Zur Aufgabe I für das allgemeinbildende/berufliche Gymnasium Im Rahmen des umfassenden Themas Multikulturelle und interkulturelle Beziehungen wird für die schriftliche Abituraufgabe folgendes Thema als Schwerpunkt vorgegeben: African American Experiences Mit Ankunft der ersten Afrikaner/innen als Sklav/innen in den europäischen Kolonien im 17. Jahrhundert beginnt auch die Geschichte der African Americans in den USA. Ihre kulturellen Traditionen und Erfahrungen haben die Geschichte der USA maßgeblich mitgeprägt und sind entscheidend für das Verständnis der historischen Entwicklung sowie der aktuellen Situation der USA. Das Verhältnis zwischen der schwarzen Minderheit und der weißen Mehrheitsgesellschaft war von Anfang an von sozialer und politischer Ungleichheit geprägt, so dass Afroamerikaner/innen zuerst für ihre Freiheit, später dann für Integration und Gleichberechtigung kämpfen mussten. Höhepunkt dieses Kampfes war das Civil Rights Movement der 1950er und 1960er Jahre. Barack Obamas Wahl zum ersten afroamerikanischen Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten 2008 wurde vielfach als Zeichen für die fortgeschrittene Überwindung des Rassismus in den USA gedeutet. Die bis heute anhaltende Diskriminierung macht jedoch deutlich, dass trotz vieler Errungenschaften das Verhältnis zwischen Schwarzen und Weißen nach wie vor durch Spannungen und Konflikte gekennzeichnet ist. Die historischen, politischen und sozialen Bedingungen haben auch die Entwicklung einer afroamerikanischen Literaturtradition beeinflusst, so dass zwischen der mündlichen Erzähltradition der Sklav/innen - den slave narratives - und der Verleihung des Pulitzer Preises an Colson Whitehead für...
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den Roman The Underground Railroad im Jahr 2017 eine reichhaltige Literatur entstand. Im Rahmen der inhaltlichen Auseinandersetzung mit dem Schwerpunktthema sollen unter anderem folgende Aspekte behandelt werden: • The struggle for freedom - from slavery to equality? • African American literature - a powerful voice? • African American cultural impact - more than just hip hop? Auf grundlegendem Niveau liegt der Fokus der Arbeit auf Fragen zum Kampf um Gleichberechtigung und zur Entwicklung einer afroamerikanischen kulturellen Identität. Informationen aus beispielsweise Reden, Bildern, Filmen und Hör/Hör-Sehtexten sowie Kurzgeschichten, Gedichten, Songs oder Ausschnitten aus einer literarischen Ganzschrift bilden die Grundlage für die Arbeit, die durch Sachtexte unterstützt werden kann. Der Schwerpunkt liegt beim Verständnis, der Analyse und der Kommentierung in den Materialien transportierter Inhalte, weniger bei der Bearbeitung ihrer formalen Aspekte. Auf erhöhtem Niveau tritt die Analyse formaler Aspekte und mindestens einer literarischen Langschrift zum Thema hinzu sowie ihre verstärkte Einbettung in kulturelle und historische Kontexte. Grundlegendes Niveau - Basiswissen • Grundkenntnisse über die afroamerikanische Geschichte (Slavery, Reconstruction Period, Segregation, Civil Rights Movement, Black Power, Civil Rights Act, Affirmative Action), • an Beispielen vermittelte Kenntnisse über das heutige Verhältnis zwischen Schwarzen und Weißen, • Grundkenntnisse über afroamerikanische Erzähltraditionen und Literatur: oral tradition, slave narrative, afroamerikanische Gegenwartsliteratur, • exemplarisch vermittelte Grundkenntnisse über afroamerikanische kulturelle Beiträge, z.B. in einem der Bereiche Musik, Theater, Fotografie, Malerei. Erhöhtes Niveau - Basiswissen • siehe grundlegendes Niveau; hinzu tritt: • vollständige Lektüre mindestens einer literarischen Langschrift und Kenntnis eines Films zum Thema, • vertiefte analytische Auseinandersetzung mit afroamerikanischer Literatur mit besonderem Fokus auf: • narrative perspective atmosphere and how it is created setting stylistic devices (hier besonders: allusions, symbols, metaphors), • Kenntnisse zu Merkmalen des African American English als einer Varietät des Englischen. ● 2. Slavery Segregation Year 1600 1619 1776 Civil Rights Movement 1780 Reconstruction 1863 1810-1850 1860 1861 1865 1877 1880s (Background) 1914 1915 1920 - 1930 1929 1930 AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY - TIMELINE BACKGROUND INFORMATION INTERNET 1939 1950 1954 1955 Event The first slaves were brought from Africa to the new colonies (by European traders) 1st shipment of African slaves arrives in Jamestown/Virginia Declaration of Independence (,,all men are created equal"): However, there is still increasing slavery in the South which leads to the abolitionist movement in the North. The underground Railroad was build in 1780 Abolitionists helped slaves escape to the North through secret routes (The underground Railroad) Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the United States A civil war started because some southern states formed their own country. The civil war lasted until 1865 Abraham Lincoln abolished slavery in the Emancipation Proclamation. African Americans are granted US citizenship and the right to vote. However, racial hatred continues and white Southerners hamper this progress by demanding voting taxes, literacy tests, etc. before elections, thus reducing the African Americans' voting power The northern won the war and the American slaves were freed Until 1877 the time was called ,,Reconstruction". Soldiers helped the South to get build up again and the black people still lived in poverty ,,Jim Crow"8 new system of segregation laws) officially separated African Americans from all aspects of white society (e.g. separate schools, shops restaurants, toilet facilities, etc. ). The underlying principle is ,,separate but equal “. Thus, the practice of oppression has become legal. World War 1 until 1918 The Ku Klux Klan killed a lot of black and white people Black people started to move to the Northern to have a better life and they started to create ghettos throughout the inner cities of the United States The stock market crashed The Great Depression dominates the United States. The Great Depression was an economic crisis. World War 2. A lot of black people became a soldier and after being a soldier, some of them became pilots and officers The NAACP was gained Segregation in school became illegal Montgomery bus boycott: Rosa Parks got arrested because she refused to let a white passenger take her seat. This leads to large-scale protests and boycotts, with the aim of reaching equal rights and ending segregation. Today 1963 1964 1968 Until 1972 Modern times 2008 Martin Luther King's speech ,,I Have a Dream"(peak of non-violent struggle) Martin Luther King became the leader of the Civil Rights, Civil Rights Act Martin Luther King is murdered. This leads to disillusionment regarding the effectiveness of non-violent protest. As a result, violence increases with Malcolm X as one of the leaders of the protests. The Civil Rights Movement has paid the way too many new acts which little by little officially end discrimination and segregation in public. However, a gap between theory and practice remains. Many black families are moving upwards on the social and income level, but many more are going down. Disrupted families, alcohol, drugs and street gangs are a result New hope: Election of President Barack Obama, who represents both African Americans and white Americans 3. Year June 1623 1863 1865 1865/66 1866 1868 1870 1870s 1890 1880s 1920s 1910 1920s WW1 WW2 1955/56 1957 1960s AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY - TIMELINE LESSON Events The first eleven slaves arrive in New Amsterdam (New York) President Abraham Lincoln signs Emancipation Proclamation that officially abolishes slavery - 15th April: President Lincoln is assassinated by a fanatical Confederate. the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution abolishes slavery by law; more than 4 mio. slaves gain freedom; ,,Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude... shall exist within the United States, or any other place subject to their jurisdiction. 11 The Black Codes, a set of rules, are passed in the South to ,,restore all of slavery but its name"; southern blacks are - denied the right to vote - restricted from moving freely - denied the right to own land - excluded from certain jobs - subject to a separate and much more severe penal code - prohibited from possessing firearms The Ku Klux Klan is founded in Tennessee as a fraternal organization opposed to the emancipation of the blacks; white southern ,,aristocracy"fears ,,n-gger domination" and aims at restoring white supremacy in the South; terrorist acts against blacks like lynching are carried out The Fourteenth Amendment affirms black citizenship The Fifteenth Amendment guarantees blacks the right to vote Racial segregation is gradually enforced in the American South Louisiana passes a law enforcing ,,equal but separate"access to colleges, trains, etc. Peak years of black lynchings NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) is founded; the U.S.'s oldest civil rights organization the Black Muslims, later the Nation of Islam, promotes the separation of blacks from white Americans Segregated regiments of white and African-Americans fight for the U.S. ca. 1 mio. African-American soldiers fight for the U.S. Rosa Parks is arrested in Montgomery, Alabama - Montgomery bus boycott |- 26-year-old Baptist Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. Begins active participation in the civil rights movement The SCLL (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) is founded to support the protest movement; leader: Martin Luther King Jr. Malcolm X becomes famous leader of Black Muslims; promotion of a separate black state and acceptance of violence as a means of self-defense Freedom Riders: black and white civil rights activists travel through the segregated South to peacefully protest against racial segregation → Gandhian philosophy of non-violent 1961 1963 - 1965 1964 1965 1965-1968 1967 1968 1992 1995 2008/2012 2012/2014 resistance - sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in southern towns January: John F. Kennedy is elected President of the U.S. - Martin Luther King Jr. Leads marches from Selma to Montgomery; civil rights activists march peacefully for the African-Americans' right to vote - 28th August: March on Washington; 250,000 people listen to Martin Luther King's famous speech ,,I have a dream ", delivered in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. - 23rd November: assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas - President Lyndon B. Johnson signs Civil Rights Act, ensuring voting rights to African- Americans - Freedom Summer: a campaign to register as many African-American voters in the state of Mississippi as possible - revival of the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi - 21st February: assassination of Malcolm X - President Lyndon B. Johnson signs Voting Rights Act; literacy tests required to be allowed to vote are suspended in order to allow many illiterate southern blacks to vote Black Power Movement; stronger political focus; urban protests - Black Panthers: culminating frustration; radicalization; guns; urban protests - Martin Luther King launches Poor People's Campaign: economic protest and civil disobedience of rural and urban poor of all races - 3rd April: Martin Luther King is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee - eruption of violence in 125 cities nationwide April: riots in Los Angeles following the beating of African-American Rodney King by white policemen October: Million Man March to Washington D.C. organized by the Nation of Islam to promote,,unity, atonement, and brotherhood "; more than 250,000 participants Barack Obama becomes first African-American President - public protests following the killing of unarmed African-American teenagers - 26th February 2012: 17-year-old African-American teenager Trayvon Martin is shot by a Hispanic security officer in Sanford, Florida - 9th August 204: 18-year-old African-American student Michael Brown is shot by a white police officer in Ferguson, Missouri Overview: - One of the largest ethnic minorities in US: 13% of population - Were called "Negroes" or were abused as "niggers" - Today politically correct term is African American or Black Terminology: coloured black negro Afro-American People of color African-Americar It is an ethnic scriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era). The term denoted non-"white" individuals generally. In the US it is among the most offensive words for describing a black person The term is used to describe people who are perceived as dark-skinned compared to other populations. Today the term is often used equivalent to 'African-American ". Depending on the context it might also have a negative connotation. It means ,,black" in both Spanish and Portuguese. From the 18th century to the mid-20th century, it was considered the correct and proper term for African Americans. It fell out of favour by the 1970s in the United States. In current English language usage, it is considered acceptable in a historical context or in the name of older organizations. Otherwise, it is considered offensive in the US A term used to describe an American of African descent. The term was highly popular in the 1960s. It has fallen out of favour in recent years for the more politically correct twoword phrase „African American". Possibly because people think that the prefix „Afro-" is derogatory (abwertend). The term is today primarily used in the United States to describe any person who is not considered white. In the late 20th century, the term was adopted as a preferable replacement to „non-white." In the 1980s, the term was advanced on the model of, for example, GermanAmerican to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience in 1988. Slavery: - Early 17th century: Transatlantic slave trade ➜ trian trade - Appalling conditions on tightly packed ships many Africans died on journey - Traditional form of slavery: chattel slavery Humans treated as personal property of owner → Bought and sold as if commodities Mainly forced to work on large cotton/tobacco plantations in southern colonies Working conditions: hot / humid → hard ➜ Others exploited as servants for household North America Sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Europe Slaves to the Americas Europe Textiles, rum, and manufactured goods to Africa Africa - After War of Independence (when US was found), slavery was legal in 13 original colonies Although Declaration of Independence (1776): "all men are created equal" →Principle did not include black people cause slaves not regarded as men/human Most slaves treated with brutality, degradation, inhumanity → whipped, mutilated, imprisoned, executed, slave women: subject to rape and SA Denied educational opportunities like read and write (to prevent escape or rebellion) - Anti-slavery societies forms Raised moral questions, advocated abolition · 1807: Pres. Jefferson signed legislation that officially ended African slave trade Still trade within US increased cause cheap labour and shows wealth of south - Slave revolts rare/always failed Many slaves tried to flee to northern states or Canada (where slavery was banned) → Approx. 100.000 slaves escaped ➜ If recaptured: endure terrible punishments, helpers faced fines/prison sentence - Secret organisation: Underground Railroad (early to mid-19th century) Assisted runaway slaves to freedom by taking them along secret routes and concealing in hiding places - Fugitive Slave Act (1850) Part of Compromise of North/South about issue of slavery Demanded escaped slaves who had made it to north had to be legally returned to their owners in South Civil War (1861-1865) - Between Union (North) vs. Confederate States (South) - Essentially about economic/political power and supremacy - Issue of slavery was a reason too - South (for slavery) wanted to leave the Union (against slavery), wanted to keep slavery South's agriculture depended to a large extent on the AA labour force - Industries in North were able to recruit enough works from masses of European immigrants - While War: Pres. Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation (1863) → declared slaves free - Confederate Army surrendered in 1865 Era of Reconstruction: - After End of Civil War - Politicians faced challenge of rebuilding union after secession and reviving the economy - Congress adopted the amendments to Constitution: Reconstruction Amendments 13th Amendment (1865): abolished slavery forever •14th Amendment (1868): extended US-citizenship to all former slaves •15th Amendment (1870): granted African-Americans the right to vote - Legal measure important steps, but reality looked different: •State laws/court decisions undermined them especially in South cause slaves labour force was needed to revive economy •Concept of sharecropping developed: O O O O O Tenants were given piece of land to use, but had to return some of their produce to landowner Slaves saw this as a way to independence and freedom → decided to stay in South instead seeking their chances in more progressive northern Segregation (1865-1960s): - Politically, socially the Reconstruction Amendments remained out of reach - Instead, most states passed “Black Codes" (1865/1866) states Bad harvests, exploitative bankers and creditors reduces the already meagre profits the sharecroppers could reap from land Thus, sharecropping system kept black settlers economically bound to employers •Restrict activities of freed Black citizens and ensure White population maintained control •Blacks not allowed to: own weapon, purchase land in certain areas, conduct business in some towns or testify in court •Slavery replaces by set of regulation: Jim Crow Laws Established different rules for black/white folk Segregation in prisons, hospitals, busses, toilets, benches, schools, state offices, public bars/parks, beaches, swimming pools, hote theatres, Emphasized with "whites only" or "no coloured" signs, appeared on entrances - Homer Plessy started petition on basis of Civil Rights Act of 1875 after being imprisoned for sitting in white-only streetcar ➜ Lost case: Supreme Court declared "separate but equal" facilities for blacks were not discriminatory White authorities took advantage of Court's support to extent segregation in all areas of life Facilities for Blacks were in worse shape as not funded in equal measures - Lost right to vote, which was originally given to them in 15th amendment •In order to register to vote people had to pay poll taxes and pass literacy tests •Targeted poorest and least educated parts of society (mostly blacks), causing many blacks to be disenfranchised Also discriminated in criminal justice system: •African American did not serve as Jurors because you had to be a registered voter •All-white juries biased against Black Americans and frequently convicted an punished innocent Black defendants Scottsboro Boys: O Alabama 1931: 9 Blacks boys charged with rape of 2 white women O Although women's testimonies inconsistent and recanting accusations, 8 boys sentenced to death in electric chair o Ernest Gaines' A Lesson before Dying (1993) focuses on racially biased justice O system. Jefferson, a young black man, accused of crime he did not commit, sentenced to electrocution. Fighting for Justice (1): Civil Rights Movement: - WW2: Many US-Soldiers AA, President Truman ordered desegregation of armed forces in 1948 - May 1954: Supreme Court decided "separate but equal" was unconstitutional •Ruling paved way for racial desegregation in schools •Real change was often slower to be achieved: - 1957: Pres. Eisenhower had to send military troops to Arkansas to enforce the admission to an all- White high school of 9 Black students who were hindered by angry White mob December 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama: Rosa Parks, an AA seamstress, arrested because refused to give up her seat to a White. •MLK Jr. then organised non-violent bus boycott in defence of Rosa Parks •Supreme Court decision: Montgomery bus segregation was against constitution Gave CRM new impetus and triggered of mass protest. Because of effective campaigning tactics (non-violent marches, sit-ins, boycotts) and talent as powerful orator: MLK recognised as nation's most efficient leaders of CRM 1960: JFK promised to work towards desegregation but hesitated cause he feared the lost of support of southern Democrats •MLK not satisfied: organised non-violent protests in Birmingham, Alabama to put pressure on president and bring this issue to nation attention •These protests battled down by police forces, King and other followers arrested - 28 Aug 1963: MLK led a march on Washington •To commemorate the signing of Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln exactly 100y ago •MLK delivered famous speech “I have a dream" in front of 250k Americans •Efforts rewarded with passing of two laws which officially put an end to segregation and improved legal situation of AAs fundamentally: Civil Rights Act of 1964: outlawed discrimination based on race, colour, religion, sex, or national origin, required equal access to public places and employment, and enforced desegregation of schools and the right to vote. - It took another protest march to highlight ongoing factual disenfranchisement of AA in southern states •Protestors marched from Selma to Alabama's capital Montgomery in 3 days •Protestors fell victim to police assaults till they reached goal when Pres. Johnson signed: Voting Rights Act of 1965: outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests and poll taxes as a prerequisite to voting. - MLK awarded with Nobel Prize in 1964 assassinated on 4 April 1968 at his hotel in Memphis to this day MLK is remembered for his non-violent protest actions Fighting for Justice (II): Black Power Movement: - MLK's non-violent tactics were for many Black people not radical enough - White opposition to CRM often employed aggressive countermeasures, only police, but even unofficial movements like KKK: •Ku Klux Klan (KKK): organisation of extremists who promoted White supremacy and violently opposed Civil Rights activists - From 1960s onwards: so-called Black Power Movement arose out of dissatisfaction and frustration with being at the receiving end of White cruely •Resulted in establishment of Black Panther Party in 1966 which advocated more radical protests than CRM under King Spiritual precursor: Malcolm X O Malcom Little, born in Nebraska in 1925, Was introduced to Black Muslim Movement / Nation of Islam in prison for burglary •Opposition to King's wish for a unification and peaceful coexistence of races, Nation of Islam believed in racial separation → reached with violence O AA should form own institutions, credit unions, political parties •Later he softened his aggressive/hateful attitude and was often criticized by members of BPM In 1965 gunned down in NYC by 3 assassins - Stokely Carmichael/Kwame Ture: •Discontent: don't beg for equal right but take them - Other leaders encouraged AA to take pride in their ethnic backgroung Embrace their blackness as positive value •Stressing African roots through style, writing songs about being black Malcolm X represented young black so- called militants and radicals from urban areas in north -spokesman of Nation of Islam (NOI), black Muslim movement -promoted segregationist to instilin blacks a pride in their African heritage -thinks that even if allowed to vote, it means nothing because vote is powerless - convinced turning the other cheek was a weak strategy -wants one community but seperated → blacks need to keep pride, percieve history & culture Martin Luther King two of most revered political activists - respected leaders of American Civil Rights movement -emphasized self-defense →non-violent=be defenseless and therefore bowing to whites - both represented two major visions of the African-American community → dis agreed with each others visions -strong symbol of reconcilation between two different visions of blacks both fighting for blacks both assassinated -passive resistance -non-violence in order to create a peaceful living & society that stands together - main focus: stop seperation & segregation in everyday life -self-respect through integration -non-violent = greatest weapon -one community/ society together →love and care, together instead of against each other -violence would lead to whites acting up on blacks African Americans Today: - Black community has made social and political progress - Easier for today's generation to achieve the American Dream than it was for their parents •Occupy leading positions in politics, international companies, sports, and entertainment - But: racial divide still exists; real equality seems to exist in theory only •AA still have to face discrimination in many fields of life •Often economically, politically, and socially disadvantaged Improved: - No more slavery No serious support of racist laws by government - Equal right Remained: - Stereotypes: African-Americans are most likely to •Be violent and involved in crimes •Be presented as aggressive + violent in movies •Be unemployed or get paid less (for same work as whites) •Disadvantaged when seeking a job •Different treatment Economic aspects: - Development of wealthy AA middle class •For many Black families prosperity is still unattainable. - Wealth gap is getting bigger: average wealth of White household about 16x the average of Black household - One quarter of AA families have no money in reserve •Any setback e.g through health issues can be devastating - AA in poverty depend on welfare programs to feed their families •Percentage of Black households which rely on welfare programs is twice as high as that of White household - ObamaCare: Number of Black people without health insurance has fallen considerably •Trump wanted to repeal ObamaCare: progress may only short-lived - Unemployment: twice as high as white Americans - Wage gap is increasing •White jobseekers often find higher-paid jobs because of educational gap - Affirmative action: introducing policies that favour racial minorities in order to reduce racial prejudice Reasons for educational deficiencies: - Some blame the system - Personal responsibilities - Black schools often unable to provide proper education due to lack of funds for facilities and staff - Children usually attend schools in their own district De facto segregation with better schools in richer areas - Themselves often responsible: lack of discipline, stamina.….. •Higher dropout rate from high school - Cycle of poverty: hard to get out, living in disadvantaged areas - Growing up in rough neighbourhood: bad influence on younger people: higher crime rate Legal aspects: - Incarceration rate (Einkerkungsrate) of black Americans is 5x higher than of whites - Racial profiling: blacks more likely to be suspected of a crime and stopped by police - African American males are more impacted by police violence - Black people are being killed by the police at more than twice the rate of white - 2014 Police shootings in which black people were victims lead to violent protests •Supported by the BLM movement •Rose again in 2020 after George Floyd killed by police officer who knelt on his neck - Diverging criminal sentences: Fair sentencing Act (2010) •whites consume cocaine, blacks crack •100g cocaine, 1g crack = same punishment - "criminal justice system is the new institution of slavery" • US prisoners have to work for almost nothing → perpetuates slavery Social aspects: - absence of the father figure has a negative effect on children •70% of African Americans grow up without a father higher rate of teenage pregnancy, poor educational performance - family breakdown → major factor contributing juvenile delinquency - equality still a long way off - American dream stays dream •Social effects of a life in the ghettos: bad housing condition, poverty, violence, alcohol/drugs, unemployment, gang related crime, no positive role models: prostitution, thief, etc. → bad future outlook - country still struggles with racism and prejudices -> getting worse again - "the legacy of slavery and the Jim crow laws did not suddenly vanish just because acts were passed, or Obama was elected" The Coronavirus on the African Americans: - Impact of the virus is huge on black community •At some places: deaths have been higher - Dealing with issues like health, economical, poverty, education, systematic racism .e.g in overcrowded urban areas high rates of asthma, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease - NOT TO FORGET: the lack of health insurance and difficult access to quality health care services How should they quarantine themselves or follow social distancing rules, when they live in a house with several families Affirmative Action: - Describes certain laws and policies of making sure that people such as women, people from ethnic minorities and disabled people get a fair share of opportunities available - AIM: end discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender reverse/positive discrimination - In public institutions: e.g universities, schools, police, army - Government: maintained a position somewhere in the middle ● the Supreme Court has banned the use of strict quotas in universities affirmative action remains a policy supported by the Federal Government •debate continues on how American society can truly embrace diversity Pro Provides equal basis for black and white students Reflects diversity in a democratic society Adequate measure of helping minorities who in real life suffer f. discrimination a way to help compensate for the fact that, due to many years of oppression, some races "started late in the race." African American literature: Contra reverse discrimination: past discrimination against certain minority groups does not justify present discrimination against non-minorities destroys the idea of a meritocracy and instead puts race as the dominant factor in admissions and hiring procedures People given a position purely because of affirmative action often are not qualified, and the idea that all people of that race must be "stupid" is perpetuated The roots: - since early 17th century, when slavery began - slaves who could neither write nor read expressed feelings/hopes in native vernacular ⚫oral tradition in of spirituals, work songs, gospels, folktales and sermons •themes: depressing reality, pain of slavery, hope of being freed one day often contained coded or secret messages - first known work of African American literature: Lucy terry - Bars Fight (ballad) - Opinions were divided: •some slave traders told their slaves how to read and to write •some others thought slaves were incapable of literature expression - Phillip Wheatley was the first African American to publish a book his owner promoted his literary talent he was set free afterwards ,,Slave narrative": The slave narrative is a genre of literature that was written mostly between the mid 1700s and the late 1800s by African slaves in America. The narratives were either written by the slaves themselves or dictated by them to someone else who wrote their accounts. Some were even passed orally. These narratives were the accounts of the horrors of capture, sale and mistreatment as a slave. Slave narratives of the 19th century - slave narratives became the dominant form of African American writing in the 19th century - G.M Horton was the first African American who protested in verse - David Wilson (white who published slave story) Title: Twelve years a slave: most popular book, written out of the slave narrative, also a film version of the book The post-slavery era - two important events: Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th Amendment, that abolished slavery - two African American writers that gained prominence in the post-slavery era •Booker. T. Washington: African Americans should try to advance economically and try to win respect through their hard work and industrial training this view was very criticised • William E. B. Du Bois: demanded that African American achieve not only economic equality with the white people, but also civil and political equality Great Migration and Harlem Renaissance: - because of the Jim Crow laws many black people moved to the North migration had impact on music, arts, literature O result: Harlem Renaissance: rebirth of African American culture/ beginning of modern African American literature and artist - Harlem: district in New York with all kinds of artists - e.g.: Claude McKay •treated the subjects identity, race and class in his work - e.g.: Langston Hughes: equality, hope and pride in his heritage - In the 1920 and early 30s - the Jazz Age or Roaring Twenties - Harlem was a great place for entertaining, for white Americans as well. •African American literature found its way into mainstream American culture From the Great Depression to the Civil Rights Movement: - Harlem Renaissance came to end because of the collapse of the stock market 1929 (Börsencrash) - writing about lifes, discrimination, identity as a black men... • e.g. Ralph Ellison or James Baldwin - Civil Rights Movement ushered (einführen) in a new phase - number of playwrights came to national attention e.g Lorraine Hansberry ("Harlem", about a poor black family living under racial segregation) - African American authors used their craft as weapon in the campaign to free black America e.g. Muhammad Ali, Malcolm X biography about Malcolm X: regarded as an important and influential piece of American literature in this era Recent African American literature: Alex Haley Roots: story of seven generations of Africans and African Americans, was made into a television series - Alice Walker: Toni Morrison: one of the most important authors of contemporary African American culture novel: Beloved won the Nobel Prize for literature: first African American women to receive this honour novels, short stories, and poems, won awards - Colson Whitehead: sets the tone ntroduces the characters and Atmosphere and how its created: - Beginning of novel sets tone for what is to follow - Introduces the reader to setting, characters and issued novel deals with with, as well cteristic of the Underground Railroad: huge success and won several notable prizes atmosphere setting/circumstances + consider these aspects: - Setting/circumstances - Narrator's voice characters narrator's voice the place the time weather objects (eg. houses, plants, artefacts) the situation appearance -behaviour -language Interaction its concrete as well as symbolic meaning. connota- tions, etc. how they add to the atmosphere choice of words use of imagery, contrasts and other devices allusions, e.g. also to previous/future events guiding the reader's understan- ding of the scene Setting: meaning of setting for characters (e.g. neutral, positive, negative, certain associations/experiences connected with the place) Description of objects: certain choice of words to describe something/someone (e.g. as a threat) Imagery: symbolic/metaphorical meaning of places, objects, circumstances (e.g. weather conditions) •Allusions: expressions, objects, etc. that may refer back to previous events (flashback) or to what is to happen later (foreshadowing) •Contrasts: contrasts (or opposite: harmony) between characters, objects, setting Character's language: addressing issues (in)directly, exaggeration or euphemism •Way of looking/behaving: characters may create tension by expressing emotions in what they do and how they look ● Style - Style: typical way of writing or speaking used by a person; choice of tone, grammar, and narrative techniques - Tone: general mood, feeling or attitude being expressed, it is the emotional content of a text rather than the devices used - Register: choice of words, style, grammar used in certain social context; reflects social status; situations often have rules for appropriate register → Form follows function: comment on the way theses devices are used to convey an impression Situation Formal: in a formal speech or letter; addressing someone unknown or higher in a hierarchy Informal: used in spoken rather than written language when speakers know each other well Literary: used mainly in written literary texts Features - Respectful, neutral, detached style - Complete and complex sentences - Formal expressions - Foreign/specialist words More personal and familiar style - Simple sentences, can be incomplete or ungrammatical, dialect or slang - Vivid, colloquial, or vulgar expressions - Eloquent/elevant style - Complex sentences - Rich vocabulary - Use of stylistic devices - Can combine registers for various effects Examples After analysing the evidence, the hypothesis was concluded to be correct →→ I would be grateful for your advice on this Morning all! - How's things? - Fancy a cuppa? - Gotta go get a donut - Ain't you got brains? C'mon, stupid, "So, we went on in the quiet, and the twilight deepened into night. The clear blue of the distances faded, and one star after another came out." Narrative perspective: First Person Third Person ominiscient Third person limited Stylistic devices: Allusion (Anspielung) Symbol Metaphor Limited to this character's thoughts/feelings Usually one of main characters |- Reader gets close to this character Knows everything about the characters and about the background of the story Has the power to limit information Sometime comments on the situation or the character's behaviour - Tells story from outside, but knows only about the feelings/thoughts of one character - brief reference to a person, place, thing, event or idea in history or literature - require common reading and cultural experiences - something concrete (person, object, image, word, event) - stands for something abstract, invisible - comparison between two things which are quite different without using like or as - simile: one thing is like another - metaphor: one thing is another The old man and the computer (allusion to The Old man and the Sea) The Cross is the symbol of Christianity. The dove symbolizes peace/ is symbolic of peace. All the world's a stage/ And all the men and women merely players... (Shakespeare) Book: Dear Martin: In DEAR MARTIN, Justyce McAllister attends an exclusive private school with mostly White students. He's on the debate team, has some of the best grades in his class, and is certain he's headed to Yale. Then one night changes his life and puts him on a path that has him questioning why things happen and what he can do to change them. His Dear Martin project, in which he tries to live like Martin Luther King Jr., is put in jeopardy from the moment he's put in handcuffs. Tested by racist classmates, sceptical friends from his former neighbourhood, and a rain of bullets, Justyce finds himself a target in the battle over police brutality and race. Endearing and painfully realistic, this could be a news story any day in America. Dear Martin author Nic Stone manages not only to maintain the characters' humanity in what could easily become a paint-by-number pulled-from-the-headlines story, but also breathes a realness into each character so they become just like people readers already know. Stone moves beyond character archetypes into fully realized humans with a depth and fragility that's sometimes lost in current-events novels. From seeing the micro-aggressions and posttraumatic stress brought on by a frightening encounter with the police, to experiencing the everyday details of first relationships and parental expectations, readers slip easily into Justyce's mind and feelings, truly going on this journey with him. Dear Martin is told in an alternating mix of third-person narration, script-like dialogues, and letters to Martin Luther King Jr. It's well-written, honest, and a gut punch that leaves readers thinking about it for weeks after reading it. What was Nic Stone's motivation to write the novel? Stone met 3 African Americans in high-school and all of them had sad stories. She wanted to rectify the point where the assigned reading no longer reflects experiences and to give people in high- school information and experiences which she had not had at her time in high-school. What was Dear Martin inspired by? The novel was inspired by current events like the murder of the innocent Jason Davis in November 2018 in Florida. He and his friend went to a convenience store to buy some snacks and had their music loud in the parking lot. A white person was not happy with the volume which made him kill Jason Davis. ● What is the underlying issue the authoress wants to address? She wants to address the underlying issue of people seeing black boys as threats before seeing them as people. What is Nic Stone's hope? She hopes that the book continues to spark conversations among us young people. We have the power to change things. Movie: Selma: Selma focuses on the efforts of Martin Luther King Jr (David Oyelowo) and the people of Selma, Alabama to secure voting rights for African Americans. Though they have the legal right to vote, they are prevented from exercising it by underhanded tactics like the poll tax and outright violence. President Johnson (Tom Wilkinson) has signed the Civil Rights Act into law and wants to focus on the issue of poverty, despite the insistence of Dr. King on working towards voting rights. Against the president's wishes and the official position of the state of Alabama and Governor Wallace (Tim Roth), King organizes a march from Selma to Montgomery in peaceful protest. Being threatened and watched by the FBI, King's marriage to his wife Coretta (Carmen Ejogo) is threatened and King suffers second thoughts about his strategy for achieving equality. Though the movement receives tremendous support both from those inside and outside of Selma, the violence from those in power is seemingly inescapable. The film is really strong in outlining King's goals and showing the obstacles to them. His policy of nonviolence is clearly defined and shown throughout the film. While nonviolence immediately sounds like a beautiful philosophy, this film shows how it is very hard and requires violence on the part of those in power to achieve any change. It's heartbreaking to see people whose only "crime" is wanting the basic rights guaranteed to them as Americans come under attack by the people who are supposed to defend those rights. It's hard to watch, but the film makes it clear that that's how nonviolence works; if those in power don't attack, people will not notice the injustice that's occurring. That's what happened in the town they were in previous to their arrival in Selma. Innocents have to get hurt in order for the nonviolence thing to work, and that's one of the many painful truths the movie makes clear. A very strong point of this movie is the supporting players and the sense of community throughout the film. Though the film doesn't shy away from showing infighting within the movement, it still manages to create a strong sense of community between the African Americans in Selma, the leaders of various groups, and the visitors who answer Dr. King's radio summons to stand with the people of Selma. The film avoids making many of them into individuals, and I don't mean this as a negative criticism, but as a good way to show solidarity (a believe a similar technique was used in Spielberg's Schindler's List). Many of them are seen as individuals, but more importantly as part of a whole group. Some of the film's most powerful scenes include people who are only in that one scene, whose names we may not know or remember but whose faces and words are unforgettable. Cultural impact: - some were movie stars and win prizes .e.g. Sidney Poitier: famous AA actor - music: all music styles (gospel, blues, jazz, rap, house, rap, hip hop, rock and roll, reggae, soul) have African American roots and have influenced musicians all over the world - they tried to express their feelings through music - many African Americans gained worldwide fame e.g. James Brown, Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston - Motown: •African American-owned label that played a significant role in the racial integration of popular music - Today's international African American music stars: Beyonce, Kanye West, Kendrick Lamar or Pharrell Williams - African Americans widely contributed to other cultural spheres: •visual arts: e.g. Gordon Parks who documented racial segregation and poverty in their daily life paintings: brown and black together with vivid colours Gospel music: - written to express personal/communal belief regarding African American Christian life - originated during slavery •African American slaves were introduced to Christian religion and converted in large numbers - traditional religious themes, performed in churches delivering God's message - during Civil Rights Movement: supported the message of many of the Civil Rights activists - gospel song: "I shall overcome" by Charles A. Tindley became basis for the CRV anthem of the 1960 "We shall overcome" - continues to make an impact on the popular music today (e.g. Adele) Has African American music a powerful voice? Pro - messages, hopes, dreams - said what they dont want and dont like (hip hop) - different kinds → everyone can identify with one - some kinds spread all over the world - community, feel it together "together we are strong" - helped them to face the injustices, poverty etc. their personal reaction Contra - others don't always understand the messages - nothing changed their circumstances - spread all over the world a lot of people noticed them, but everything is the same Black English: - used to describe the variety of English spoken by most African Americans, especially in the urban communities - also known as "African American Vernacular English" (AAVE) - developed during the time of slavery - organic and constantly changing (like all languages) Pronunciation: - consonants are often dropped at the end of words (hand → han) - th pronounced as f (mouth → mauf) Grammar: - present tense: he/she/it: no s the verb "to be" is often dropped (he is my brother he my brother, are you crazy? → you crazy?) - habitual be: indicates that something is done regularly ( he usually works on Mondays → he be working Mondays) - genitive-'s may be omitted (my mother's sister → my mother sister) - double negation: (he ain't got no money) Vocabulary: - special words and phrases sup? →whats up? •hella → a lot, many, bootsie → bad, awful Black Lives Matter Movement: The movement's aim: - active since 2013 till present day - protesting incidents of police brutality and racially motivated violence against black people •George Floyd •Trayvon Martin BLM used various of social-media platforms including #activism to reach a big amount of people - Movement has built power through protests/rallies The movement's supporter: - Majority is black - Amount of white people definitely small • Possible reason: white peoples lack of personal experience in terms of discrimination or not being educated enough on racial injustice - Young people support movement more than older generation •Because of conservative mindset/historic racism - Young people especially coming together on the internet and even protesting worldwide Forms of protests: - BLM movement is aware of how the media is representing them - Because of the actions of the racists and the impact of their actions nobody really can lack away and is kind of traumatized BLM activists also show their braveness In forms of pictures, where they shout aggressively at white police officers in order to represent the feeling of being fearless and braveness even though it is a police officer who is standing in front of them Movement's issues addressed in The Hate U Give: - Refers to issues in daily life, teenage lifestyle, modern society - Book presents similar experience as BLM-Movement "It's hazy out, and flames lick the sky" p.316, 1.26 O Refers back to BLM: fire involved, burned down shops and other buildings - "Smoke fills the air, more glass shatters. The cops get closer, and the smoke thickens." p.320, II.10f. Police was not tolerating their behaviour and used teargas to fight General overview of Movement: - BLM was necessary to certain extent, otherwise nothing would have changed - Went international, because of social media = historic event - Cause lot of attention on important topic (racism) - People were frustrated and took this chance to speak up, get heard and draw attention Outcome - Multiple mass protests in the US - Impact on popular culture and politics - Spread of protests outside of U.S. •Prompted change: City councillors have promised to reform police departments, status have toppled, and corporations have promised greater diversity and inclusivity - Mississippi is changing state flag to no longer include confederate flag - Several shows have pulled episodes featuring blackface from streaming services - Celebrities donated millions of dollars to movement's affiliated organisations - Brands have been called out for racist behaviour and lack in diversity Questions to remember when writing/analysing (political) speeches: - Situation: •When& Where is the speech held? In which society is the speech held? •Its there a special occasion for the speech? Content: •Which topics are dealt withP •What are the main points/issues? •Does the speaker show certain political/social ideologies? - Intention: •What is the speaker's aim? O How can you tell? •Does the speaker reveal his/her intentions openly or are they implicit? Does the speaker want: To inform? To reach? To attack or defend? To manipulate? To make you think about something/ponder? •Does the speaker confirm a widely spread idea/belief or does s/he encourage a discussion (e.g., by presenting the pros/cons)? •Who is addresses by the speakers? Reproaches/appeals/claims...? Terms: ,,Great House Farm": The Great House Farm" is a place where slaves were monthly allowed to go for leaving their homes. They sang happy songs and also enjoyed the rides what makes it clear that this was the only place the slaves felt joy and were happy. „The Underground Railroad": The "Underground Railroad" was a secret network that arose in the first half of the 19th century to aid slaves in escaping to freedom in the North. It consisted of secret routes and "safe houses" that provided fugitives with a hiding place and material help. Members were ex slaves, free-born blacks and white abolitionists. All members were sworn to absolute secrecy; few knew more than their own small part in showing runaway slaves the way to the free states or Canada. Fugitives generally travelled by night and on foot; many had to travel hundreds of miles before reaching freedom. During its heyday (1810-1850), the Underground Railroad was used as an escape route by about 30,000 slaves. One of its leading figures was Harriet Tubman (code name "Moses"), herself a runaway slave, who led more than a dozen secret expeditions to the South to free slaves. ,,Tuskegee Institute": Washington's aims |- blacks should be trained in craft trades + agriculture → better job chances → better living conditions „The black vote": White people's reactions - might result in trouble between the races - economic factor might decrease → no domestic service, work on farm - difficult for them to picture a black person as anything other than a slave - interested in project -really interested - give advice - financial support - did not like the idea - black people would lose their value as farm workers - might not want them to do more skilled jobs During the Reconstruction Era (1865–1877) following the end of the Civil War, the sovereignty of the former states of the Confederacy (that had rebelled against the Union) was limited by the federal government (and enforced by the continued presence of the US Army in the South). Congress used its position to force the Southern states to accept the radical reforms contained in the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, which abolished slavery, declared all persons born within the USA to be citizens, and prohibited the denial of voting rights ("disenfranchisement") due to race or to former (slave) status. As blacks were actually in the majority in many parts of the South, a large number of black representatives were elected to state and federal legislatures. But the newly freed slaves, largely illiterate and poor, as well as politically inexperienced, easily fell prey to dubious white politicians, often from the North (so-called "carpetbaggers"), who exploited the ignorance of black voters (or simply har bribes) in order to win public office. out In 1877 the last federal troops left the South, and a white backlash set in. Literacy tests and so-called "poll taxes" (in effect, voting fees) were imposed to keep poor blacks from voting. Where the laws failed, intimidation (including beating and lynching) succeeded, and soon black faces disappeared altogether from the halls of power. For the next 80 years, the South was ruled by white men alone; even voting districts with a solid black majority sent white Congressmen to Washington. 13th Amendment abolition of slavery 14th Amendment all people born in the USA are citizens - 15th Amendment the denial of voting rights due to race or former slaves was prohibited, "disfranchisement" ,,Lynching": From the earliest days of slavery, African Americans did not enjoy the same protection under the law as white Americans. On the contrary, the judicial system of the South was part of the apparatus designed to keep black people “in their place". A white man who killed a black seldom had cause to fear punishment; on the other hand, countless blacks were arrested on made-up charges, sentenced to death by an all-white jury, or handed over to a bloodthirsty mob. Lynching was used throughout the 19th century as a means of instilling fear in the hearts of black Americans. Numerous secret societies (among them the Ku Klux Klan) were formed after 1865 to restore white supremacy to the South through violence and terror against the black population. Instances of lynching increased dramatically toward the end of the century. Of the 4,863 recorded instances of lynching in the USA between 1882 and 1968, 97% occurred in the South, and the majority of the victims were black men. Southern apologists often named the need to protect the "honour of Southern women" from black rapists to justify white lawlessness, but whites were often just fearful of a general mixing of races as intermarriage became increasingly common. Lynching any black man who so much as dared to look twice at a white woman was an effective way of discouraging contact between the races. A case in point was the brutal murder of Chicago teenager Emmett Till. In August 1955, the 14-year old travelled by train to the village of Money, Mississippi to visit relatives. One evening Emmett went with some other black teenagers to a store belonging to a white couple, Roy and Carolyn Bryant. Emmett, muscular and self-confident for his age, bragged to the other black boys about his experience with white women. They dared him to go into the store and ask the young Mrs Bryant for a date. According to witnesses, Emmett did so, and whistled at Mrs Bryant as he left the shop. Three days later, Roy Bryant and his half-brother J.W. Milam kidnapped Emmett from his great-uncle's house, brutally beat him, shot him in the head and threw his naked body into the Tallahatchie River. The two men were arrested, brought to trial, and acquitted by an all-white, all-male jury that met for only 67 minutes. The verdict caused worldwide protest. Milam, Emmett's murderer, later confessed to a journalist: "Well, what else could we do? He was hopeless. I'm no bully; I never hurt a nigger in my life. I like niggers - in their place - I know how to work 'em. But I just decided it was time a few people got put on notice. As long as I live and can do anything about it, niggers are gonna stay in their place. Niggers ain't gonna vote where I live. If they did, they'd control the government. They ain't gonna go to school with my kids. And when a nigger gets close to mentioning sex with a white woman, he's tired oʻlivin'. I'm likely to kill him. Me and my folks fought for this country, and we got some rights. I stood there in that shed and listened to that nigger throw that poison at me, and I just made up my mind. "Chicago boy,' I said, I'm tired of 'em sending your kind down here to stir up trouble. Goddam you, I'm going to make an example of you - just so everybody can know how me and my folks stand." "White supremacy": - natural superiority of light-skinned/white human races over other racial groups - white supremacists often used violence to achieve their goals (e.g.: US: Jim Crow Laws in South) - white supremacy enjoyed strong political support at that rime associated with violent groups e.g. KKK (who enjoyed same success in the US) so called "white-power"