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The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
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Seite | 1 1. Loose change Background information The National Portrait Gallery London 2005: unrest in Uzbekistan Windrush generation 1.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Andrea Levy (1956-2019), born in London to Jamaican parents Year of publication: 2005 Genre: short story Setting: London (lavatory and café of National Portrait Gallery) Narrative perspective: first-person narration (first-person central -> narrator is also the protagonist) Content: The narrator is given a few coins by a young woman, who turns out to be a political refugee. She feels sympathy for the girl, but fails to help her Explanation of title: few coins as element which connects the two women, symbolizes the narrator's feeling of obligation, but also her final desertion of Laylor 1.3 Characters ■ SHORT STORIES - collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people - today also portraits of Black British personalities, but these were for a long time marginalized in collective memory of the country 1.2 Plot The narrator is short of change and receives coins from a young woman (Laylor) in the lavatory of the National Portrait Gallery in London The narrator Laylor · examples that narrator shows to Laylor are all of White people -> narrator's view of British history seems to be "White" - protests against violation of basic human rights - violence against protesters and persecution of journalists and dissidents 1948: HMT Empire Windrush brought...

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the first large group of immigrants from the West Indies and marks the beginning of mass immigration to the UK - narrator's grandmother probably belonged to Windrush generation Judging from her accent, Laylor is obviously a foreigner (narrator conjectures she could be a Spanish tourist) While the narrator is in the lavatory, Laylor leaves to look at pictures in the gallery The narrator finds her there and together they look at several pictures, their tastes are quite different The narrator invites Laylor for a cup of tea to give her back her change In the conversation the narrator learns that Laylor is from Usbekistan Laylor's brother comes to the café and they argue in their language After he has left, the narrator learns that Laylor and her brother had to flee from Uzbekistan and are sleeping rough on London's streets The narrator begins to observe details about Laylor'S scruffy appearance (dirty fingernails, crumbled collar) She knows deep down that she has the means to put Laylor and her brother up at least for some time She thinks of how warmly her grandmother, who came from the Caribbean and was also sleeping rough, remembered a stranger helping her However, putting these considerations and memories aside, the narrator simply leaves on the pretext of fetching tissues for Laylor Londoner, third-generation immigrant (grandmother from Caribbean to UK) Single mother, working at school, middle-class background with comfortable three bedroom house Describes herself as a typical Londoner. keeps herself to herself, rather distanced to stranger Rather out of obligation and responsibility, gives up her unapproachable manner and becomes more open with Laylor However, sees this change in her behavior ("this fraternization") as defeat When she realizes that the homeless girl is in a desperate situation, two conflicting interests: would like to be welcoming and helpful (like a stranger was towards her grandmother), but not wants to be involved in Laylors poverty Finally leaves the girl alone in a rather cowardly fashion 18-year-old refugee from Uzbekistan, parents politically prosecuted Black hair, wide black eyes, round face, a solid jaw line, speaks with an accent Partly unrefined manners (narrator's view): loud voice in public, drinks teadespite specks of dust in it, "forces" story on stranger Disarming openness: only person to help the narrator out with coins (despite poverty), innocent good mood, interested in arts Desperate and helpless: homeless, scruffy outer appearance, fears for her parents The narrator's grandmother Does not appear in the story in person, but important influence on narrator Came to UK as an immigrant from the Caribbean keeps praising her "Good Samaritan" who put her up when she first arrived passionately opposes immigration, denouncing refugees and asylum seekers as scroungers and troublemakers memories of being a helpless immigrant and her current hostility and xenophobia seem to influence narrator's attitude Seite 2 2. 2.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Shereen Pandit (born in Cape Town), went into exile in the UK in 1987 Year of publication: 2005 Genre: short story ■ 2.2 Plot ■ ■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ Narrator Mariam She shall not be moved ■ Setting: London (on the bus) Narrative perspective: first-person narration (first-person central -> narrator is protagonist) Content: the narrator, a political refugee to Britain, fails to live up to her principle because she does not stand up against racists hindering a Somali woman from parking her pram in the pram space on the bus Explanation of title: Somali woman refuses to be moved and takes offences with dignity; based on spiritual "I shall not be moved" that became a protest song among Civil Rights acitivities 2.3 Characters I The narrator boards a crowded bus with her daughter Mariam The aisle is blocked by a Somali woman with a toddler and a pram The bus driver shouts at her to move down the aisle but she cannot Bus driver Two White women are occupying the fold-up seats where the pram should be parked and refuse to give up their seats despite there being free seats elsewhere on the bus Instead of telling off the White women, the bus driver yells at the Somali woman to fold up the pram of leave the bus The narrator is shocked by the driver's behavior but does not say anything The Somali woman remains standing proudly despite the diver's attack, the White women's racist remarks and the narrator's attempt to offer her seat to her When an eldery White lady enters the bus, the narrator does not want to give up her seat for her despite her usual manners ("reverse racis[m]") Mariam cannot understand why her mother neither helps the Somali woman nor lets her give up her seat for the elderly White lady When the Somali woman leaves the bus and the narrator advises her to report the driver, she says it is no good and calls him a slave To make up for being a bad role model for Mariam and betraying her values, the narrator takes her daughter out for an extra treat but cannot stop thinking about her failure to speak out Black woman, who came to the UK because of her fight for political rights Strong convictions about right and wrong, which she also attempts to teach to her daughter Somali woman However, when she witnesses racism on the bus, she does not interfere and offers numerous excuses for not getting involved Still she regrets keeping quiet and feels ashamed that she has betrayed her own principles The narrator's daughter Rather delicate little girl Has been brought up to be respectful and outspoken when she witnesses wrongdoing Tries to urge the narrator to speak up against the White women's racist behavior -> disappointed and confused when she sees her mother's "wrong" behavior (not offering a seat to elderly lady, not coming to the aid of woman in trouble) Two White women Narrator calls them "Cardie" and "Mac" (because one of them is wearing a cardigan, the other a colorless stained Mac) Both in their 50s Woman with two small children Wearing traditional clothing Strong and proud character, puts up with insults and discrimination with dignity Calls the bus driver a "slave" and stresses that she is not a slave Look rather poor, rough and uneducated to the narrator Prejudiced against Black People: racist remarks and comments, deliberately refuse to move seats (to teach "who is boss her") Despite being Black himself, aggressive towards Somali woman Turns a blind eye to the White ladies' behavior, does not stand up for the Somali woman Seems to have accepted racism and is apparently afraid of getting into conflict with racist women herself Seite 3 3. The Escape Background information Eid ul Fitr Lahore Data Darbar Enoch Powell (1912-1998) Uganda under Idi Amin 3.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Qaisra Shahraz (*1958), born in Pakistan, has lived in Manchester since the age of 9 Year of publication: 2009 Genre: short story I 3.3 3.2 Plot Samir, a 73-year-old widower, Pakistani immigrant, tells his family he will visit his homeland Pakistan for a view months Three days later in Pakistan, he is put up by his brother's family and amicably welcomed He visits his parents' graves and muses about his wife's recent death as well as his own burial, which he is sure will take place in Manchester Samir - "Festival of Breaking the Fast" - religious festive day celebrated by Muslims to mark the end of Ramadan - second-largest city in Pakistan capital of Punjab province - shrine in Lahore Setting: England (Manchester area) - Pakistan (Lahore) Narrative perspective: third-person narration (Samir's viewpoint) Content: 73-year-old Samir, a Pakistani immigrant, who arrived in the UK in the 1960s, visits Pakistan, his land of origin, and realizes that his real home is now England Explanation od title: Samir makes several "escapes", the last two are his trip to Pakistan and from there back again to England - considered to be the most sacred place in the city - conservative British politician - held a notorious speech against immigration in 1968 - in the 1970s, Asians who had successfully settled in Uganda were forced to leave the country by dictator Idi Amin - Many sought refuge in the UK afterwards Flashback: Samir remembers the days of his arrival in England where he stayed and worked in various places until he finally settled in Manchester and established a successful knitwear manufacturing business Samir calls at the home of a widow his wife supported and promises to continue sponsorship and pay for the education of the widow's daughters He leaves to visit he Data Darbar in Lahore and prays for his wife's soul as well as for himself Samir returns to his brother's and informs the family that he will fly back to England Characters On the plane he meets Ibrahim, a man of his age, and both wonder whether their homeland is Pakistan or England Samir asks Ibrahim to join him in his new home (elderly home) He leaves his house to his children, instructs them to continue the support of the widow in Pakistan and moves into an elderly home Samir feels his escapes are over and he has finally arrived 73 years old Born and raised in Pakistan, immigrated to the UK in the 1960s, based in Manchester area Religious Muslim, devoted family man, loves his children and grandchildren Samir's Manchester family Has made it from shy, insecure man, who moved from place to place and job to job, to successful business and house owner Feels lost since his wife's recent death Fueled by his loneliness, he searches from his homeland (and comes to the conclusion that it is now England) Samir has four children: two sons and wo daughters as well as several grandchildren Samir's Lahore family All seem financially secure and well-integrated Treat Samir with kindness and respect, want to make him feel comfortable Cherish Pakistani traditions, but feel that England is their home -> cannot believe that Samir wants to go back to Pakistan Receive Samir very hospitably Still Samir feels like a burden and not really at home there Surprised when Samir calls England his home Seite 4 4. Mala 4.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Jhumpa Lahiri (*1967), born in London to Bengali Indian parents; family moved to USA when she was three Year of publication: 1999 Genre: short story 4.3 Narrator Mrs. Croft 4.2 Plot 1964: narrator leaves India (Bengal) with a certificate in commerce on board an Italian ship bound for England In London he lives in a house crowded with penniless Bengali single young men, attends lectures at the London School of Economics and works at university library I The third and final continent I Helen Setting: mainly Boston/USA, also London/UK and Calcutta/India Narrative perspective: first-person narrator (first-person central: narrator is also protagonist) Time: mainly 1960s (1964: India -> UK: 1969 -> USA; 1990s (end of the story) Content: the narrator, an immigrant from Calcutta, overcomes his loneliness and alienation with the help of his 103-year-old landlady and makes his way up in American society Explanation of title: after living in South Asia (India) and Europe (England), the narrator finally finds his place in America (USA) -> his third and final continent of his journey 1969: he flies back to Calcutte to attend his wedding arranged by his older brother and meets his future wife Mala for the first time Accepts a full-time job in America at library of MIT in Boston At first lives in a very basic and noisy room at YMCA Moves to a room in the house of an eccentric 103-year-old lady, Mrs. Croft He stays there for six weeks and both get on very well together Leaves Mrs. Croft when Mala arrives At first: distant relationship between the newly-wed couple When he shows Mala the house where he used to live for six weeks and they meet old Mrs. Croft, who expresses her administration for Mala, the relationship between the narrator and Mala becomes more intimate Later, her learns that Mrs. Croft has died and deeply mourns her death About 30 years later, the narrator still lives in Boston area, he and his wife are American citizens and their son attends Harvard Characters In his thirties in the 1960s (*-1933) Educated and ambitious Lives in modest circumstances both in London and Boston, but does not complain Finds it hard to adapt to America at first and is quite lonely Polite and kind to Mrs. Croft, admires her for her old age and finally grows quite attached to her Dutifully complies with the traditions of his home country (arranged marriage, cremation ceremony) At first rather disturbed by his wife's presence and his responsibilities towards her Treats Mala with understanding and respect and they grow very close and end up having a loving marriage Tiny 103-year-old widow, almost fierce-looking, speaks in a loud, commanding voice Raised her children by giving piano lessons after the death of her husband Quite fit for her age, although not fully mobile and tends to be forgetful Independent-minded, cannot really take care of herself Fixed routine (same dress, same place, same food) Patriotic (proud of American moon landing) Eccentric (rents only to students from MIT or Harvard, insists on narrator using the word "splendid") Old-fashioned ideas but decency Values narrator's manners and consideration (handing her the rent money), grows attached to him and also approves of Mala Daughter of a schoolteacher, a good housekeeper and well-educated 27 years old at time of arranged marriage, not very pretty, has been rejected by several men At first very unhappy and lonely in her marriage to a stranger and a foreign country Narrator discovers her kind side during visit to Mrs. Croft They grow very close and both adapt to American as their new home Misses her son when he has moved out Mrs. Croft's daughter, 68 years old, short, thick-waisted, silver hair, pink lipstick Looks after her elderly mother regularly Down-to-earth, pragmatic, not overtly emotional about her mother (narrator seems to be more concerned about Mrs. Croft's well-being than her daughter) Seite | 5 5. Themes and interpretation Postcolonial experiences - refers to the study of how colonialism continues to shape the world even after the British Empire or other colonial ventures ended. Both people from formerly colonized lands as well as the colonizers can still feel the impact of earlier power relations Questions of belonging and identity - displaced people are forced to leave their homeland, usually for reasons that endanger their lives or well-being. Their arrival in a foreign country where they are often met with suspicion, prejudice and rejection can result in profound crises of identity and belonging. Issues of identity and belonging can also impact later generations of immigrants who might feel torn between several cultures "Loose change" Narrator influenced by two different sets of values: her grandmother's own experience of being dependent on a stranger's help and her self-assessment of being a "true Londoner", who keeps out of and aloof from other's trouble Grandmother's own development from dependent immigrant UK citizen, who is indignant and prejudiced towards refugees Laylor and her brother: because of their sudden hasty flight from Uzbekistan life has changed completely within a week As soon as Laylor's true status as homeless and poor refugee is revealed, met with suspicion and rejection Laylor and her brother do not seem to know where they could turn to for help "She shall not be moved" Example of racism against Somali woman, ignored by Whit passengers, tacitly accepted by narrator by narrator, even corroborated by bus driver Narrator's feeling that she should solidarize with Somali woman, but afraid to endanger her own and possibly her daughter's safety and comfort Pride of Somali woman vs. cowardice and insecurity of both narrator and bus driver ("slaves") Narrator has been raised to "show the we're better", i.e. with strong moral principles Mariam witnesses her mother's weakness and might internalize seeming inferiority in the long run Narrator behaves like a "reverse racist" (her own words), which shows her bitterness and the entrenched mutual distrust "The Escape" Samir as a typical example of feeling torn between two homes (wants to escape loneliness in England, but realizes that Lahore is no longer his home either) Inner loneliness connected to homelessness though this might not be the real problem Samir has made it in England and has always believed in the country His children represent second generation of immigrants: cultural ties to Pakistan but completely at home in England "The third and final continent" Narrator goes through several stages of alienation and privation (UK, USA) Overarching theme of loneliness (new country, marriage to a stranger) Mrs. Croft, who is quiet lonely herself, helps narrator to overcome these feelings Move to USA especially difficult for Mala: speaks only little English, only moves there to follow a husband she hardly knows, loneliness and homesickness 30 years later: narrator and Mala's integration has been successful: mix of cultures: American citizenship, keeping in touch with their Bengali roots Narrator encourages his son to follow in his footsteps of overcoming challenges, but muses that the next generation might even go one step further and give up Bengali traditions Experience of migration Negative experiences Fear, anger, loss of identity, isolation, depression In loose change: grandmother's experiences appears to have been difficult Positive experiences Finding a home, safety, potentially financial security, improving education/work prospects In Escape: found his home, became financial stable in the UK; Third and final continent: education, finds a home Reasons to migrate Push factors are often poverty, persecution and war; pull factors are often improvement of living standards, freedom Integration Assimilation Identification with the host culture, rejection of the heritage culture; threat of losing one's identity Adopting aspects of the host culture without rejecting one's heritage culture ! Also important: Experience of discrimination, prejudice and racism; experience of cultural differences !

Englisch /

Abitur Lernzettel Englisch

Abitur Lernzettel Englisch

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Lernzettel

Abitur Lernzettel Englisch

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 Seite | 1
1.
Loose change
Background information
The National Portrait
Gallery London
2005: unrest in
Uzbekistan
Windrush generation
1.1 Ke

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Cool, mit dem Lernzettel konnte ich mich richtig gut auf meine Klassenarbeit vorbereiten. Danke 👍👍

Abitur Niedersachsen 2022 - Short stories - Frankenstein - Gran Torino - Richard III

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Seite | 1 1. Loose change Background information The National Portrait Gallery London 2005: unrest in Uzbekistan Windrush generation 1.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Andrea Levy (1956-2019), born in London to Jamaican parents Year of publication: 2005 Genre: short story Setting: London (lavatory and café of National Portrait Gallery) Narrative perspective: first-person narration (first-person central -> narrator is also the protagonist) Content: The narrator is given a few coins by a young woman, who turns out to be a political refugee. She feels sympathy for the girl, but fails to help her Explanation of title: few coins as element which connects the two women, symbolizes the narrator's feeling of obligation, but also her final desertion of Laylor 1.3 Characters ■ SHORT STORIES - collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people - today also portraits of Black British personalities, but these were for a long time marginalized in collective memory of the country 1.2 Plot The narrator is short of change and receives coins from a young woman (Laylor) in the lavatory of the National Portrait Gallery in London The narrator Laylor · examples that narrator shows to Laylor are all of White people -> narrator's view of British history seems to be "White" - protests against violation of basic human rights - violence against protesters and persecution of journalists and dissidents 1948: HMT Empire Windrush brought...

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the first large group of immigrants from the West Indies and marks the beginning of mass immigration to the UK - narrator's grandmother probably belonged to Windrush generation Judging from her accent, Laylor is obviously a foreigner (narrator conjectures she could be a Spanish tourist) While the narrator is in the lavatory, Laylor leaves to look at pictures in the gallery The narrator finds her there and together they look at several pictures, their tastes are quite different The narrator invites Laylor for a cup of tea to give her back her change In the conversation the narrator learns that Laylor is from Usbekistan Laylor's brother comes to the café and they argue in their language After he has left, the narrator learns that Laylor and her brother had to flee from Uzbekistan and are sleeping rough on London's streets The narrator begins to observe details about Laylor'S scruffy appearance (dirty fingernails, crumbled collar) She knows deep down that she has the means to put Laylor and her brother up at least for some time She thinks of how warmly her grandmother, who came from the Caribbean and was also sleeping rough, remembered a stranger helping her However, putting these considerations and memories aside, the narrator simply leaves on the pretext of fetching tissues for Laylor Londoner, third-generation immigrant (grandmother from Caribbean to UK) Single mother, working at school, middle-class background with comfortable three bedroom house Describes herself as a typical Londoner. keeps herself to herself, rather distanced to stranger Rather out of obligation and responsibility, gives up her unapproachable manner and becomes more open with Laylor However, sees this change in her behavior ("this fraternization") as defeat When she realizes that the homeless girl is in a desperate situation, two conflicting interests: would like to be welcoming and helpful (like a stranger was towards her grandmother), but not wants to be involved in Laylors poverty Finally leaves the girl alone in a rather cowardly fashion 18-year-old refugee from Uzbekistan, parents politically prosecuted Black hair, wide black eyes, round face, a solid jaw line, speaks with an accent Partly unrefined manners (narrator's view): loud voice in public, drinks teadespite specks of dust in it, "forces" story on stranger Disarming openness: only person to help the narrator out with coins (despite poverty), innocent good mood, interested in arts Desperate and helpless: homeless, scruffy outer appearance, fears for her parents The narrator's grandmother Does not appear in the story in person, but important influence on narrator Came to UK as an immigrant from the Caribbean keeps praising her "Good Samaritan" who put her up when she first arrived passionately opposes immigration, denouncing refugees and asylum seekers as scroungers and troublemakers memories of being a helpless immigrant and her current hostility and xenophobia seem to influence narrator's attitude Seite 2 2. 2.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Shereen Pandit (born in Cape Town), went into exile in the UK in 1987 Year of publication: 2005 Genre: short story ■ 2.2 Plot ■ ■ I ■ ■ ■ ■ Narrator Mariam She shall not be moved ■ Setting: London (on the bus) Narrative perspective: first-person narration (first-person central -> narrator is protagonist) Content: the narrator, a political refugee to Britain, fails to live up to her principle because she does not stand up against racists hindering a Somali woman from parking her pram in the pram space on the bus Explanation of title: Somali woman refuses to be moved and takes offences with dignity; based on spiritual "I shall not be moved" that became a protest song among Civil Rights acitivities 2.3 Characters I The narrator boards a crowded bus with her daughter Mariam The aisle is blocked by a Somali woman with a toddler and a pram The bus driver shouts at her to move down the aisle but she cannot Bus driver Two White women are occupying the fold-up seats where the pram should be parked and refuse to give up their seats despite there being free seats elsewhere on the bus Instead of telling off the White women, the bus driver yells at the Somali woman to fold up the pram of leave the bus The narrator is shocked by the driver's behavior but does not say anything The Somali woman remains standing proudly despite the diver's attack, the White women's racist remarks and the narrator's attempt to offer her seat to her When an eldery White lady enters the bus, the narrator does not want to give up her seat for her despite her usual manners ("reverse racis[m]") Mariam cannot understand why her mother neither helps the Somali woman nor lets her give up her seat for the elderly White lady When the Somali woman leaves the bus and the narrator advises her to report the driver, she says it is no good and calls him a slave To make up for being a bad role model for Mariam and betraying her values, the narrator takes her daughter out for an extra treat but cannot stop thinking about her failure to speak out Black woman, who came to the UK because of her fight for political rights Strong convictions about right and wrong, which she also attempts to teach to her daughter Somali woman However, when she witnesses racism on the bus, she does not interfere and offers numerous excuses for not getting involved Still she regrets keeping quiet and feels ashamed that she has betrayed her own principles The narrator's daughter Rather delicate little girl Has been brought up to be respectful and outspoken when she witnesses wrongdoing Tries to urge the narrator to speak up against the White women's racist behavior -> disappointed and confused when she sees her mother's "wrong" behavior (not offering a seat to elderly lady, not coming to the aid of woman in trouble) Two White women Narrator calls them "Cardie" and "Mac" (because one of them is wearing a cardigan, the other a colorless stained Mac) Both in their 50s Woman with two small children Wearing traditional clothing Strong and proud character, puts up with insults and discrimination with dignity Calls the bus driver a "slave" and stresses that she is not a slave Look rather poor, rough and uneducated to the narrator Prejudiced against Black People: racist remarks and comments, deliberately refuse to move seats (to teach "who is boss her") Despite being Black himself, aggressive towards Somali woman Turns a blind eye to the White ladies' behavior, does not stand up for the Somali woman Seems to have accepted racism and is apparently afraid of getting into conflict with racist women herself Seite 3 3. The Escape Background information Eid ul Fitr Lahore Data Darbar Enoch Powell (1912-1998) Uganda under Idi Amin 3.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Qaisra Shahraz (*1958), born in Pakistan, has lived in Manchester since the age of 9 Year of publication: 2009 Genre: short story I 3.3 3.2 Plot Samir, a 73-year-old widower, Pakistani immigrant, tells his family he will visit his homeland Pakistan for a view months Three days later in Pakistan, he is put up by his brother's family and amicably welcomed He visits his parents' graves and muses about his wife's recent death as well as his own burial, which he is sure will take place in Manchester Samir - "Festival of Breaking the Fast" - religious festive day celebrated by Muslims to mark the end of Ramadan - second-largest city in Pakistan capital of Punjab province - shrine in Lahore Setting: England (Manchester area) - Pakistan (Lahore) Narrative perspective: third-person narration (Samir's viewpoint) Content: 73-year-old Samir, a Pakistani immigrant, who arrived in the UK in the 1960s, visits Pakistan, his land of origin, and realizes that his real home is now England Explanation od title: Samir makes several "escapes", the last two are his trip to Pakistan and from there back again to England - considered to be the most sacred place in the city - conservative British politician - held a notorious speech against immigration in 1968 - in the 1970s, Asians who had successfully settled in Uganda were forced to leave the country by dictator Idi Amin - Many sought refuge in the UK afterwards Flashback: Samir remembers the days of his arrival in England where he stayed and worked in various places until he finally settled in Manchester and established a successful knitwear manufacturing business Samir calls at the home of a widow his wife supported and promises to continue sponsorship and pay for the education of the widow's daughters He leaves to visit he Data Darbar in Lahore and prays for his wife's soul as well as for himself Samir returns to his brother's and informs the family that he will fly back to England Characters On the plane he meets Ibrahim, a man of his age, and both wonder whether their homeland is Pakistan or England Samir asks Ibrahim to join him in his new home (elderly home) He leaves his house to his children, instructs them to continue the support of the widow in Pakistan and moves into an elderly home Samir feels his escapes are over and he has finally arrived 73 years old Born and raised in Pakistan, immigrated to the UK in the 1960s, based in Manchester area Religious Muslim, devoted family man, loves his children and grandchildren Samir's Manchester family Has made it from shy, insecure man, who moved from place to place and job to job, to successful business and house owner Feels lost since his wife's recent death Fueled by his loneliness, he searches from his homeland (and comes to the conclusion that it is now England) Samir has four children: two sons and wo daughters as well as several grandchildren Samir's Lahore family All seem financially secure and well-integrated Treat Samir with kindness and respect, want to make him feel comfortable Cherish Pakistani traditions, but feel that England is their home -> cannot believe that Samir wants to go back to Pakistan Receive Samir very hospitably Still Samir feels like a burden and not really at home there Surprised when Samir calls England his home Seite 4 4. Mala 4.1 Key facts about the short story Author: Jhumpa Lahiri (*1967), born in London to Bengali Indian parents; family moved to USA when she was three Year of publication: 1999 Genre: short story 4.3 Narrator Mrs. Croft 4.2 Plot 1964: narrator leaves India (Bengal) with a certificate in commerce on board an Italian ship bound for England In London he lives in a house crowded with penniless Bengali single young men, attends lectures at the London School of Economics and works at university library I The third and final continent I Helen Setting: mainly Boston/USA, also London/UK and Calcutta/India Narrative perspective: first-person narrator (first-person central: narrator is also protagonist) Time: mainly 1960s (1964: India -> UK: 1969 -> USA; 1990s (end of the story) Content: the narrator, an immigrant from Calcutta, overcomes his loneliness and alienation with the help of his 103-year-old landlady and makes his way up in American society Explanation of title: after living in South Asia (India) and Europe (England), the narrator finally finds his place in America (USA) -> his third and final continent of his journey 1969: he flies back to Calcutte to attend his wedding arranged by his older brother and meets his future wife Mala for the first time Accepts a full-time job in America at library of MIT in Boston At first lives in a very basic and noisy room at YMCA Moves to a room in the house of an eccentric 103-year-old lady, Mrs. Croft He stays there for six weeks and both get on very well together Leaves Mrs. Croft when Mala arrives At first: distant relationship between the newly-wed couple When he shows Mala the house where he used to live for six weeks and they meet old Mrs. Croft, who expresses her administration for Mala, the relationship between the narrator and Mala becomes more intimate Later, her learns that Mrs. Croft has died and deeply mourns her death About 30 years later, the narrator still lives in Boston area, he and his wife are American citizens and their son attends Harvard Characters In his thirties in the 1960s (*-1933) Educated and ambitious Lives in modest circumstances both in London and Boston, but does not complain Finds it hard to adapt to America at first and is quite lonely Polite and kind to Mrs. Croft, admires her for her old age and finally grows quite attached to her Dutifully complies with the traditions of his home country (arranged marriage, cremation ceremony) At first rather disturbed by his wife's presence and his responsibilities towards her Treats Mala with understanding and respect and they grow very close and end up having a loving marriage Tiny 103-year-old widow, almost fierce-looking, speaks in a loud, commanding voice Raised her children by giving piano lessons after the death of her husband Quite fit for her age, although not fully mobile and tends to be forgetful Independent-minded, cannot really take care of herself Fixed routine (same dress, same place, same food) Patriotic (proud of American moon landing) Eccentric (rents only to students from MIT or Harvard, insists on narrator using the word "splendid") Old-fashioned ideas but decency Values narrator's manners and consideration (handing her the rent money), grows attached to him and also approves of Mala Daughter of a schoolteacher, a good housekeeper and well-educated 27 years old at time of arranged marriage, not very pretty, has been rejected by several men At first very unhappy and lonely in her marriage to a stranger and a foreign country Narrator discovers her kind side during visit to Mrs. Croft They grow very close and both adapt to American as their new home Misses her son when he has moved out Mrs. Croft's daughter, 68 years old, short, thick-waisted, silver hair, pink lipstick Looks after her elderly mother regularly Down-to-earth, pragmatic, not overtly emotional about her mother (narrator seems to be more concerned about Mrs. Croft's well-being than her daughter) Seite | 5 5. Themes and interpretation Postcolonial experiences - refers to the study of how colonialism continues to shape the world even after the British Empire or other colonial ventures ended. Both people from formerly colonized lands as well as the colonizers can still feel the impact of earlier power relations Questions of belonging and identity - displaced people are forced to leave their homeland, usually for reasons that endanger their lives or well-being. Their arrival in a foreign country where they are often met with suspicion, prejudice and rejection can result in profound crises of identity and belonging. Issues of identity and belonging can also impact later generations of immigrants who might feel torn between several cultures "Loose change" Narrator influenced by two different sets of values: her grandmother's own experience of being dependent on a stranger's help and her self-assessment of being a "true Londoner", who keeps out of and aloof from other's trouble Grandmother's own development from dependent immigrant UK citizen, who is indignant and prejudiced towards refugees Laylor and her brother: because of their sudden hasty flight from Uzbekistan life has changed completely within a week As soon as Laylor's true status as homeless and poor refugee is revealed, met with suspicion and rejection Laylor and her brother do not seem to know where they could turn to for help "She shall not be moved" Example of racism against Somali woman, ignored by Whit passengers, tacitly accepted by narrator by narrator, even corroborated by bus driver Narrator's feeling that she should solidarize with Somali woman, but afraid to endanger her own and possibly her daughter's safety and comfort Pride of Somali woman vs. cowardice and insecurity of both narrator and bus driver ("slaves") Narrator has been raised to "show the we're better", i.e. with strong moral principles Mariam witnesses her mother's weakness and might internalize seeming inferiority in the long run Narrator behaves like a "reverse racist" (her own words), which shows her bitterness and the entrenched mutual distrust "The Escape" Samir as a typical example of feeling torn between two homes (wants to escape loneliness in England, but realizes that Lahore is no longer his home either) Inner loneliness connected to homelessness though this might not be the real problem Samir has made it in England and has always believed in the country His children represent second generation of immigrants: cultural ties to Pakistan but completely at home in England "The third and final continent" Narrator goes through several stages of alienation and privation (UK, USA) Overarching theme of loneliness (new country, marriage to a stranger) Mrs. Croft, who is quiet lonely herself, helps narrator to overcome these feelings Move to USA especially difficult for Mala: speaks only little English, only moves there to follow a husband she hardly knows, loneliness and homesickness 30 years later: narrator and Mala's integration has been successful: mix of cultures: American citizenship, keeping in touch with their Bengali roots Narrator encourages his son to follow in his footsteps of overcoming challenges, but muses that the next generation might even go one step further and give up Bengali traditions Experience of migration Negative experiences Fear, anger, loss of identity, isolation, depression In loose change: grandmother's experiences appears to have been difficult Positive experiences Finding a home, safety, potentially financial security, improving education/work prospects In Escape: found his home, became financial stable in the UK; Third and final continent: education, finds a home Reasons to migrate Push factors are often poverty, persecution and war; pull factors are often improvement of living standards, freedom Integration Assimilation Identification with the host culture, rejection of the heritage culture; threat of losing one's identity Adopting aspects of the host culture without rejecting one's heritage culture ! Also important: Experience of discrimination, prejudice and racism; experience of cultural differences !