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Analyzing a non-fictional article

Analyzing a non-fictional article

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Analyzing a non-fictional article (newspaper articles, online articles...) HI E Q2 LK
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Analyzing a non-fictional article

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Romina

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11/12/13

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-structure/line of argument -argumentative strategies/ communicative strategies/persuasive techniques -Language

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Abschnitte einteren. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Analyzing a non-fictional article (newspaper articles, online articles...) HI E Q2 LK Purposes most authors have when writing an article: In many articles, authors use structure, communicative strategies and language to either... inform the reader or raise awareness of a problem, a trend, a phenomenon or... convince readers of an opinion, a worldview and/or... [the last two are often combined] move the reader, the government or society towards action (challenging sb to do sth, e.g. to vote) Estructure/ line of argument Typical elements/parts of articles (but not in each one!): introduction (e.g. pointing out a problem / recent trend/ dilemma/ a popular opinion/ sharing a personal example...) a definition (of an important concept/term) stating a thesis/ suggestion/ asking a guiding question opposing view (how others argue or think about a certain problem), often followed by a... O refutation (=Widerlegung) of counterarguments history/ background information of a topic (what happened in the past with X, how things have developed recently) (further) explanation/ illustration of a situation; elaboration of a problem/ situation: O e.g. examples O personal experiences/ anecdotes arguments+ evidence in favour of the author's opinion conclusion/ outlook O e.g. offering a solution O asking/predicting how things will be in the future ● ● ● Language help for outlining a structure: The author/ [name of author] starts off with/ begins with/... provides several arguments/ facts for... ● concedes/admits that [räumt...

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ein, gibt zu]... but then argues/proves/ refutes... compares... with.../ criticizes/ illustrates/... uses... to get the reader on his/her side concludes by suggesting.../ reaffirming/ providing an outlook/... ● ● ● Many articles start with a specific example/event/ person and then present the problem on a more general level. argumentative strategies/communicative strategies/ persuasive techniques Communicative strategies are (generally speaking) are all the means used to convince readers that have to do more with the actual content than the language. However, the boundaries between these two are fuzzy. use of pronouns O inclusive language (use of personal pronouns such as we, us etc.) → establishes a (personal) connection, creates a sense of belonging/ unity direct address: e.g. you should think about... raises awareness, forces reader to think about his/her own life, challenges reader, creates a personal connection... giving specific, authentic and/or current examples e.g. a particular person who has done sth; a concrete event → to highlight the topicality of the topic; to exemplify/ illustrate a problem/trend sharing personal anecdotes/ stories → establishes an emotional connection with the reader, making a general problem more relatable appealing to authority: using the opinion of an expert (e.g. a president) or authority figure to impress audience or prove a point, show that the author is well-informed use of quotes (often by someone famous) → to quote an authority, to sum up sth, make sth more humorous citing statistics/ evidence: make writer's argument more convincing/ credible providing background information: → to help the reader understand a complex topic; to help readers see "the big picture", to see how an event is part of a bigger/complex history, to show the author's competence use of details - facts that are included (and those that are omitted (=left out)) → What are the connotations of their choice of details? (e.g. including a woman's profession/age/ furniture in her house etc.) raising (genuine) questions → get the reader to think (of/ about)/ reflect (on sth) rhetorical questions: a question asked to make a point rather than to get an answer →Suggests that the 'answer' is self-evident and therefore the reader must agree with it. (Anot every question in an article is a rhetorical question - some questions are genuine!) provocative title: such a title that creates suspense (Netflix destroyed my life. Here is why.) generalization: A sweeping/ general statement that suggests what is true for some is true for all ('Today's young royals are rich, famous and fond of partying')→ simplifies complex issues offering several viewpoints: to make an article more balanced, to make the author appear balanced A- }}} 4E → These means are often used to... make the article more credible & convincing (reader is more inclined to believe the author; e.g. by using quotes, statistics, examples) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Style serious, distant, impersonal, impartial typical news stories (e.g. BCC, tages- schau) many quotes and facts. Rather informative, balanced and analytical - not emotional make the article more understandable & relatable (reader is moved by the article, can feel the problem; e.g. by using personal stories/ examples; anecdotes) shock / surprise/ amuse/ get connected to the reader (reader is emotionally involved (e.g. by use of humor, shocking examples, anecdotes) increase the impact of the main point (e.g. by using examples, details) catch/ raise the reader's interest (e.g. with puns, provocative titles) create a conversational style (e.g. with the help of questions) simplify a complex topic (e.g. through generalizations, omission (leaving out) of details) create/ establish a connection with the reader (e.g. through personal stories, inclusive pronouns) challenge the reader (e.g. by using direct address, asking direct questions) informal style (colloquial, casual speech, slang, short forms, direct address (you), chatty speech such as "I mean...", "stuff") → establishes a (rather emotional) connection with readers Syntax/Sentence structure What are the sentences like? Are they simple with one or two clauses (paratactic)? Complex (hypotactic)? O Is there antithesis, chiasmus, a parallel construction? What emotional impression do they leave? Language (style, syntax, tone, choice of words, stylistic devices) Authors often use words, sentences or imagery very intentionally. Examine how! formal style (eloquent/ professional neutral style, sophisticated use of language, formal expressions, technical terms, impersonal, distant, no direct address or I) → appears more serious/ scientific/ professional → How a sentence is constructed affects the style and tone of a text: O O Parallel syntax (similarly styled phrases & sentences) creates interconnected emotions, feelings& ideas. Short sentences are informal, punchy, intense and easy to remember (e.g. This has to stop. Seriously.) Long sentences are distancing, reflective and more abstract; often a sign of a formal/academic style. O Tone The mood or feeling of the language used by a writer, often revealing his attitude. Examples: 99 humorous, jovial, ironic, witty(=geistreich) authentic, vulnerable filled with jokes, understatements, puns, funny anecdotes, self- mocking humor (=author makes fun of himself), unusual language... hopeful, enthusiastic, optimistic, patriotic e.g. articles praising a new technology, a president giving a hopeful/ positive speech, use of superlatives ("amazing", "incredible"...) A shift in tone within an article (e.g. from humorous to worried) can be used to persuade the reader. Always include evidence (why do you think the tone is overall mocking?) + Include line numbers! A tone can often be detected by the choice of certain words or word fields. → Choice of words/ diction/ word fields melancholic, sentimental, nostalgic filled with personal stories; heartfelt; reader should feel the pain/ emotions; sharing "from the heart" OO rather sad tone which emphasizes how sth is not as good as it used to be; how times have changed concerned, worried, (pessimistic) full of problems and warnings, worried about the future, mocking (=lustig- machend), provocative makes fun of sb/sth; use of sarcasm challenging, angry, bitter, aggressive, cynical very urgent way of writing (e.g. "We have to change sth. NOW"; mostly negative/ judgmental words, often little balance Watch out for words (or phrases) that have either strong positive or negative connotations (e.g.: exciting, unique, courageous, smart... Ogloomy, miserable, bleak, dark, pressure, picky...) Look for word fields: Are there words used that go together? (e.g. word field "war": battle, fight, bomb...) → associated meanings of words arouse feelings and attitudes that influence/position the reader. → Consider the author's word choice. Why did the author choose this particular word (not another one)? Important stylistic devices structural devices alliteration: words starting with the same letter (bold, bright and beautiful) anaphora: sentences starting the same (I didn't like his hairstyle. I didn't like his mouth. I didn't...) climax: There are three things that will endure: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love. ● ● → Some typical effects of stylistic devices A stylistic device can... ● ● ● images/figurative devices metaphor: A metaphor is an imaginative way of describing something by referring to sth else which is the same/ similar. Example: Laughter is the best medicine. His words are pearls of wisdom. simile: like a metaphor, but with like or as: they were like Romeo and Juliet; His kisses are like roses... devices of style and tone hyperbole: an absolutely fantastic book (=exaggeration) euphemism: (Beschönigung) → often used to downplay/hide negative consequences ● ● ● enumeration: an old, bitter and evil person (often used to underline that many groups of people are affected by this issue.) parallelism: My face is washed, my hair is combed, and my teeth are brushed. antithesis/ contrasts: a fire-and-ice relationship. / That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. repetition: "March for your rights!" He cried, and we marched and marched.... pun (Wortspiel): A play on a word that suggests a double meaning. (-> Grabs the reader's interest and attention, especially through the use of humour.; e.g. Atheism is a non-prophet institution) irony/ sarcasm: → The reader is positioned to share in the writer's ridicule (and rejection) of an idea or object. allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly ("Big Brother" → allusion to the novel 1984) more stylistic devices: see worksheet stylistic devices ● ● parenthesis (Einschub): So at the end, Daniela - God bless her - ended up... ellipsis: leaving out words: John can speak seven languages, but Ron can speak only two. ● Tips for developing an "analytical eye" and "seeing" things in an article: "That's weird": Go through each sentence and see whether you think there is something unusual there - maybe an image, a strange sentence structure, an exaggeration... "Scan the article": Think of some typical stylistic devices you know (e.g. metaphors, contrasts...) and see whether they might be in the article. "Why do I feel this?" How does the article make you feel/ think? Convinced? Challenged? Amused? Surprised? Then see why and how the article makes you feel this way. "So what?" So you found an enumeration. Great! But that alone is not a very significant insight. What does it do? What's the effect of it? Sometimes it is better to focus on important findings than listing loads of devices. "What's the big picture" - what do all these things you found out have in common? What is the overall effect of all your findings? Does the author want to criticize, warn, inform, provoke, challenge...?) ● personifications: Huge cities never sleep. (a human quality/ action (sleep) is attributed to sth non-human (a city) metonymy: London wants to... (London British government). The White House declared (WH=US government). The pen is mightier than the sword. (pen= written word; sword = military power) Tips for writing & organizing your analysis: Start with an introduction - but not the same one as in number 1! Instead, refer to the task: engage/raise/catch the reader's attention (e.g. with repetitions, puns) create a memorable or vivid image (e.g. with metaphors, similies, personifications) make the topic/text more dramatic, create a dramatic atmosphere (e.g. with a metaphor: Germany is at a cliff. Will we fall?) to produce a rhythmic effect and emphasis (e.g. through alliterations) simplify a complex issue; offering clear-cut alternatives (e.g. contrast, antithesis) present the author's comments/ opinion (e.g. in a parenthesis) entertain the reader (e.g. through puns, hyperboles, odd metaphors) O Example: X uses many communicative strategies and stylistic devices to point out how dangerous Y is / to express his anger about/ to argue that. | In the following, [state what you are doing] USE PARAGRAPHS! They greatly increase the readability and the structure of your analysis! O Each analytical aspect should be dealt with in one paragraph (e.g. tone= 1 paragraph) O Start each paragraph with a topic sentence, stating the topic of the paragraph. Use the simple present. While doing so, don't forget the He-she-it-s (e.g. the author states). Quote properly & back up your findings. Check out the method sheet ("How to argue and quote properly"). Group your insights carefully and logically. Don't just analyse the text line-by-line O Let's say you found a metaphor in I. 3 and in I. 29 and an anaphora in I. 15. What do you do? → First, analyse the metaphors and then continue with the anaphora. End your analysis with a conclusion O What is most striking about the article? Summarise what you think are your most important analytical findings (e.g. his humorous tone, his vivid language, her use of arguments...)

Englisch /

Analyzing a non-fictional article

Analyzing a non-fictional article

R

Romina

5 Followers
 

11/12/13

Lernzettel

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Analyzing a non-fictional article (newspaper articles, online articles...) HI E Q2 LK
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-structure/line of argument -argumentative strategies/ communicative strategies/persuasive techniques -Language

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Abschnitte einteren. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Analyzing a non-fictional article (newspaper articles, online articles...) HI E Q2 LK Purposes most authors have when writing an article: In many articles, authors use structure, communicative strategies and language to either... inform the reader or raise awareness of a problem, a trend, a phenomenon or... convince readers of an opinion, a worldview and/or... [the last two are often combined] move the reader, the government or society towards action (challenging sb to do sth, e.g. to vote) Estructure/ line of argument Typical elements/parts of articles (but not in each one!): introduction (e.g. pointing out a problem / recent trend/ dilemma/ a popular opinion/ sharing a personal example...) a definition (of an important concept/term) stating a thesis/ suggestion/ asking a guiding question opposing view (how others argue or think about a certain problem), often followed by a... O refutation (=Widerlegung) of counterarguments history/ background information of a topic (what happened in the past with X, how things have developed recently) (further) explanation/ illustration of a situation; elaboration of a problem/ situation: O e.g. examples O personal experiences/ anecdotes arguments+ evidence in favour of the author's opinion conclusion/ outlook O e.g. offering a solution O asking/predicting how things will be in the future ● ● ● Language help for outlining a structure: The author/ [name of author] starts off with/ begins with/... provides several arguments/ facts for... ● concedes/admits that [räumt...

Nichts passendes dabei? Erkunde andere Fachbereiche.

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Mit dem Fragen-Feature hast du die Möglichkeit, jederzeit Fragen zu stellen und Antworten von anderen Schüler:innen zu erhalten.

Gemeinsam lernen

Mit Knowunity erhältest du Lerninhalte von anderen Schüler:innen auf eine moderne und gewohnte Art und Weise, um bestmöglich zu lernen. Schüler:innen teilen ihr Wissen, tauschen sich aus und helfen sich gegenseitig.

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Alternativer Bildtext:

ein, gibt zu]... but then argues/proves/ refutes... compares... with.../ criticizes/ illustrates/... uses... to get the reader on his/her side concludes by suggesting.../ reaffirming/ providing an outlook/... ● ● ● Many articles start with a specific example/event/ person and then present the problem on a more general level. argumentative strategies/communicative strategies/ persuasive techniques Communicative strategies are (generally speaking) are all the means used to convince readers that have to do more with the actual content than the language. However, the boundaries between these two are fuzzy. use of pronouns O inclusive language (use of personal pronouns such as we, us etc.) → establishes a (personal) connection, creates a sense of belonging/ unity direct address: e.g. you should think about... raises awareness, forces reader to think about his/her own life, challenges reader, creates a personal connection... giving specific, authentic and/or current examples e.g. a particular person who has done sth; a concrete event → to highlight the topicality of the topic; to exemplify/ illustrate a problem/trend sharing personal anecdotes/ stories → establishes an emotional connection with the reader, making a general problem more relatable appealing to authority: using the opinion of an expert (e.g. a president) or authority figure to impress audience or prove a point, show that the author is well-informed use of quotes (often by someone famous) → to quote an authority, to sum up sth, make sth more humorous citing statistics/ evidence: make writer's argument more convincing/ credible providing background information: → to help the reader understand a complex topic; to help readers see "the big picture", to see how an event is part of a bigger/complex history, to show the author's competence use of details - facts that are included (and those that are omitted (=left out)) → What are the connotations of their choice of details? (e.g. including a woman's profession/age/ furniture in her house etc.) raising (genuine) questions → get the reader to think (of/ about)/ reflect (on sth) rhetorical questions: a question asked to make a point rather than to get an answer →Suggests that the 'answer' is self-evident and therefore the reader must agree with it. (Anot every question in an article is a rhetorical question - some questions are genuine!) provocative title: such a title that creates suspense (Netflix destroyed my life. Here is why.) generalization: A sweeping/ general statement that suggests what is true for some is true for all ('Today's young royals are rich, famous and fond of partying')→ simplifies complex issues offering several viewpoints: to make an article more balanced, to make the author appear balanced A- }}} 4E → These means are often used to... make the article more credible & convincing (reader is more inclined to believe the author; e.g. by using quotes, statistics, examples) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Style serious, distant, impersonal, impartial typical news stories (e.g. BCC, tages- schau) many quotes and facts. Rather informative, balanced and analytical - not emotional make the article more understandable & relatable (reader is moved by the article, can feel the problem; e.g. by using personal stories/ examples; anecdotes) shock / surprise/ amuse/ get connected to the reader (reader is emotionally involved (e.g. by use of humor, shocking examples, anecdotes) increase the impact of the main point (e.g. by using examples, details) catch/ raise the reader's interest (e.g. with puns, provocative titles) create a conversational style (e.g. with the help of questions) simplify a complex topic (e.g. through generalizations, omission (leaving out) of details) create/ establish a connection with the reader (e.g. through personal stories, inclusive pronouns) challenge the reader (e.g. by using direct address, asking direct questions) informal style (colloquial, casual speech, slang, short forms, direct address (you), chatty speech such as "I mean...", "stuff") → establishes a (rather emotional) connection with readers Syntax/Sentence structure What are the sentences like? Are they simple with one or two clauses (paratactic)? Complex (hypotactic)? O Is there antithesis, chiasmus, a parallel construction? What emotional impression do they leave? Language (style, syntax, tone, choice of words, stylistic devices) Authors often use words, sentences or imagery very intentionally. Examine how! formal style (eloquent/ professional neutral style, sophisticated use of language, formal expressions, technical terms, impersonal, distant, no direct address or I) → appears more serious/ scientific/ professional → How a sentence is constructed affects the style and tone of a text: O O Parallel syntax (similarly styled phrases & sentences) creates interconnected emotions, feelings& ideas. Short sentences are informal, punchy, intense and easy to remember (e.g. This has to stop. Seriously.) Long sentences are distancing, reflective and more abstract; often a sign of a formal/academic style. O Tone The mood or feeling of the language used by a writer, often revealing his attitude. Examples: 99 humorous, jovial, ironic, witty(=geistreich) authentic, vulnerable filled with jokes, understatements, puns, funny anecdotes, self- mocking humor (=author makes fun of himself), unusual language... hopeful, enthusiastic, optimistic, patriotic e.g. articles praising a new technology, a president giving a hopeful/ positive speech, use of superlatives ("amazing", "incredible"...) A shift in tone within an article (e.g. from humorous to worried) can be used to persuade the reader. Always include evidence (why do you think the tone is overall mocking?) + Include line numbers! A tone can often be detected by the choice of certain words or word fields. → Choice of words/ diction/ word fields melancholic, sentimental, nostalgic filled with personal stories; heartfelt; reader should feel the pain/ emotions; sharing "from the heart" OO rather sad tone which emphasizes how sth is not as good as it used to be; how times have changed concerned, worried, (pessimistic) full of problems and warnings, worried about the future, mocking (=lustig- machend), provocative makes fun of sb/sth; use of sarcasm challenging, angry, bitter, aggressive, cynical very urgent way of writing (e.g. "We have to change sth. NOW"; mostly negative/ judgmental words, often little balance Watch out for words (or phrases) that have either strong positive or negative connotations (e.g.: exciting, unique, courageous, smart... Ogloomy, miserable, bleak, dark, pressure, picky...) Look for word fields: Are there words used that go together? (e.g. word field "war": battle, fight, bomb...) → associated meanings of words arouse feelings and attitudes that influence/position the reader. → Consider the author's word choice. Why did the author choose this particular word (not another one)? Important stylistic devices structural devices alliteration: words starting with the same letter (bold, bright and beautiful) anaphora: sentences starting the same (I didn't like his hairstyle. I didn't like his mouth. I didn't...) climax: There are three things that will endure: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love. ● ● → Some typical effects of stylistic devices A stylistic device can... ● ● ● images/figurative devices metaphor: A metaphor is an imaginative way of describing something by referring to sth else which is the same/ similar. Example: Laughter is the best medicine. His words are pearls of wisdom. simile: like a metaphor, but with like or as: they were like Romeo and Juliet; His kisses are like roses... devices of style and tone hyperbole: an absolutely fantastic book (=exaggeration) euphemism: (Beschönigung) → often used to downplay/hide negative consequences ● ● ● enumeration: an old, bitter and evil person (often used to underline that many groups of people are affected by this issue.) parallelism: My face is washed, my hair is combed, and my teeth are brushed. antithesis/ contrasts: a fire-and-ice relationship. / That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. repetition: "March for your rights!" He cried, and we marched and marched.... pun (Wortspiel): A play on a word that suggests a double meaning. (-> Grabs the reader's interest and attention, especially through the use of humour.; e.g. Atheism is a non-prophet institution) irony/ sarcasm: → The reader is positioned to share in the writer's ridicule (and rejection) of an idea or object. allusion: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly ("Big Brother" → allusion to the novel 1984) more stylistic devices: see worksheet stylistic devices ● ● parenthesis (Einschub): So at the end, Daniela - God bless her - ended up... ellipsis: leaving out words: John can speak seven languages, but Ron can speak only two. ● Tips for developing an "analytical eye" and "seeing" things in an article: "That's weird": Go through each sentence and see whether you think there is something unusual there - maybe an image, a strange sentence structure, an exaggeration... "Scan the article": Think of some typical stylistic devices you know (e.g. metaphors, contrasts...) and see whether they might be in the article. "Why do I feel this?" How does the article make you feel/ think? Convinced? Challenged? Amused? Surprised? Then see why and how the article makes you feel this way. "So what?" So you found an enumeration. Great! But that alone is not a very significant insight. What does it do? What's the effect of it? Sometimes it is better to focus on important findings than listing loads of devices. "What's the big picture" - what do all these things you found out have in common? What is the overall effect of all your findings? Does the author want to criticize, warn, inform, provoke, challenge...?) ● personifications: Huge cities never sleep. (a human quality/ action (sleep) is attributed to sth non-human (a city) metonymy: London wants to... (London British government). The White House declared (WH=US government). The pen is mightier than the sword. (pen= written word; sword = military power) Tips for writing & organizing your analysis: Start with an introduction - but not the same one as in number 1! Instead, refer to the task: engage/raise/catch the reader's attention (e.g. with repetitions, puns) create a memorable or vivid image (e.g. with metaphors, similies, personifications) make the topic/text more dramatic, create a dramatic atmosphere (e.g. with a metaphor: Germany is at a cliff. Will we fall?) to produce a rhythmic effect and emphasis (e.g. through alliterations) simplify a complex issue; offering clear-cut alternatives (e.g. contrast, antithesis) present the author's comments/ opinion (e.g. in a parenthesis) entertain the reader (e.g. through puns, hyperboles, odd metaphors) O Example: X uses many communicative strategies and stylistic devices to point out how dangerous Y is / to express his anger about/ to argue that. | In the following, [state what you are doing] USE PARAGRAPHS! They greatly increase the readability and the structure of your analysis! O Each analytical aspect should be dealt with in one paragraph (e.g. tone= 1 paragraph) O Start each paragraph with a topic sentence, stating the topic of the paragraph. Use the simple present. While doing so, don't forget the He-she-it-s (e.g. the author states). Quote properly & back up your findings. Check out the method sheet ("How to argue and quote properly"). Group your insights carefully and logically. Don't just analyse the text line-by-line O Let's say you found a metaphor in I. 3 and in I. 29 and an anaphora in I. 15. What do you do? → First, analyse the metaphors and then continue with the anaphora. End your analysis with a conclusion O What is most striking about the article? Summarise what you think are your most important analytical findings (e.g. his humorous tone, his vivid language, her use of arguments...)