American Dream THE AMERICAN DREAM Definition "from rags to riches" • There is no single definition of what the AD actually is AND the definition varies for each & every American • the term AD was first used by James Truslow Adams (American historian) in his book The epic of America, in 1931: "The AD is the dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunities for each according to his ability or achievement." -> a nation with unlimited opportunities basic idea: WORK HARD AND YOU WILL ACHIVE PROSPERITY REGARDLESS YOUR BACKGROUND -> no race, class, gender or nationality distinction can prevent someone from living the AD -> equality: everybody has equal opportunities and chances -> individualism: self-reliance and responsibility for own fate: individual's responsibility to make a living and succeed in a competitive society not only a dream of luxury, wealth and materialism (still mostly) BUT also: * a dream of a social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are * a dream of being able to grow to the fullest development as man & woman -> self-realisation The Dream is not only economic, but also political! The Dream is not only...
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personal/individual, but also communal! Dream: dream of... personal: freedom, dignity & happiness. economic: prosperity and success; rising from poverty to fame & fortune Social: equality (of opportunity) & a classless society religious religious freedom in a promised land" chosen by God political: democracy ● Historical background ● * religious persecution, political oppression & poverty ● Mayflower America is built on immigration 1620: Pilgrim Fathers, members of the English Separatist Church (a radical faction of Puritanism that represented the protestant reformed principles) fled from Great Britain to escape persecution at home they sailed across the Atlantic on the Mayflower and found the first permanent colony, the Plymouth Colony in what (Massachusetts) many others were also sent there for criminal offences and others were given land there many Native Americans lived in America before the pilgrims arrived → instead of assimilating the Native's culture, they stole their land and started to kill thousands of them → the Pilgrim Fathers formed a society based on bloody fights they had permission as God's chosen ones: Americans have the right to guide the whole world and to overspread it completely “e pluribus unum”: people from many colonies, states or ancestries came to America, lived there together and became a unity Declaration of Independence (4th of July 1776); * written by Thomas Jefferson ( the AD were summarized in here) to King George * idea from the Founding fathers to establish their own government built on democratic ideals * declared the 13 colonies free and independent -> political connection with GB dissolved * all American citizens are created equally * all men have unalienable rights: life: leading a secure life protected by the law government in military liberty: personal and religious freedom pursuit of happiness: - (personal & material) success and wealth - optimism and believe in anticipated success individual ways of pursuing one's and realizing one's goals equality: equal rights for men and women & for people from different ethnicities and social backgrounds * these rights are granted by god governments receive their power to reservier these rights from the people. the people can abolish their government when it does not respect their rights Constitution (1789) * establishes the principles for a democratic government Bill of rights (1791) * first 10 amendments to the American Constitution * limitations of government's power written because some delegates feared that the American government would threaten everyone's ability to achieve personal freedom and the pursuit of happiness guarantee/ensure American citizens certain invalid rights, e.g. freedom of religion, freedom of speech and the press, as well as the rights to equal justice + right to bear arms (2nd amendment): pro: American birthright con: high number of incidents of gun violence Freedom - The Statue of Liberty • given to the USA As a gift from France in 1886, to celebrate the first 100 years of American independence from Britain • a robed Woman, holding a lit torch in her right and a tablet in her left hand, showing the date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) • Symbolizes.enlightenment, independence, liberty and freedom located in Upper New York Bay Manifest Destiny (god-given-mission) was coined by the American journalist John L. O'Sullivan in 1839: • Stands for the belief that America has been chosen by God to: * expand from east coast to west coast -> from Atlantic to Pacific ocean AND spread democracy, American beliefs and western way of living across the globe * -> it was to justify and validate westward continental acquisitions • America = A country that is superior to all other countries as it being the "promised land" => American's patriotism is deeply rooted in the concept of Manifest destiny "I'm proud to be American" -> strong national pride because they see themselves as the chosen people. The Frontier (myth) * border between civilization and wilderness The Puritans (English protestants) were members of a religious reform movement (Puritanism) that arose within the church of England toward the end of the 16th century believed that the church of England was too similar to the Roman Catholic Church -> intention: to purify the Church of England from Roman Catholic practices and traditions The New Canaan (concept) • in the Bible "Canaan" was the land God promised to the Israelites he ordered Moses to lead the people from captivity in Egypt to Canaan as "a land of milk and honey" => America sees itself in this tradition as the "New Canaan" -> closely linked to Manifest Destiny E PLURIBUS UNUM scroll with the motto:" Shield shows that the USA is (always) ready to defend themselves. olive branch (with 13 leaves) 4 & dive seaves) Symbolizing peace. THE GREAT SEAL E PLURIBUS UNUM shield held by an eagle: America stands together in times of peace & was 13 stars: representing the 13. founding states · eagle: Symbolizing power. bundle of 13 arrows: representing the power of was today: it refers to the many ethnic groups that make up the population of the U.S. E PLURIBUS UNUM meaning: out of many states (13) a new unified nation (USA) was born/ is emerged L original definition ECONOMIC - Wage rates Infrastructure Job opportunities Standards of living Unemployment - better economic situation Reasons for Immigration and Emigration RELIGIOUS Oppression Discrimination 4 EDUCATIONAL - School system - College - University ⇓ slowly advanced 14% of US population => 43 Millions about 77% are legally here China: 6%. ·India: 6%. Antal Proportion from South & East Asia on the rise from Mexico: 25% (the most) - Persecution because of religious belief - escape from political and economic oppression Mexican typical reasons for immigration + AD is attractive in the U.S.. POLITICAL - Oppression -Discrimination War - Ignorance of human rights -Non-democratic government - Death penalty US = nation of immigrants: Founding Fathers as immigrants from IMMIGRATION undocumented (illegal) population about 11 mu. naturalized citizens. THE US-MEXICO BORDER meant: to pairol traffic between them now: center for drugs • • to prevent illegal immigration to the U.S. & gun frade, gang activities & illegally smuggling people into U.S. American Lo Mexican sewage from a River along the border leaks into. U.S. daily → pollution of near ameri. are as 1,952 miles long Pacific ocean Cablurin Alizuna person born in a country other than his country of residence Sonar United States Mexico Hexio Condi Lean Gulf of Mexico Tomeclipes 1st generation Feeling of disorientation and disillusionment for new arrivals Language barriers Different norms, habits and traditions Inequalities increase Low-paid, unskilled jobs and live in inner city areas with poor housing Subject to prejudice, discrimination Ethnic neigbourhoods promote segregation Integration without assimilation ● ● U.S. citizens & LPRS immigrants after 5 1. Family-based- immigration only people with an immigrant visa •LPR's can work & live lawfully & permanently in USA با bring certain family members to the U.S. LPR-=lawful permanent resident for - 2nd generation Culture clash between parents and children: adapting to western lifestyle vs. living according to traditional cultural values Caught between to cultures and opposing expectations Living up to parents' expectations vs. foreign-born leading own life parent. Identity crisis Racism, inequality Lomy of !! years residing in the U.S. application for U.S. citizenship possible LAWS/REGULATION WAYS TO IMMIGRATE 3. Per-Country- 2. Employement - Based Immigration Ceilings possible immigration a limit for how (permanent/temporary many immigrants for immigrants. with valuable skills can come to the U.S. from one country native-born person with at least one 4. Refugees # Zulassung admission depends ∙on. degree of risk • family in the US.? 83% of U.S. population: immigrants strengthen the country with their hard work. : immigrants are a burden Multicultural society -> ways of integration a society where various ethnic groups and their cultural heritage are accepted in their own right SALAD BOWL: * the various heritages do jot merge into one, but stay distinct: "unity in diversity". * mostly strong cultural ties are kept to the home countries * problems: racism, discrimination, ethnic disadvantages => MULTICULTURALISM MELTING POT: *the various ethnic groups do not retain their cultural heritage but amalgamate into one new nation * immigrants give up most of their national identity, way of life, language and culture -> they became part of an unified, monocultural American nation => ASSIMILATION SEPARATE BUT EQUAL * coexistence of common public space (-> shared by all) and private space (->with cultural separation) Public space: multicultural; governed by agreed values & common language Private space: "ghettoized", individualized and personal ==> separate private lives in a common public space that is equal to all Ellis Island: an island of hopes a federal immigration station from 1892-1954 • it's a small island on the Hudson River which was an entry station for immigrants over 12,000 poor and politically persecuted people Or people who were excluded do it through their religion arrived they are daily and dreamed of and you better life in the USA • they had to go through strict controls and the medical test and had only 60 seconds to answer lots of questions. -> if they failed they were detained there for legal or even sent back to their home countries; is also called "the isle of tears" CIVIL WAR war between the North (->Union) and the South (->Confederacy) an official abolition of slavery, but still : no end of discrimination and racism against black people especially in the South * CIVIL RIGHTS: guarantees of equal social opportunities and equal protection under the law regardless of race, religion or other personal characteristics example: right to use public facilities. CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT: * mainly during the 1950s & 1960s was a struggle for social justice secure equal access and opportunities for African Americans means: non-violent protests, civil disobedience and boycotts MARTIN LUTHER KING: * * AFRO-AMERICANS IN THE US * 1928-1968 * leader of the CRM in the 50's & 60's * excellent orator, great advocate of non-violent protests most famous speech " I Have A Dream" in Washington -> against racism and segregation * his assassination caused a wave of riots ABRAHAM LINCOLN: the freer of the slaves * 1809-1865 * 16th president of the U.S.: opposed strongly against slavery and was determined to limit the expansion of slavery westward * 13th amendment: officially abolished slavery in America -> Lincoln supported its ratification * ROSA PARKS: Montgomery Bus Boycott symbolic figure of the civil rights movement 1955 in Montgomery: she rejected bus driver's order to vacate her seat for a white passenger => resistance of bus segregation George Floyde's death: there is still segregration in America * * dream" (aspirations; ideals) reality for the Black people (key figure(s) * * abolition of slavery * implementation of freedom & equality equal opportunities * From slavery to the #BlackLivesMatter Movement 1963 1863 * Southern states: protectionists of slavery Northern states: opponents of slavery ==> CIVIL WAR * Emancipation Proclamation: Paved the way for legal abolition of slavery, but discrimination segregation and social exclusion were still prevalent ABRAHAM LINCOLN with the Emancipation Proclamation * "inalienable rights of life, liberty * better education programs for and the pursuit of happiness" * social mobility all * tolerance & acceptance * * justice execution of existing laws & * brotherhood ( of black & white) constitutional rights (* justice and equality) segregation: white & black by Jim Crow Laws-> black peoples had the worst jobs & lowest standard of education * * discrimination & oppression * poverty MARTIN LUTHER KING: CRM & I Have A Dream (1963) ROSA PARKS: Montgomery Bus Boycott 2016 * (still) unable to participate in the American economy persistent racial disparities poverty less home ownerships (Besitz) *police brutality (George Floyd in 2020) ==> not much has changed since 1970 * BARACK HUSSEIN OBAMA: former president of US as proof of black people's ascendancy/ power Reality/criticism * no Social System in the US => e.g. less chances when you are disabled * no Standard school System => e.g. private schools, wealthy families can afford better education * high tuition fees -> difficult to climb up the social ladder -> debts -> suicide rates * poverty => 46.2 million people in the US are considered to be poor especially black people often: methods to accumulate the material wealth are immoral and corrupt (e.g. organized crime like drug dealing) -> Social principles and moral values are neglected * * full achievement of AD is never possible, as long as one is not pleased and grateful in their lives, bc unfortunately human's nature/flaw (strength but also weakness): High ambitions and aspirations => constant greed for more & discontentment with the present achievements = never truly happy and satisfied "He who is not content with what he has, would not be content with what he would like to have." (Socrates) *.The definition and the achievement of the American dream cannot be generalized, but must be individualized ● · Is the AD still alive? PRO People can still achieve their aims if they work hard Lo success stories: Bill Gates, Oprah Winfrey Arnold Schwarzenegger, Mark Zuckerberg Barack Obama (first black president) consider them as a living proof of it's attainability Lote is the epitome of the motto "from" rags to riches" "permanent diseases /inherent disabilities" complicate it to work hard. BUT: the AD says, it is always accor- ding to their abilities all included in /part of the AD • free education for everyone. 4 colleges & univer. offer scholarships for gifted students it's about equality of opportunities, not equality of rich & poor + equal opportunities (still) does not mean that everybody will succed 4 own responsibility & self-reliance CONTRA Those people who made their dream come true, make headlines The thousands who don't succeed go unnoticed → not only work matters, but also luck & destiny (-D coincidence) •it incapable of working hard le.g. handicapped / inherent disabilities). you will not receive as much financial help as you would in Europe Богоре high quality schools /uni, are expensive to The rich becomes riches, the poor stays poor ● limited chances to climb the career ladder, when I fault: State not enough well-paid-jobs (e.g.: due to outsourcing) → no job = no working hard = no prosperity = no AD many ethnic minorities fare less well Is Afro-American have a lower median income than eg. Asians AD: for (rich) whites only? • pursuit of material things I disaster, climate change & pollution Pilgrim Fathers (religious) persecution obstacle assimilation disadvantageous beneficence immutable to endowe normality, normalcy segregation de segregation captivity dispute sporadical sewage boycott opposition prevalent abolition (a-bo-li-tion). disparity ascendancy enfranchisement doom to failure inconsistency consistent for instance government bailouts naturalisation 4naturalized citizens to prosper </l settlers of Playmouth religiöse Verfolgung Hindernis Integration / Angleichen nachteilig Wohltätigkeit Unveranderlich ausstatten, schenken Normalitāt Rassentrennung Gefangenschaft Streit / Auseinandersetzung sporadisch (→ ab und zu) Kanalisation Aussperrung, Abschnürung Widerspruch vorherrschend Abschaffung Ungleichheit Aufstieg / Vormachtstellung Entrechtung (→ Entrechten / Missachten) Unstimmigkeit einheitlich Rettungsaktion, die von der Regiering ausgehen Einbürgerung eingebürgerte Bürger (ocitizens of US) Erfolg haben /in Wohlsland leben welfare prosperity settler correspond to the ideals career ladder coincidental virtually rassistisch diskriminierend attainable reachable aspiration to be doomed to style of language to bootleg trace consumerism hedonism lavish aimlessness to depict evident later course of (presentation) thus / hence to embody the topmost (Kon-sum-e-risem) exclusiveness to humiliate Fürsorge / Wohlergehen / Wohl Wohlsland / Reichtum Siedler den Idealen entsprechen Karriereleiter zufällig nahezu; praktisch racist discriminatory (dis-cri-mi-nai-to-ry) erreichbar erreichbar Streben verdammt sein Sprachenstil selling alcohol illegally Spur Konsum Streben nach Lust / Genuss verschwenderisch Ziellosigkeit darstellen offensichtlich I'm spätoen Verlauf somit /daher verkörpern der oberste high rank demütiger to claim your heritage prosperous / wealthy ) demise downfall to be inclined to tend /incline flaw callous restoration light ray overvaluation mistake contradictory approximately welfare sypten chain reaction in relation to impeccable Esbe beansprucher wollhabend Untergary Untergay geneigt sein neiger Feller gefühlslos Wiederherstellung Lichtstraul überbewertung widersprüchlich ungefähr Sozialhilfe System Kettenreaktion in Bezug auf tadellos / perfekt