneliness Role of family Monster listens to De Lacey family, wants to build a connection, wants female companion, revenge -> make Victor lonely Monster's whole history is one of trying to belong to society but is rejected for ugliness and foreignness Denial of love sets aggression Society seems responsible for existence of evil, Monster only turns bad because of unjust rejections Question of humanity Monster is artificial creature, torn between humanity and cruelty; Victor: real monster becomes less human but obsessed Seite | 15 1. RICHARD III Key facts about the play Author: William Shakespeare Year of writing: around 1593 Year of publication: 1597 Genre: history play Structure: five acts Language: blank verse, i.e. lines do not rhyme, metre: iambic pentameter Setting: England between 1471 and 1485 Historical background: Wars of the Roses (1455-1485): series of civil wars for the throne of England between two competing royal families; end: Henry Tude, Earl of Richmond, defeated Richard III and became Kind Henry VII; his marriage to Elizabeth of York united the two sides and ended the fighting 2. Plot ACT 1 Scene 1 Richard, Duke of Gloucester, appears to be in a festive mood when he enters the stage, first singing the praises of King Edward's (i.e. his brother's) victory and commenting on the effects of victory and peace after times of war, then revealing his secret plans to get rid of his younger brother George, the Duke of Clarence. When he meets Clarence on his way to prison, Richard pretends empathy and optimism. Later, Richard welcomes news about King Edward IV' s bad health and plans marry Lady Anne Neville, whose husband (Edward Westminster, Prince of Wales) and father-in-law (King Henry IV) he has killed. Scene 2 Lady Anne Neville, who accompanies the funeral for King Henry VI, is full of hatred for Richard, who has killed both Henry and Henry's son Edward, Lady Anne's husband-to-be. Richard stops the procession and starts wooing Anne, declaring that his deeds were motivated by his lover for her. First, Anne curses him, but gives in when Richard puts on a show, claiming that he is ready to die for her. Once sure of Anne's favor, Richard reveals that he has only pretended to be emotionally involved, then starts fashioning his future self. Scene 3 As Queen Elizabeth and her train are discussing King Edward's health, Richard enters ad accuses the queen of treachery, i.e. of betraying him and while granting favors to her lowly champions, the Woodvilles. The banned Queen Margaret appears and puts curses on all present except Lord Buckingham, predicting and wishing them dreadful fortunes. Richard turns her curses back on her. After Margaret, exposed to the party's scorn, has left, Richard pretends to fell pity and remorse, feigning Christian morals. When Elizabeth and her train are called to the king, Richard discloses his secret plots, finally meeting two murderers that he instructs to kill Clarence at the Tower. Scene 4 Troubled a guilty conscience, the imprisoned Clarence tells his guard about his nightmare of drowning and going to hell, asking for company while he sleeps. The two murderers sent by Richard enter and, by means of their warrant, dismiss the Lieutenant in charge. When Clarence begs for his life, he learns about Richard's murderous plot. At last, the first murderer kills Clarence, while the second murderer thoroughly regrets the deed and leaves without payment. ACT 2 Scene 1 In front of the sick King Edward IV, Richard's brother, the rivalling court factions sanctimoniously (scheinheilig) swear that they will be friends from then on. Richard joins in, but when Queen Elizabeth mentions his brother Clarence, Richard pretends to feel taunted, revealing the news of Clarence's death. The king is devastated, while Richard insinuates that the Queen and her relatives are responsible for that. Scene 2 The Duchess of York, Richard's mother, tries to hide the truth about Clarence's death from his children and raises doubts about Richard's benevolence. When Queen Elizabeth enters, mourning King Edward's death, the Duchess of York claims that her own suffering exceeds everybody else's. Lord Rivers calls for the crowning of Edward's young son, Edward V, who is to be brought to court immediately. In private conversation with Richard, Buckingham refers to a secret plot concerning the young prince and the factions at court. Scene 3 Three citizens discuss the political situation after King Edward's death, anxiously hoping for good government, yet expressing mistrust of Richard. Scene 4 Waiting for the young king, Edward V, to arrive, the Duchess of York and the young Duke of York, Edward IV's second son, mock Richard, when a messenger reports that Queen Elizabeth's supporters at court have been imprisoned by Richard and Buckingham. Both the duchess and the queen are shocked and distresses. The archbishop urges Queen Elizabeth and the young duke to flee to Westminster Abbey, a safe place. Seite | 16 ACT 3 Scene 1 On his arrival in London, young Prince Edward is welcomed by his uncle Richard, Lord Buckingham and other noblemen, but not by his mother and his brother, who have taken sanctuary. Buckingham persuades the Lords Cardinal Bourchier and Hastings to bring young Duke of York to his brother Edward. In a conversation about fame, life and death, Prince Edward proves to be outstandingly intelligent and mature for a boy his age. Together with his younger brother, he wittily mocks his uncle Richard, whose answers convey threatening overtones. At Richard's request, the two boys reluctantly agree to go to the Tower. Buckingham, Richard and Catesby discuss which of the noblemen could be won over to support Richard's secret plot. Catesby is sent to find out about Hastings' position, and Richard promises Buckingham a generous reward. Scene 2 A nightly messenger tells Lord Hastings about the Earl of Derby's dark premonitions, worrying about Richard's cruel nature, but Hastings refuses to flee. When Catesby examines Hastings' attitude towards Richard, the latter reveals that he does not support Richard's wish to become king. Hastings ridicules the Earl of Derby's fears and convinces him to go with him to the Tower. Delighted at the prospect of his opponents' punishment, Hastings light-heartedly talks to passers- by, yet Buckingham insinuates that Hastings himself is going to die soon. Scene 3 On the way to their execution, Rivers, Grey and Vaughan calmly reflect on the injustice of their fate, remembering Queen Margaret's curse, before they bid each other farewell. Scene 4 The council preparing the coronation of Edward V meets at the Tower. Buckingham lures Hastings into believing that he was in favor with Richard. However, when Richard learns that Hastings still does not support his plans, he accuses Queen Elizabeth and Mrs. Shore of witchcraft and calls Hastings a traitor, ordering his execution. Scene 5 Richard and Buckingham pretend they are defending the realm against imminent danger in order to convince the Lord Mayor of their good intentions. When Ratcliffe and Lovell produce Hastings' head, Richard feigns disappointed affection and sympathy. The mayor is easily persuades of Hastings' guilt and agrees to defend Richard's and Buckingham's actions in public. Richard tells Buckingham to spread rumors about his dead brother Edward's moral shortcomings and his illegitimacy (bastardy), while he seeks the support of the clergy (Klerus) and plans to isolate his nephews in the Tower. Scene 6 A scribe reflects on the obvious injustice done to Hastings. Scene 7 Buckingham reports on his speech defaming Edward IV and the late king's children while endorsing Richard as the rightful heir to the throne, but admits that only reluctantly did the London citizens react to his words. In order to convince the Mayor of London of Richard's qualities as ruler, Buckingham and Richard put on a sanctimonious show, representing Richard as a pious man at prayer who is unwilling to seize political power. At the urgent request of the mayor and the citizens, led on by Buckingham's clever rhetoric, Richard finally accepts the crown, still denying any will to power. ACT 4 Scene 1 When the Duchess of York, Queen Elizabeth and Lady Anne, now married to Richard, want to pay the princes in the Tower a visit, they are hindered by Brakenbury, who acts on Richard's introductions. Derby summons Anne to Richard's imminent coronation, which cause immense distress among the noblewomen. Dorset is urged to go to France, while the women, fearing the worst and lamenting their miseries, have to leave the young princes behind. Scene 2 As soon as Richard ascends the throne, he is consumed by doubt and mistrust, planning to have his nephews killed. Buckingham remains conspicuously evasive (auffällig ausweichend) about the king's request, and Richard hires an assassin to murder the young princes. When Richard learns about Dorset's flight to Richmond, Richard preparers to get rid of Anne and marry his niece instead in order to secure his kingship. In a threatening tone, he admonishes Derby to prevent his wife from communicating with Richmond, her son. Worried about a prophecy that foretold that Richmond would be king, Richard denies Buckingham his reward. Buckingham, aware of Richard's suspicion, takes to flight. Scene 3 Tyrell reports that the young princes have been killed, remarking on the hired murderer's guilty conscience. Richard promises to reward him generously. When the kind considers the success of his plans so far and devises new strategies, Ratcliffe enters and informs him that the Bishop of Ely has joined Richmond, while Buckingham has started military maneuvers. Richard decides to take up arms without hesitation. Seite | 17 Scene 4 Old Queen Margaret, satisfied with her enemies' miseries, joins the Duchess of York and Queen Elizabeth in bewailing their respective losses. Margaret blames the duchess for having given birth to Richard and recalls her contempt for Elizabeth, who wants to be taught how to curse. When Richard enters in arms, his mother confronts him, citing all his previous faults and cursing his military expedition. Elizabeth accuses Richard of the murder of her sons, yet still the King reveals his plans to marry young Elizabeth, the queen's daughter. Feigning honest affection, Richard pledges to make up for the queen's loss by having children with her daughter. Ratcliffe and Catesby inform the king about the arrival of Richmond's fleet. Richard nervously sends for potential allies, expressing mistrust on behalf of the Earl of Derby, whose son he threatens to kill in the case of betrayal. In between news of the enemy's increasing strength, a messenger reports that the Duke of Buckingham has been arrested. In defense of the crown, Richard and his army march towards Salisbury. Scene 5 Speaking in private, the Earl of Derby tells Sir Christopher Urswick that he cannot openly support Richmond because his son is being held captive, yet signifies that Richmond may marry young Elizabeth. Sir Christopher relates that several renowned gentlemen have joined Richmond'smy in Wales, ready to march against Richard. ACT 5 Scene 1 On his way to execution, Buckingham reflects on his guilt and his deserved punishment for trusting Richard and his malicious joy for the promised execution of his enemies, while recalling Margaret's warning Scene 2 Richmond and his allies discuss the chances and risks of their military expedition, expressing confidence and expecting Richard's followers to switch sides. Scene 3 Richard and his faction discuss their military advantages and prepare for the battle. Scene 4 On the eve of the battle, Richmond discusses his military tactics and Richard has his armor, horse and weapons prepared. The Earl of Derby, whom Richard mistrusts, pays a nightly visit to Richmond's tent and pledges to support the latter. While they are sleeping, both Richmond and Richard are haunted by the ghosts of Richard's victims. The ghost encourages Richmond and wishes him well, whereas they curse Richard and wish for his death. When Richard awakes, he nervously reflects on his fears and conscience. Richmond, on the other hand, is in high spirits because of his dream. He delivers a motivational speech to his soldiers, proclaiming that God is on their side and that their cause is just. Scene 5 Richard seeks assurance by asking his officers about Richmond's potential weakness. Despite being anxious about the outcome of the battle, he discusses his military strategies and calls for a fearless fight. In his speech to his army, the king refers to the alleged (angebliche) unworthiness of the enemies, their low social status and portrays them as thieves, rapists and murderers. Scene 6 On the battlefield, Richard keeps on fighting bravely although his horse has been killed. Scene 7 Richmond kills Richard in battle and receives the crown. He announces his marriage with Elizabeth of York, King Edward IV's daughter, and declares the Wars of Roses at an end, praying for lasting peace. Seite | 18 Character Map/List Elizabeth Queen, widow married to Edward 4 King, brother father of Edward Richard Princes: nephewes ghosts confer kingship on 3. CHARACTER LIST Richard Duke of Buckingham King Edward IV Duke of Clarence Queen Elizabeth Lady Anne Duchess of York RICHARD'S DEFORMITY Richmond Becomes Henry 7 Queen Margaret Prince Edward and Duke of York Young Elizabeth Earl of Richmond woos, then destroys Lady Anne Widow wife: goast weakens destroys deformity desire for revenge no separation between body and soul Director: Richard Loncraine Release date: 1995 Setting: 1930s England Changes to the play Further changes: kills in Battle of Bosworth deformity on outside = deformity on inside strong believe in fate/supernatural Richard dies in the end = met predetermined fate and order is restored Deformity reason for evil character? Margaret Queen, widow, Lancastrian enemy/ avenger Richard Duke of Gloucester; becomes the Yorkist King Richard 3: defeated by Lancastrian forces Curses -stepfather to threatens Derby (Lord Stanly) Survior York, young Elizabeth widow of Prince Edward, marries Richard mother of Richard, Clarence and Edward IV mother of dead Prince Edward get send to the tower and murdered by Richard marries Richmond in the end raises army to fight Richard protagonist, Duke of Gloucester Richard's partner in crime King of England, Richard's older brother brother of Richard and Edward IV wife of Edward IV, mother of Prince Edward, Duke of CHARACTERIZING RICHARD devious/dishonest astute/smart Key facts about the film Screenplay: Ian McKellen and Richard Loncraine, based on Shakespeare's play repulsive/disgusting manipulative/calculating treacherous/disloyal frustrated miserable Richard III one of the longest play -> had to be shortened for the film version: Film's action begins earlier: with assassination of King Henry VI In the play, Clarence has children <-> in the film he is childless Duchess of York Widow; mother destroys helps curses destroys Characters deleted (Margaret, bishops); important information transferred to other characters Dialogues cut (Richard and Anne; women's rhetorical grief in Act IV) grieves for son Clarence Brother: ghost Hastings Lord: friend, ghost Buckingham Duke. cousin: ghost lonely unscrupulous mendacious Queen Elizabeth and her brother Earl River speak with an American accent to denote that they come from a family which is only mid-ranked in the English aristocracy Adaptions to 1930s: places (ballroom, morgue etc.), clothing (soldiers in SS-uniforms, gas masks); means of transport (cars, airplanes); devices (telegraph, typewriter, camera) Seite | 19 4. Characters Main characters Richard . ■ I Duke of Buckingham · Initially Duke of Gloucester, later King Richard III, member of the House of York Physically deformed (has a hunchback and a withered arm) and very ugly Bitter about his physical deformity, use it as justification for playing "the villain" Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond Over-ambitious and power-hungry: to achieve his aim of seizing the English crown, he uses a cunning scheme and renounces any normal ethics and morality . Deceitful, cruel and malicious, hideous monster without any scruples Cold and calculating: uses people nd gets rid of them once they have fulfilled their function in his plot Excellent speaker, charming in words, manipulative liar, who manages to sweet-talk and persuade other people, even those who actually hat him · Richard's loyal ally and right-hand man Almost as amoral as Richard himself Queen Margaret ■ Ambitious and greedy for power and wealth, he ignores Queen Margaret's warning and supports Richard's evil plans blindly, because he is promised the earldom of Hereford for his service Realizes his error and flees too late: is captured and beheaded Confesses and repents before his death Nephew to King Henry VI, later King Henry VII, member of the House of Lancaster Richard's opponent . In contrast to Richard, an upright character Bold, powerful and fair leader with legitimate claim to the throne After defeating tyrant Richard, marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward, thus causing the Wars of the Roses to end Queen Elizabeth Widow of King VI Grieves the deaths of her husband Henry and her son Edward, determined to make the living pay for her losses Bitter, sharp-tongued and revengeful Prophesies doom and misery for Richard and his supporters and eventually sees her curses and prophesies fulfilled Important antagonist to Richard Duchess of York Wife of King Edward IV Falsely blamed for being responsible for Clarence's imprisonment Deeply shocked by the cruel murder of her two young sons Yields to Richard's flattery and agrees to marrying her daughter (despite being aware of his misdeeds) In Richard's eyes, a "[r]elenting fool, and shallow changig ng woman" Changes he mind (daughter Elizabeth is to marry Richmond), which makes her appear wiser and stronger than Richard thought Mother to King Edward IV, George, Duke of Clarence and Richard, Duke of Gloucester Has endured grief most of her life and moums the violent deaths of her husband and her son Clarence Suffers because she knows that she is the mother of the monstrous Richard Lady Anne ■ Denies him the blessing he hypocritically asks for Her plea to God that Richard ay reform remains unfulfilled Widow of Edward, Prince of Wales (son to King Henry VI), later becomes Richard's wife Mourns the death of Edward and indulges in self-pity Appears confused, emotionally unstable and weak Knowing Richard's past evils, initially resists his approach, but eventually lets herself be won over by his flattery Later suspects Richard's plot against her Regrets her marriage and hates Richard until her premature death Minor characters King Edward IV Older brother of Richard and Clarence, king of England at the beginning of the play Tries to reconcile his and his wife's families Unaware that Richard is attempting to usurp his place George, Duke of Clarence Richard's older brother and first victim (because he stands ahead in the line of succession to the throne) Too gentle, trusting and unsuspecting Refuses to believe that his own brother has plotted against him Seite | 20 Lord Hastings ■ Lord Stanley Loyal supporter of King Edward IV Naive and trusting: recently released from prison, he believes Richard's protestations that Queen Elizabeth was responsible for his imprisonment Thinks that he and his friend Stanley are safe in the favor of Richard and Buckingham and thus ignores Stanley's warning Realizes too late that Richard has ambitions to be king When he gives Richard's ally Catesby to understand that he would never support Richard as king, Richard has him assassinated The two young princes ■ Foresees the danger Richard will bring in a dream; warns his friend Hastings Tries not to offend Richard but secretly helps his stepson Richmond Rivers, Dorset and Grey Prince Edward and Richard, Duke of York After Edward's death, the young Prince Edward is the rightful heir to the throne Their uncle Richard has them locked up and murdered in the Tower Relatives and allies of Kind Edward's wife, Queen Elizabeth Earl Rivers is Elizabeth's brother, the Marquess of Dorset and Lord Grey are her sons from her first marriage Richard has Rivers and Grey executed, Dorset can flee Sir James Tyrell In the film A murderer hired by Richard to kill the two young princes Willing to do anything for money 5. The pursuit of power Richard's motives in the play Themes and interpretation In his opening soliloquy, Richard confides to the audience that he is dissatisfied with a life "in this weak piping time of peace" -> physical deformity: cannot prove a lover -> becomes a villain as a compensation or revenge for the misfortune of nature Richard's evil plans in the play Similar to the medieval vice figure, Richard discloses the evil methods he is going to use to the audience After King Henry VI's death, he puts his plan to seize the throne into action, using his rhetorical power and skills in dissimulation Greed of personal power makes him disregard any moral considerations and limitations, making him a Machiavellian villain Manipulative behavior and brilliant rhetoric; often presented as power-hungry individuals without any moral scruples No scruples to eliminate those who are before him in the line of the crown; insatiable ambition -> unfeeling and cruel; when becoming king he wants to secure his position -> eliminating those who do not support him; killing Buckingham Richard's motives in the film From infancy Richard was exposed to verbal and emotional abuse and this has formed his character and behavior Presents Richard as a person on a crusade who takes vengeance on a society that has always treated him as an outsider; however, remains a vicious, hideous criminal In numerous scenes Richard talks to the camera, letting the viewers in on his secret plans Richard as a fascist leader Transfer of the action to the 1930s and associates Richard with the rise of fascism (SS-like uniforms, flags in colors similar to those of the Nazis; cheering masses etc.) 30s a decade of tyranny throughout Europe, the most recent time when a dictatorship like Richard III's might have overtaken the UK The role(s) of women - during Shakespeare's time, women were socially and financially dependent on men an expected to obey their husbands; in Elizabethan theatre, women were not allowed on stage, so the female characters had to be played by male actors - in Richard III, five female characters are listed and play an ambivalent role In the play Bystanders who comment on evil occurrences and forecast but unable to influence the course of events; they warn but their warning are unheard The innocent suffers of losses, the victims of Richard's vicious plots and maneuvers Remind the audience of Richard's bloody deeds; seem eerily powerful -> curses and prophesy events; most of them came true Leaves out the role of Queen Margaret; Duchess of York takes over some of Margaret's lines Princess Elizabeth has a greater role than in the play where she is only an offstage character Seite | 21 Fate vs. free will - The Renaissance was a time in which different world views coexisted; on the one hand, the view of the individual who can shape his or her destiny was beginning to take hold; same time, people believed that their lives were predetermined by fate or divine Providence -> both elements in Richard III Background information free will fatalism Free will Fate - Machiavellian political philosophy stressed the notion of free will and an individual who is in full control of his or her life idea of "wheel of fortune", Goddess Fortune (Fate) turns her wheel -> those who rise to power will inevitably lose their power again and fall - in Christian terms: divine plan, sinners will ultimately punished for their deeds (divine justice) - political plane "Tudor myth" -> represents bloody reign of Richard III as divine punishment for overthrow of Richard II and as a necessary phase in history Richard declares that he is "determined to prove a villain"; he is confident that he can act of his own free will He puts his vicious plans into action to promote his advancement to the throne and secure his position; his Machiavellian schemes work out at the beginning When he awakes from the dream in which the ghosts appeared, he berates his conscience for giving him bad dreams Almost all of the women's curses in the play are eventually fulfilled, suggesting that the events are predetermined by fate In IV,4 Margaret asks God to punish Richard for his perfidiousness and thus execute divine justice In V,3 the ghosts representing those whom Richard has killed during his lifetime predict Richard's end and Richmond's victory -> this likewise seems to hint at divine plan Before he is about to die, Buckingham realizes his villainy and admits the divine justice in his death In a dream, Clarence foresees his own death, suggesting that it might have been fated Similarly, Stanley foresees the danger posed by Richard in a dream Richard wants Queen Elizabeth to believe that the fate of her sons was predetermined Seite | 22 Questions of belonging and identity acculturation to adapt to sth to adopt a lifestyle to alienate sb belonging border Britishness citizenship clash of cultures/ culture clash to coexist peacefully colonization descent to discriminate against discrimination displacement double standard experience expression of identity frist-generation immigrant to flee a country heritage culture homeland host country hybrid identity to identify with sth to long for sth/sb loss of identity migration parallel society permit refugee to seek asylum set of beliefs to shape shared values tradition xenophobia Loose change aloof aggrieved anxious anxiousness to approach to assure sb benevolence bleak charity cheerful conspiracy cunning to defeat desperate determined to embrace exposed exuberant fraternisation generosity generous glum grateful handful insecurity to jangle menace menacing mournful numb obligated obligation Kulturübertragung/Aneignung sich an etwas anpassen einen Lebensstil übernehmen; annehmen jmd. befremden Zugehörigkeit Grenze britische Lebensart Staatsbürgerschaft der Kulturkonflikt/ Aufeinanderprallen friedlich nebeneinander existieren Kolonialisierung Abstammung jmd. Benachteiligen Diskriminierung heimatliche Verdrängung Doppelmoral Erfahrung Identitäsausdruck Zuwanderer der ersten Generation aus einem Land flüchten Kultur d.Herkunftslandes Heimatland Gastland gemischte Identität sich mit etwas identifizieren sich nach jmd/etw sehnen Identitätsverlust Migration Parallelgesellschaft Erlaubnis Flüchtling Asyl suchen eine Reihe von Überzeugungen formen/prägen gemeinsame Werte Tradition Fremdenfeindlichkeit zurückhaltend verletzt ängstlich Besorgtsein auf jmd. zukommen jmd. versichern Wohlwollen kühl, düster Nächstenliebe fröhlich, vergnügt Verschwörung gerisse, raffiniert jmd. besiegen verzweifelt entschlossen etw. annehmen, ergreifen ausgesetzt, entblößt ausgelassen die Verbrüderung Großzügigkeit großzügig mürrisch, niedergeschlagen dankbar eine Handvoll VOKABELN Unsicherheit klimpern, rasseln Bedrohung, Gefahr bedrohlich traurig taub verpflichtet Verpflichtung to overcompensate to plead precarious predicament tob e prone to do sth reluctant resolve sth to rummage through Samaritan savage to scrounge off to sleep rough to take pride in sth tender-hearted to tinkle unapproachable She shall not be moved to accommodate anti-racist to be complicit in sth. contempt to face up to glare at sb./sth. haughty to hurl abuse by implication injured party to instil sth. in sb. lip service to make excuses to reinforce to stand out against sth steadfast to target to turn a blind eye The third and final continent altogether appreciation arranged marriage to console content dignity eccentric fierce honeymoon landlady librarian obituary obligation prestigious purposely to reject rent responsibility spinster spinsterhood splendid to strive after The Escape ancestral dowry gratitude horrified hospitality humble late to maintain on occasion poignant to reassess to reminisce (about sth) überkompensieren bitten, flehen gefährlich, prekär Notlage, missliche Lage zu etw. neigen widerwillig etw. beschließen etw. durchstöbern Samariter(in) wild, brutal etw. erbetteln draußen übernachten auf etw. stolz sein weichherzig klingen/klirren unnahbar, unzugänglich jmd. Entgegenkommen antirassistisch sich an etw. Anpassen Verachtung, Geringschätzung sich etw. stellen jmd./etw. zornig anstarren stolz/hochmütig jmd. beschimpfen implizit Geschädigte jmd. Etw. Einflößen das Lippenbekenntnis sich herausreden etw. verstärken, bestätigen sich gegen etw. wehren standhaft auf jmd. abzielen etw. wissentlich ignorieren völlig das Verständnis arrangierte Ehe jmd. trösten zurfieden Würde exzentrisch stark, intensiv Flitterwochen Vermieterin Bibliothekarin Todesanzeige Verpflichtung angesehen absichtlich etw. ablehnen Miete Verantwortung Ledige Ehelosigkeit großartig nach etw. streben Ahnen Mitgrift Dankbarkeit entsetzt Gastfreundlichkeit bescheiden hier: verstorben etw. beibehalten bei Gelegenheit ergreifend etw. überdenken in Erinnerung schwelgen Seite | 23 Frankenstein to abandon sb ambition ardently to be down to sb. benevolent force code of conduct to commit a crime companionship emaciated essential to infuse isolation to judge sb based on sth majestic patchwork to predict to push/to cross boundaries reckless to reject sb restorative sublime to thrive tormented to unleash a monster to violate natural law Gran Torino affiliation antagonism at-risk youth belief to come to realize criminal gang activity custom docile drive-by shooting embittered emblem entity epitome fortress to harass sb to immerse oneself in sth influx initiation ride to insult sb to make amends racial slur relic retaliation. self-reliance spiral of violence surrogate torn Richard III pursuit of power to assassinate sb coronation crown to defeat to dethrone empathic to ensure sth to imprison so intrigue irascible jmd. im Stich lassen Ehrgeiz leidenschaftlich jmds. Sache sein eine guttuende Kraft Verhaltenskodex Verbrechen begehen Gesellschaft abgemagert wesentlich jmd./etw. mit etw. erfüllen Isolation jmdn. aufgrund von etw. beurteilen majestätisch Flickwerk etw. vorhersagen Grenzen überschreiten rücksichtslos jmd. zurückweisen regenerierend Erhabenheit gedeihen gepeinigt/gequält ein Monster freisetzen gegen das Naturgesetz verstoßen Zugehörigkeit Feindschaft/Zwiespalt gefährdete Jugendliche Glaube / Überzeugung etw. erkennen kriminelle Bandenaktivität Brauch/Sitte fügsam Schießerei aus fahrendem Auto heraus. verbittert Emblem, Symbol Einheit Inbegriff Festung jmd. belästigen in etw. eintauchen Zufluss Initiationsritus jmd. beleidigen etw. wiedergutmachen rassistische Beleidigung Relikt Rache Vergeltung Eigenständigkeit Spirale der Gewalt Ersatz innerlich zerrissen jmd. ermorden Krönung Krone jmd./etw. besiegen jmd. entthronen empathisch etw. sichern/absichern jmd. einsperren Intrige jähzornig to become king mendacious ruthless two-faced the role(s) of women to bear children to blame so. curse foretell sth to marry so. moral counterpart to mourn to obey to subordinate to rais so to seduce so victim witchcraft fate vs. free will apparition authority belief chain of being curse divine fate legitimacy omnipotent predetermination prophecy retribution sovereignty spell spirit supernatural superstition König warden verlogen rücksichtslos doppelzüngig/heuchlerisch Kinder gebären jmdm. Vorwürfe Machen Fluch etwas vorhersagen jmdn. heiraten moralisches Gegenstück etw. betrauern jmdm. gehorchen unterordnen jmd. aufziehen/erziehen jmd. verführen/verleiten das Opfer Hexerei Erscheinung Autorität Glaube Kette des Seins Fluch göttlich Schicksal Rechtmäßigkeit allmächtig Vorherbestimmung Prophezeiung Vergeltung Souveränität Zauberspruch Geist übematürlich Aberglaube