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6.5.2021

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Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great
Abitur 2021
Englisch Themenübersicht
Identity and language
1.1.
Identity
1.2.
Ambiguity of Belonging
1.3.
English as a world language
Great

Abitur 2021 Englisch Themenübersicht Identity and language 1.1. Identity 1.2. Ambiguity of Belonging 1.3. English as a world language Great Britain 2.1. Britishness 2.2. Political system 2.3. Multicultural Britain United States of America US politics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3.1. 3.2. American Dream 3.3. Frontier 3.4. Security 3.5. Immigration 3.6. The South 3.7. The global role of the USA Globalization 4.1. Economy 4.2. Politics: international cooperation 4.3. Culture 4.4. Environment 4.5. Technology and media Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Aspects of Belonging Gran Torino 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. Introduction Aspects of Belonging Background information 7. Comparison of CL, CL and Gran Torino 8. Analysis 9. Composition 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 6 7 7 BONNEESOONDO222222 8 10 12 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 21 21 25 25 1. Identity and language Identity • it is understood to be someone's sense of self the sum of a person's character, beliefs, personality and physical appearance → identity crisis = not feeling "whole", insecure about one's true nature or being what makes a person unique ● Ambiguity of Belonging ambiguity = if something is ambiguous, it is unclear, not certain or hard to explain and understand, especially because it is usually has more than one (often contradicting) aspects or meaning belonging = if you have a sense of belonging, you feel like you are in the right situation and/or place, therefore you feel happy and comfortable ● ● English as a world language around 400 million people speak English as their mother tongue around 350 million to one billion people speak English as a second language → reasons: the countries where English is the official language are former British colonies ● 2. Great Britain ● Great Britain = England + Scotland + Wales United Kingdom = Great Britain +...

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Northern Ireland British Isles = UK + Republic of Ireland ● Britishness the state or quality of being British or showing typically British characteristics → politeness, formal, posh, tend not to show emotions, helpful, fairness ● → distinctive/characteristic sense of humour: dry humour → they drink tea, typical red busses in London → striving for independence → loyalty and respect for monarchy and royal family ● culture: literature (Shakespeare), old university, pop music, festivals • religion: multireligious (e.g. Muslims, Hindu, Buddhist, Anglican-Christian) ● business and industry: banking and engineering ● controversy and criticism: → the term is exploited to create a feeling of unity and belonging to the British nation, generating insiders and outsider in the process (discrimination of minorities) 1 Humour rules ● Political system ● UK's constitution is uncodified, there is not one single point of reference → the constitutional rights rest on statute law, common law, parliamentary conventions and historical law ● ● The parliamentary democracy ● the executive branch of government derives its power from the legislatie the leader of the executive = the country's prime minister (Boris Johnson) → is a member of parliament and usually the head of the majority party → the Conservative and the Labour Party are the dominating players in UK politics the British parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords a lot of irony, dry humour make fun of minorities and self-deprecation belongs to every conversation = very important for Britains ● the uncodified British constitution is also called the Bill of Rights (passed 1689) → certain civil rights are defined, the monarch's power is limited in favour of Parliament the Magna Carta (1215) is a part of Britain's uncodified constitution → it was one of the first documents to limit the king's absolute power and emphasize the rule of law instead The Conservative Party ● was founded in 1834 and emerged from the former Tory Party ➜the Conservatives are still referred to as "Tories" traditionally, the party stood for little state interference and free-market capitalism → that was especially poignant during Margaret Thatcher's terms in power (1979-1990) → during it's time as opposition (1997-2010) the party underwent a change, becoming slightly more oriented towards social programmes and state regulation David Cameron and Theresa May were also PM's of the Conservative Party ● ● → the members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters (legislature) → the members of the House of Lords are appointed or inherit their seats (they can influence politics in delaying laws by vetoing them) The Labour Party ● was founded in 1900 its explicit aim was to support the working class → the resulting government after WWII is remembered for the nationalization of many industries and for introducing extensive welfare measures (National Health Service) under Tony Blair's "New Labour" approach the party changed →he modernised the country by reforming the House of Lords → devolution: separate local governmental units for Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and London since 2010 the party has been in the opposition 2 The constitutional monarchy the UK is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy → Britain is a hereditary monarchy ➜→ current monarch: Queen Elizabeth II (ascended the throne in 1952) the monarch is head of state but his or her power is limited by constitutional written or unwritten conventions →➜ the monarch dissolves and opens Parliament, has to give his or her royal assent to all laws passed in the UK, appoints and dismisses the prime minister and other governmental ministers, weekly consultations with the prime minister → Commander in Chief of the armed forces, Head of the Church of England and Fount of Justice members of Royal Family are just representatives → official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties → their power is limited by constitutional written or unwritten conventions → are important for tourism = more money • monarchy and royal family is an important part of the national identity ● → the power to make and pass laws resides with Parliament as the elected legislative → they do charitable work and are good ambassadors for the country abroad Brexit ● British exit from the European Union → national referendum in June 2016 (instigated by then Prime Minister David Cameron) → Theresa May became PM and should have led the challenging task of executing Brexit, but Brexit occurred under PM Boris Johnson was planned for March 2019, took place in January 2020 → since 1st January 2021 the UK is no longer part of the EU single market and customs union (after a transitional period since January 2020) political reasons ● national sovereignty, immigration control ● want to abolish the EU laws ● more freedom in trading Solutions identity reasons ● ● striving for independence self-determination new potential problems economic problems "hard border" between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland the "backstop" solution → Northern Ireland would stay in the UK customs union ➜the "hard" border would run between the Irish island and Great Britain the "soft" Brexit solution → the whole UK could remain part of the EU single market the "hard" Brexit solution → would make free movement of people, goods and services between the two custom unions impossible 3 Multicultural Britain The British Empire - colonisation during its peak time (Queen Victoria's reign) the British Empire covered almost one fourth of the world's land area and ruled over more than 400 million people → "the empire on which the sun never sets" →large geographical extension ● exploitation of natural resources ● spread of Christian religion ● scientific curiosity ● power (military power) and money justification of colonisation: → British = superior race → they have the duty to civilize the savage world → religious salvation Commonwealth - decolonisation in the course of the 20th century Britain lost almost all of its former colonies → partly violent independence movements in the colonised territories → British decisions to voluntarily grant independence to them reasons for the decline of the Empire: → British were proud of their freedoms, but didn't share them with their colonies → after WWII Britain was poor and exhausted = did not have the power and will to control a large part of the world any longer ● the legacy of the British Empire lives on in many of its former subject states' political, legal and cultural organization many of Britain's former colonies (about 50) are now members of the Commonwealth of Nations → = an intergovernmental organisation of "free and equal" member states → each member country has its own government → the British monarch is their head of state → close cooperation in economy, education and government based on a shared history and culture and on common values like democracy, human rights and the rule of law Immigration: acculturation vs. parallel societies • during the British Empire the population of Great Britain changed and became more ethnically diverse ● after the passing of the British Nationality Act (1948): Commonwealth allowed unrestricted immigration for people from former or current British Empire countries → many immigrants from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, South Africa and other Asian countries → multicultural society (no overt sm, no real segregation) → e.g. Great Britain integrated festivals from other cultures (Halal food festival) → Indian cuisine got extremely popular in Great Britain → rather acculturation than parallel societies 4 ● ● ● ● India → no real sense of shared national identity (not yet) several acts passed in the 1960s and 1970s made it more difficult for immigrants to gain British citizenship ● → prospective immigrants have to fulfil certain criteria (e.g. special skills) entry into the European Union: many immigrants from central and eastern Europe → Treaty of Maastricht guaranteed free movement of people refugees and asylum seekers from all over the world (e.g. Somalia or Sudan) pull factors: → high standard of living, good infrastructure → student migration, support for family, better job offers ● Immigration to Great Britain Positive aspects for India • Indian families with a family member living abroad are less poor ● devices the British used to control India: → British education of Indian princes (Fürsten) → British advisers to every ruler: manipulation and dependence on the British to reduce their power ● India's economy profits from the huge amount of remittances which have been sent back to India consequences of colonialism in India: → poverty, lack of education, not enough jobs → many refugees (e.g. from Pakistan): diverse nation after colonialism: more independence Negative aspects for India ● only high skilled workers can migrate = more brain drain Indians may struggle in GB of finding their own identity ● assimilation of western values ● British politicians restricted immigration rules South Africa South Africa is called the "Rainbow Nation" →is a multiracial or multicultural country → to unite the different people of colour, race, relation → rainbow sign of peace → e.g. Nelson Mandela fought peacefully for the rights of the black people still much racism → reversed discrimination → the country needs harder punishements against criminality and discrimination appartheid made South Africa a bad image brain drain = large numbers of educated and skilled people leave their own country to live and work in another one where they can earn more money with their skills → e.g. India has not enough doctors, teachers, etc. 5 3. United States of America US politics American Constitution ● ● ● declares the separation of powers into the executive, legislative and judiciary branches and the concept of federalism → federalism = the central government shares the power with regional or state governments, the separation of powers is fixed in the constitution system of checks and balances (to avoid tyranny) ● the USA is a federal democracy the American Constitution is regarded as the oldest written and codified constitution which is still in force as the country's supreme law →introduction in 1789 ● → each of the three branches of government has means to control the others → the president's job is to protect the American Constitution and enforce the laws made by Congress →he is Head of the Executive, Head of State, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, can veto Congressional laws and appoints judges for the Supreme Court the Bill of Rights consists of the first ten amendments to the Constitution (1791) → comprises laws concerned with personal freedoms → 2nd Amendment: regulated militia and the right of the people to keep and bear arms Elections • first-past-the-post voting (also "winner takes all") → electoral system in which the ndidate with a simple majority all electoral colleges of that state while all other votes are lost → the candidate with the simple majority of electoral colleges (270 of 538) wins the election a certain state some states usually always vote for the same party in each election → swing states (or battleground states) can be won by either party partisan division = the rancour and unwillingness to compromise with which the two big political parties in the USA often oppose each other The Democratic Party ● is one of the two major parties in US politics, founded 1828 → it is the oldest political party in the world which is still active it's party programme promotes social and economic equality, supporting a welfare state and moderate governmental intervention in the economy → also environmental protection, stricter gun control, an immigration reform and equality for same-sex marriages ● many women, ethnic minorities, academics and young people tend to vote Democratic the party's symbol is a donkey and it is typically associated with the colour blue 6 The Republican Party is the second of the two major parties in US politics, founded 1854 ● it's party programme promotes conservatism, lower taxes and a free market capitalism → many Republicans are in favour of a strong national defence, gun rights and traditional values, focus on self-reliance and independence the party appeals especially to "people strong enough to look after themselves", but also to voters from rural areas and strongly religious people ● the party's symbol is an elephant and it is typically associated with the colour red American Dream ● ● ● ● a concept of self definition for the country it promotes the ideal that everyone can be successful in America if they work hard enough and that the country offers equal opportunities and social mobility to everyone origin of the word: → the phrase was first expressed by the American historian and writer James Truslow Adams in 1931 its basic underlying concept has roots in the Declaration of Independence of 1776 which refers to basic human rights (life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness) which are inalienable and god given many descriptions emphasize the economic wealth achievable in the US, but the Dream is also closely connected to ideals like freedom and democracy → "From dishwasher to millionaire" / "From rags to riches" the Creed of America: the idea of self-reliance and responsibility for one's one faith (individualism) Declaration of Independence War of Independence (1775-1783) between the UK and its 13 American colonies → colonies felt misrepresented and oppressed → "no taxation without representation" → colonies felt that they were only exploited to serve the British Crown's interests → Boston Tea Party (protest against tax laws) declared the independence of the 13 states and the split from Britain ● focuses on human rights and the equality of all human beings ● E pluribus unum America's motto: "Out of many, one" America became one nation out of many races, ethnic groups with different backgrounds: people living in America share one American identity Frontier ● geographical line of settlement that continuously went westward in the 19th century → many families (= pioneers) were encouraged to head west to make a new life for themselves 7 ● expanding its territory to the west helped to fulfil America's destiny of becoming the world's greatest nation →shaping the country's character with its focus on freedom, determination, self-reliance, individualism and democracy (often romanticized) this land was populated by Native Americans who were often brutally driven off their land or even murdered ● ● Manifest Destiny ● → they established American settlements, with American values, across the expanse of North America ● pioneer spirit: restless, nervous energy → dominant individualism, a masterful grasp of material things and coarseness and strength combined with inquisitiveness ● Homestead Act (1862) it promoted settlement in the western part of the North American continent →it promised areas of free land ("homesteads") to anyone willing to work and settle on that land ● the term was coined in 1845 it was used to justify the westward expansion of the US and the occupation of foreign territory was an incentive for many (also overseas immigrants) to move west and thereby shift the frontier further towards the Pacifc Ocean Security Social security a welfare state's aim is to provide a basic standard of living for all its citizens →in times of crisis (e.g. unemployment, serious illness, etc.) a tax-based social security system should step in to prevent from falling into poverty the USA remains the only major industrial state without a nationwide consistent health insurance programme → the American people had the god given right to extent their democratic principles and expand their political and territorial power over the American continent and beyond → the belief in Manifest Destiny to spread the US vision of freedom and democracy is connected with a belief in the country's moral superiority and exceptionalism the downside of the concept is that it seems to justify the near extinction of Native Americans or military interventions with thousands of casualties for the sake of democracy and "civilization" → Republicans: social welfare contradicts the American ideal of self-reliance and being responsible for one's own fate → Democratic President Johnson laid the foundations of a social security system in the 1960s, Obama invented his Affordable Care Act (ObamaCare) in 2010 → Republican presidents have ever since tried to erode or stop future developments (eg. Trump) 8 9/11 ● ● ● ● was a terrorist attack: terrorist hijacked 4 planes and crashed two of them into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York almost 3 thousand people were killed, 6 thousand injured the radical islamist group al-Qaeda and their leader Osama Bin Laden were behind the attack → the hijackings were seen as an attack on western culture and the USA's standing in the world direct consequence: ● → president George W. Bush declared the War on Terrorism several wars (predominantly in Iraq and Afghanistan) have unofficially been called Wars on Terror ● following consequences: → new security measures and a new anti-terrorism legislation → the competences of security services and law enforcement agencies were expanded → anti-muslim feelings surged in many countries Gun control ● the question whether the 2nd Amendment was to be understood as an individual right of gun possession has been controversially discussed ● evidence of the dangers of individual gun possession: mass shootings and alarming numbers of gun-related deaths → according to statistics, there are more gun-related deaths in the USA on a day than in the UK in a year ● widespread gun ownership propagates a culture of violence (gun law proponents) ● gun ownership can be seen as a sign of personal freedom and democratisation (opponents of stricter gun control) → individual gun ownership is essential for self-defence or successful resistance to oppression → the National Rifle Association (NRA) is a non-profit organisation in favour of individual gun ownership militia = a military force that is raised from the civil population to supplement a regular army in an emergency Death penalty ● also known as capital punishment, is a highly controversial form of legal punishment ● in the USA 31 states and the federal government still retain the death penalty 9 Proponents ● ● it is a fair retribution for severe crimes it can act as a deterrent it prevents offenders from repeating a crime it is cheaper than a long prison sentence during which the state is responsible for the upkeep of a prisoner Opponents ● regular studies show that the deterrent effect is not working government-funded executions are not cheaper than prison sentences it is inhumane and violating the ultimate human right (the right to life) • miscarriages of justice are especially grave →it is an irreversible form of punishment ● the culture of violence is created through avenging violence by means of violence Immigration ● the American Dream has served as a pull factor for millions of immigrants who came to the "land of free" and the "country of unlimited opportunities" →in search of a better life in political and economic respects ● the Statue of Liberty (1886) → a powerful symbol of the USA welcoming immigrants and promising them freedom and a better life Immigration waves 1) colonial immigration (early 17th century) → British, Scottish, German, French and Swiss settlers came to found colonies → 1607: first British settlement in Jamestown, Virginia → 1620: the "Pilgrim Fathers" sailed to the "New World" (a group of English Protestants = Puritans, who were not content with the Church of England's still too "Catholic" structure and searched for a "New Canaan" on the American continent) 2) forceful shipping of African Americans as slaves (17th - 19th century) 3) mid-19th to early 20th century → Protestant settlers from central and western Europe and Scandinavians → 1848 gold was found in California: attracted Chinese immigrants → immigrants were urgently needed to cultivate the land or work in the country's progressing industries 4) between 1880 and 1920 → southern Europeans and Jews, who escaped religious persecution in eastern Europe 5) 1892-1954: official federal immigration centre on Ellis Island → has become one of the main symbols of American immigration → almost 20 million immigrants entered the USA Protestant work ethic the puritan belief that hard work, thrift, discipline, self-improvement and responsibility lead to success and prosperity and that this is a sign of god's benevolence and grace continuous and active participation in society and entrepreneurial endeavors belief in Manifest Destiny ● belief in authority as a means of protecting the personal rights of the people 10 Politics immigration quotas and laws restricted the numbers of newcomers after WWI → higher numbers of illegal immigrants (especially from Central American countries) ● Civil Rights Movement's achievements: race-based quotas were abolished → more Asian and Latin American immigrants after 1965 • significant reduction of immigration after 9/11 → immigrants were less welcomed → fear of Americans due to terrorism → discrimination against immigrants (especially against people from the same countries as the terrorists, e.g. Muslims) →immigration policies got more strict ● immigration of Mexicans → border fence with border patrol along the Mexico-United States border → intention: reduction of illegal immigration to the USA from Mexico → Trump wants a hard border = wall along the whole border ("zero tolerance" policy) → Joe Biden wants to reverse Trump's immigration policies Great Migration ● relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the north, midwest and west ● from about 1916-1970 ● push factors (South): → unsatisfactory economy opportunities, harsh segregationist laws pull factors (North): ● → need for industrial workers, segregation was not legalised, education (also for blacks) impacts on African American culture and US society: → spreading of the culture (e.g. music) →less discrimination, more integration → impact of racism became more obvious → participation of African Americans in public life (e.g. politics) →more self-determination Diversity and equality: acculturation vs. parallel societies ● in recent years criticism that the Dream is no longer alive is growing louder → surveys reveal that the proclaimed social mobility does not exist in reality → tendencies like racism, intolerance or scepticism against foreigners are growing, challenging the concept of a country that welcomes everyone with open arms Melting pot ● describes the American society in which millions of immigrants from all over the world are formed into a harmonious whole through the common experience of living in the USA → cultural assimilation 11 Salad bowl ● ● describes the USA's multicultural society →in a salad bowl, the original ingredients remain visible while they combine to make a successful whole different ethnic groups are encouraged to keep their distinct backgrounds because they are all necessary to make up the whole of the USA's society → the traditional melting pot's image of "forced assimilation" is avoided The South the American South is known for its culture and history → conservative political attitudes →sweltering climate and rundown places → developed its own customs, music styles and cuisines → the Southern ethnic heritage is very diverse geographically: located between the Atlantic Ocean and the Western US, with the Midwestern US and Northeastern US to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south redneck = a poor white person without education, especially one living in the countryside in the southern US, who has prejudiced ideas and beliefs Slavery and Civil War the South includes the states that fought for the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War (1861-1865) → the states wanted to become an independent nation and fought for the right of secession against the Unionists of the North → they also wanted to keep up slavery reasons for Civil War: a fundamental economic difference between the northern and southern regions →north: manufacturing and industry was well established, agriculture was limited to small scale farms = north wanted to abolish slavery → south: economy was based on a system of large scale farming (plantations) that depended on the labour of black slaves = southern population feared that the exisance of slavery in America (the backbone of their economy) was in danger due to their technologically advanced army the North won the war Reconstruction Period ● time after the Civil War • reintegration of the former Confederate States into the Union and their economic reconstruction the Reconstruction Amendments officially abolished slavery (13th Amendment), African Americans were granted full citizenship rights (14th Amendment) and former slaves got the right to vote (15th Amendment) 12 Ku Klux Klan (KKK) a secret hate group in the southern US: active for several years after the Civil War aimed to suppress the newly acquired rights of black people want to keep "white power", often through very violent acts (e.g. killing people) ● Segregation after the Civil War, African Americans were theoretically made equal to their white fellow citizen in the South ● Civil Rights Movement: desegregation the Civil Rights Movement refers to the campaigns and direct actions fighting for equal rights for African Americans (in the 1950s and 1960s) → origins of the Civil Rights Movement date back the the American Civil War starting with the Supreme Court ruling Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) the Movement gained impetus and organised protest actions →introduced school desegregation ● the Civil Rights Movement proved successful when the Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964 ● ● ● → discriminatory practices continued and were even constitutionalised in the Supreme Court's Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling of 1896 the former Confederate States invented the "Jim Crow laws" → enforcement of segregation (e.g. in schools, buses and public facilities) and continued discrimination of African-Americans → very difficult race relations in the South (until today) ● → outlawed any discrimination based on race, colour, religion, sex or national origin the Voting Rights Act followed 1965 →secured the African Americans' voting rights still difficult race relations, continued inequality (e.g. work, housing, education, wealth, imprisonment, etc.) and renewed protests against unfair police targeting of black people → aims of the Civil Rights Movement are not achieved yet → Black Lives Matter Movement Important participant members Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Rosa Parks Emmett Till ● famous Civil Rights leader ● speech "I have a dream" (1963) became world-famous, advocated non-violent resistance American activist who initiated Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) → political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation became an icon of the Civil Right Movement ● 14 year old African American who was lynched in Mississippi ● the brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquited drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the US 13 Barack Obama Breonna Taylor George Floyd was elected as the USA's first African American president in 2008 → important victory of the Civil Rights Movement's aims ● ● black woman who was shot and killed by police officers during a botched raid on her appartement ● the officers involved have not been charged The global role of the USA black man who was killed while being arrested → a white police officer knelt on his neck for several minutes Interventionism ● the opposite of isolationism (= focus on internal affairs) the country's willingness to interfere in global conflicts in order to promote its own vision of the world and to preserve its economic and political power → US as the "global policeman and peacemaker" ● US interventionism was especially distinctive in the Cold War years → out of fear of a communist expansion, the US government financed and actively fought wars in faraway parts of the world (e.g. Vietnam and Korea) → anti-communism = ideological position opposed to communism →nuclear arms race between the communism in the Soviet Union and the democratic capitalism in the USA represents the still-relevant aspects of Manifest Destiny Roaring Twenties ● the 1920s were a decade of economic prosperity → especially in the USA the financial sector developed to become the strongest in the world, as well as in innovations in culture and technology spirit of new beginnings and a break with old traditions → fashion, music or other cultural phenomena and also political changes (e.g. granting of the right to vote to women in many countries) Great Depression ● period of severe economic decline throughout the world → started in the USA with the Wall Street stock market crash of 29 October 1929 ("Black Tuesday") → end of the hopeful, optimistic atmosphere of the Roaring Twenties was marked by an almost halting international trade, falling demands and prices and mass unemployment →in the USA, a severe drought in the great Plains area compounded the crisis and hit farmers and agricultural workers especially hard 14 Americanization the American way of life, its fashion, culture and language is imposed more and more on other countries throughout the world → cultural imperialism 4. Globalization • globalization describes networking on a worldwide scale →goods are exchanged and people as well as institutions move, interact and communicate globally ➜a process full of chances and risks modern globalization mainly been pushed forward by progress in transportation methods and especially the rapid advances in communication technology ● Economy • big companies and industrialized countries might be able to maximize their cost-efficiency through outsourcing of work and free trade agreements (growth and development) → small businesses face a hard time in competition with megacompanies → not everyone profits from globalization in an equal measure → economic inequality consists of disparities in the distribution of wealth and income (rising gap between rich and poor) workers in less developed countries are exploited in sweatshops with inhumane working conditions → bad working conditions and low wages → human rights are not respected: bad health conditions, diseases (e.g. Bangladesh: situation is near to slavery) ● the interconnection in finances also means that a national crisis will easily turn into a global one ● Politics: international cooperation international alliances like the EU or the UN pursue the goal of peace and stability through more cooperation → tackle international challenges like the threat of terrorism (e.g. terrorist organizations like the IS) ● → also non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have a larger impact if they function worldwide (they are non-profit organizations) the EU (European Union) is a political and economic union of 27 member states → developed into an emerging superpower with global influence in the political sphere → single market with its demand for the "free movement of people, goods, services and capital" ● the UN (United Nations) has to provide and ensure that the advantages of economic globalization are equally shared by the world's population 15 ● ● Culture ● an exchange of people and information guarantees the dissemination of knowledge → educational advantages people fear a loss of individual values, traditions and cultures through a form of cultural imperialism when dominant ideas spread and displace local ones ● Migration ● describes the movement of people from one place to another with the aim of settling down somewhere new → either political (e.g. oppression or persecution), economic (e.g. poverty) or environmental (e.g. natural disasters) migration is often perceived as something desirable bringing new ideas and input → but: refugees fleeing from the negative effects of internations contact, exploitation, poverty, war or environmental destruction, show that social inequality is not necessarily lessened through globalization → focuses on peacekeeping, rules of international cooperation, human rights, sustainability and environmentally friendly development and prosperity for all nations ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) is an intergovernmental organization → the association seeks to facilitate alliances and cooperation in different fields like economy, politics, military matters, etc. ● NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) between the USA, Canada and Mexico → function: remove trade barriers to benefit the three countries' economies Gender (in)equality ● gender equality = each individual regardless of their sex should have equal rights and opportunities (education, career choices or political power) in many countries important aims of earlier feminist movements have been achieved → e.g. equal voting rights or theoretical legal equality discrimination of women often continues in practice ● ● → e.g. when it comes to equal pay for equal work or the proportion of women in positions of professional or political leadership (gender quotas) institutions that are largely based on traditions, like religious communities, but also the media often still adhere to patriarchal structures or propagate common gender stereotypes Environment one major international challenge = climate change and global warming (affected by human influence) → climate change refers to any statistical long term change in weather patterns human action like the combustion of fossil fuels or deforestation contribute to emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (pollution) → through intensified air traffic and an expansion of infrastructure consequences of climate change: 16 ● → glacier melting, rising sea levels → extreme weather conditions → destruction of natural habitat by desertification or flooding the United Nations Climate Change Conferences have been set up to meet regularly and discuss measures to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases Sustainability it is used to describe social aspects and a climate of general satisfaction, in contrast to the exploitation of the nature / raw materials and many people for the profits of few political or economic decisions should be taken with the future and the interconnectedness of all living organisms and ecosystems in mind → this attitude is directed against a climate of waste and fast profits, which ignores future repercussions of present-day actions → the thinking of future generations ● → international treaties (e.g. Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement) formulate goals like keeping the increase in average temperature below 2 °C → Trump has resigned from the Paris Agreement, but Biden has undone this action Consumerism the attitude that ever more buying and spending is a positive thing consumer societies are characterized by consumers buying things not only because they are useful or necessary, but rather because they are advertised and subsequently seen as status symbols → products are seldom used sustainably, but rather replaced quickly by something newer despite them still functioning perfectly consumerism is criticised for producing waste in large quantities, not being environmentally friendly and promoting materialism and superficiality ● Technology and media the use of computers, the Internet and its applications in almost every aspect of modern life has transformed the world in the last decades (digital revolution) • technological progress has been the main driver of globalization → made worldwide cooperation and communication possible → transformed the economy and the world of work technology also affected individual behavior and lifestyles by changing traditional media use, access to information, leisure activities and personal interaction → media are tools used to store or transmit information and data (includes print media, electronic media and digital media) chances ● makes knowledge accessible to everyone and connects people from faraway places → access to information and communication has become easier, cheaper, quicker and more global facilitates a flexible approach to work and everyday life, new jobs convenience (saves time and money) 17 challenges ● ● the masses of information available can be overwhelming → there are hardly any checks on what can be published on websites → fake news and unreliable sources → conspiracy theories ● data theft threatens personal privacy and intellectual property ● anonymity, cyberbullying and influencing politics and public opinions ● economic challenges for small shops, libraries, newspapers or radio stations → people don't need to leave their homes to go shopping, to get access to books, films or newspapers ● ● changes in human interaction → communication seems to be getting more superficial with less face-to-face contact and meaningful exchange addiction to smartphones people often substitute real-life experiences with being active on social media (creation of an illusionary world) psychological effects: ● ● ● Print media (traditional use) ● are among the oldest forms of communication include newspapers, magazines, banners, posters, etc. the print media is an instrument of mass communication → they fulfil an important democratic role because they serve as educators of the masses mental health problems: anxiety, depression we can't concentrate very long anymore (less attentive) because of beauty standards and ideals we judge others and ourselves sharing of high living standards=monotony instead of diversity self-objectification ● newspaper agencies have to work profitably, which is why it is often argued that they are not really independent and not fit to report on controversial issues but rather conform to their readers' expectations in order to be popular → broadsheets: longer articles, factual manner, serious, e.g. politics → tabloids: subjective style, e.g. celebrity gossip Security terrorist organisations make use of the Internet to spread their propaganda and acquire followers CCTV = short for closed-circuit television and is often synonymously with video surveillance (has become a controversial topic) →in the light of terrorist attacks or other security concerns, there is a rising demand for surveillance → people feel that the increase of video cameras monitoring their behaviour in public places is compromising their privacy rights 18 5. Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter Introduction The crime novel "Crooked Letter. Crooked Letter" (CL.CL) was written by Tom Franklin and published in 2010. The story is set in rural Mississippi and combines two main plots - friendship and crime and retraces the ambiguous friendship between Silas Jones, an African American constable, and Larry Ott from the 1970s until 2008. Aspects of Belonging Religion • Ina Ott is highly religious (Christian) →night time prayer about a "special friend" for Larry • Larry initially wants to continue to go to his mother's church → connection to his mother → loyalty • church is the place where Wallace Stringfellow sees Larry for the first time ● churches mostly segregated in Larry's and Silas's youth Gender • Larry seen as girlish and not manly enough by his father and peers ● Larry's "girlishness" one of the reasons why he is an outsider and why his alleged date is so important for him one aspect of the plot: (sexual) crime against women (Cindy Walker, Tina Rutherford), Wallace Stringfellow's misogynist attitude (dog John Wanye Gracy, named after a serial killer and rapist) Ethnicity • setting: Southern United States: Mississippi, late 1970s (after segregation period) • Larry and Silas go to a racially integrated high school, but racism still part of everyday life African American Alice as maid (and mistress) of white Ott family (Carl), poverty, single mother, Silas's feeling of being disadvantaged / inferior • Larry's racism as means to belong to a group of white boys and as reaction to humiliation and bullying ("Monkey lips" - incident) • mixed-race relationship between Silas and Cindy still undesirable, which sets in motion the event leading to Cindy's explained disappearance insult "nigger" ends Larry's and Silas's friendship (connection with inferiority, humiliation, getting the upper hand) ● 19 Family ● Silas's relationship with his mother: Alice loves Silas dearly and works hard to provide him with better chances in life → Silas on the one hand dissatisfied with his poor and fatherless upbringing and his mother's seeming servility to white people → Silas on the other hand often feels guilty for not being a good son and "lacking something" in his mother's eyes Silas is Carl Ott's illegitimate child → Silas's character strongly shaped by the absence of a father figure → lack of role model, identity crisis (he doesn't know who he really is) • Larry's character strongly shaped by the presence of a dominating / cruel father → Carl doesn't give enough support and love → Ina doesn't really stand up for Larry in front of Carl • broken relationship between Ina and Carl (Carl cheated on her with Alice) Larry's relationship to his parents is fully destroyed after Cindy's disappearance ● Peer group • Larry's youth: outsider, not accepted by other boys, victim of school bullying • friendship with Silas on unequal footing: Silas is socially "inferior", but more self-confident, more popular (due to his talent in baseball) → interracial friendship unusual, kept it a secret ● Silas's popularity and social standing in Chabot: baseball star, later police officer → also based on concealing the truth about Cindy's disappearance Silas's relationship with Angie: only gradually opening up to her and letting her see behind the facade of the famous ex-baseballer and popular police officer • Larry's life after Cindy's disappearance: marked by complete loneliness ● Wallace (an underprivileged young man) sees the outsider and potential criminal Larry Ott as a role model to look up to Social Class • Larry is born into a rather well-off middle-class family → possession of land, father's respected job in his own garage Silas's early time in Chabot marked by extreme poverty: single-mother Alice has two jobs, they live on the fringes of society in Otts' old cabin → Silas aware of this inequality as an adult, Larry's social standing has deteriorated: high school dropout, few customers, has to sell land ● adult Silas, however, has become a well-respected member of society: first his baseball career offered him an opportunity to go to college, then he becomes a member of Chabot's police force → Silas prioritises his career and tries to forget about Cindy's disappearance 20 "White Trash Avenue": Wallace Stringfellow, Irina Mott and others as typical representatives of a white "underclass" ● Walker family: lower class, dysfunctional family, Cindy's wish to escape Language • especially in direct speech: Southern vernacular which emphasises the novel's local character • partly racist slurs and insults to mark "men's speech" (Carl Ott, Cecil Walker, but also Wallace Stringfellow) ● Larry presented as a rather well-read through his use of technical terms Home ● Larry's and Silas's local area / home: Chabot, Amos and Fulsom, Mississippi → places in decay, drug problems, etc. • Silas moves to Chabot from Chicago at 13, returns after college • Larry doesn't leave despite being an outsider and having no customers • Larry and Silas both have a deep-rooted connection to home: family loyalty, "unfinished business" Violence ● Larry's experiences with violence: victim of school bullying, abusive father, accused of violent sexually motivated crime against Cindy Walker and Tina Rutherford, almost killed by Wallace Stringfellow ● Carl Ott's rifle marks beginning and ending of Larry's and Silas's friendship • gun ownership connected to masculinity, power, having a father (figure) → attractive to young Larry and Silas Guilt and Redemption • apparently obvious guilt (Larry and his alleged crime) vs. hidden guilt (Silas's cowardice) • "nigger" insult as real reason for end of friendship or as pretext for conscience-stricken Silas not to tell the truth • Wallace's obvious guilt and Larry's attempt at denying it ● Silas's attempts at making up for past errors: feeding the chickens, visiting Mrs Ott, finally telling the truth, visiting Larry, cleaning Larry's house with Angie ● open question: is forgiveness possible after years of lies? 21 6. Gran Torino Introduction The thriller movie "Gran Torino" was directed and produced by Clint Eastwood and released in 2008. The movie is set in Detroit, Michigan, and depicts the character development of the two main characters Walt Kowalski and Thao Vang Lor through the development of their friendship, the escalation of gang violence and Thao's process of growing up. Aspects of Belonging Character development Walt Kowalski his conservatism, patriotism and racial prejudices make him a typical white American of that generation worked at Ford ● ● is haunted by his Korean War experiences (killing innocent people) →has a troubled soul (mental health problems) → PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder → bitterness, emotional numbness, recurring feelings of guilt has a racist worldview → contempts his Hmong neighbors is alienated from the world around him and his two sons → portrayed as a "grumpy loner" getting in touch with his Hmong neighbors changes him: ● → has to learn that he has got more in common with his Hmong neighbors than with his own family → realizes that he is responsible for the escalation of the violence sacrificing himself in the confrontation with the Hmong gangbangers, he finally finds peace (atones for his lifelong guilt) Thao Vang Lor grows up in a female-dominated house →lacks a male role model →lacks self-confidence (insecurity) does not know where to belong to and searches for an identity ● is easy to push around ● being taught to talk and behave like a man, he grows from a teenager into a male adult →gains self-confidence inherits Walt's Gran Torino →gives him the opportunity to assimilate into American society 22 Gender identity Stereotypical masculinity ● Gran Torino symbol for American masculinity • solving conflicts alone and with violence ● protect and defend yourself and others (owning a gun) ● hard physical work: refurbishment and repairing → blue-collar job (e.g. Ford / construction site) ● self-confidence and bravery: don't show weaknesses being a role model ● superiority, determination ● ● ● dominant, authoritarian, strong Stereotypical femininity • quiet and compliant weakness ● dependant (on men) ● submissive • inferiority ● sensitive vulnerable Walt behaves typically masculine → is a former soldier (served in Korean War) → fetishizes a car (the Gran Torino), worked in a blue-collar job (Ford) →hides his critical illness →is a male role model for Thao Walt's aim: "manning Thao up": acquire basic handyman skills, get a job, learn how to speak like a "real man", ask a girl out Thao is not manly enough → female appearance, passive, shy → does women's work → does not shy away from any open confrontation → is very intelligent (superior verbal skills) → does not accept / respect masculine superiority → does not meet the expectations of being the man in the house Sue is a strong young woman and very self-confident Family different degrees of integration / assimilation to American society in Hmong family (generation conflict) ● relationship between Walt and his sons: greed, disappointment, lack of understanding and interest → Walt's blue-collar mentality: has worked in the car industry for almost 30 years, proud of Gran Torino and handyman skills vs. → his son Mitch works in sales of foreign cars (middle-class existence) = contemptuous • family does not need to be defined by blood ties → Walt has a closer relationship with Sue and Thao than with his own sons in the end Hmong gangs propagate wrong image of family loyalty → want Thao to join the gang but Thao rejects depiction of masculinity through violence Friends ● names symbolize respect and friendship: distance vs. closer relationships →Sue calls Walt "Wally" Sue bridges the gap between her family and Walt (mediator between two cultures) Walt and Thao help each other: e.g. refurbishing houses 23 Gangs and socio-economic background ● gang violence is probably a result of disorientation, hopelessness and lack of future prospects →gangs seem to provide orientation for alienated male teenagers escalation of violence: insults, threats, physical violence → e.g. Smokie burning Thao with cigarette, Walt beating up Smokie, gun attack, Sue's rape, Walt provoking gang into shooting him dead ● Language • Hmong family: older generations do not speak English at all, Sue and Thao are bilingual → Hmong gangs speak English as a rebellion against older generation • typical sociolects for different ethnic groups ● ● Walt wants Father Janovich to call him "Mr. Kowalski", later he lets him call him "Walt" Ethnic background / racism ● traditional Hmong culture: → men as leaders who should be strong and in control (shaman) → women whose primary roles are childbreading and household chores → women should be submissive and obedient to their husbands/fathers/brothers ● ● ● → Hmong gang / African American gang Walt's racist and insulting language presented as a sign of his masculinity → Walt uses special language to communicate with his friends (solidarity) ➜racial and ethnic slurs, provocations → objectifies and sexualizes women → competitive speech style Thao needs to learn how to talk like a "real man" → lack of use of language shows inferiority it's often difficult for Hmong boys to find their place in American society → because of fathers who are either absent or not able to fulfil the expectations of strong leaders → Thao is a typical example of a teenager torn between two cultures Walt has a lot of prejudices against other cultures and is racist → calls his Hmong neighbors "gooks", "zipperhats", "swamp rats", etc. → calls Hmong wrong names (e.g. "Toad" for "Thao") Sue knows Hmong customs well, respects the culture, seems to be proud of her heritage → is also home in American society and adopts American values (e.g. white boyfriend Trey) Walt still lives in his old neighborhood, although he feels alienated there because of the many Asian immigrants and although his sons urge him to move out → his reason for staying: connection to Dorothy, tries to remain in control Religion (Christianity) ● movie begins and ends with a funeral scene in the church (Dorothy and Walt) 24 Dorothy wished for Walt to go to confession → Walt doesn't like to confess to the young and overeducated priest Father Janovich → Walt rejects hypocrisy of the church Walt dies in Christlike manner: ➜ has a critical illness and sacrifices his life for Thao and Sue ● Father Janovich learns about life and death through Walt's example ● ● Guilt and redemption Walt feels guilty for not having a close relationship with his sons and especially for doing cruel things in the Korean War Walt blames himself for the escalation of violence of Hmong gang (Sue's rape) Walt feels "soiled", does not want Thao's "pure" soul to suffer from the vicious circle of violence too Walt's act of self-sacrifice → redeeming his former sins and saving Sue and Thao from further violence Background information Korean War ● 1950 1953 (Cold War era) after WW2 Korea was divided into the communist North and the non-communist South in 1950, the North Korean Army invaded South Korea ● Detroit Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 ● Detroit became "Motor City" (the world's automotive capital) ● unemployment and poverty are pressing problems 7. Comparison of CL, CL and Gran Torino Sense of belonging at the beginning Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter Gran Torino Larry: Walt: ● no close connection to any other people, only a part of the local community because of his parental roots and his garage apart from his ill mother, belonging seems to be limited to a place (garage, house) and animals or lonely old man without any really close connection to other people: estranged from his sons and their families, no real friends → only superficial bantering with Martin at the barber shop / cracking jokes with his drinking buddies → stereotypical "hard man" behavior seems to be the typical representative of an American blue-collar worker → house in a (formerly) white neighbourhood, family, no financial hardship, job in a traditional industry 25 Silas: ● things (chicken, tools, books) but not to people ● Ambiguity of belonging Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter Larry: a colleague in the police department and therefore accepted by the community introverted but well-liked colleague has a girlfriend, Angie ● Silas: (Ford Motor Company), proud of his work ethics, a symbol of Detroit's glorious past, self-reliant, active part of the Polish-Catholic community realizes that he does not belong ● ● → "the last of his kind" in his street Thao and Sue: raised by a single mother and grandparents, part of a large family ● part of the Hmong culture Thao: ● has always been a member of Chabot's mmunity but lives as a recluse, is shunned by the townspeople grew up in a middle-class family but has economic problems now longs for a friend and company but remains passive ● Sue: part of American society: goes to school, meets American friends strong feeling of belonging, well-integrated ● racial issues: as the son of a single black mother he was formerly excluded from society uprooted and displaced more than once seems to be an active member of the community (job, hobby, Angie) but shuts himself off emotionally as soon as relationships become closer → distanced relationship with his does not want to belong to his cousin's gang, feels under pressure no friends, no relationship to a girl no clear plans for the future he does not have a feeling of belonging Gran Torino Walt: a member of white mainstream American society but feels est nged from his neighborhood because of the ethnic changes there part of white mainstream US society but his old job in production, his past, his values make him look like a relic of something that has long since disappeared ● a father, but without any emotional relationship to his sons (and their families) a part of Detroit's Polish-Catholic community, yet no real emotional connection to Christianity (only through his deceased wife) during the Korean War he killed people → believes that he has sinned, haunted by his guilt, yet also seems to be somewhat proud of his service / has kept his old weapons Thao: ● a decent young boy who feels compelled to act badly because of peer pressure (wish to belong vs. his own values and ideals) caught in the middle of nowhere: isn't accepted as a man in his Hmong family and would be 26 girlfriend as a police officer he is supposed to uphold the law →in reality he is a liar (by omission?) Changing sense of belonging Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter Larry: ● tries to break free from his solitary life by communicating with others and reaching out to them realizes that Silas has failed him as a friend because he didn't help him but lied about Cindy's disappearance → realizes his passive behavior as purposeless → becomes active ➜faces reality Silas: ● ● ● realizes that the past influences the present and his relations to other people Sue: opens up to Angie, starts telling the truth about his past (Cindy as his girlfriend; Larry as his half-brother and childhood friend) by seeking to renew the friendship with Larry he tries to make amends for the damage done in the past → takes responsibility → communicates with others → bonds with people → accepts his guilt considered a failure in US society deeply rooted in the Hmong culture but also perfectly at ease with the American way of life Gran Torino Walt: compares the Lor family with his own family realizes different ways of his and other people's behavior as helpful or not for others reflects on his (former) duty as a soldier and his duties as a man today → questions his prejudices and moves beyond them → opens up and reaches out to other people (the Lor family, Father Janovich) →gives up his real family in favor of the Lors (his bequests) ● ● watches Sue and Thao's ways of behavior and their situations → accepts Sue's quality as a role model → wants to change life by mentoring Thao → as a war veteran: faces and accepts his past Thao: ● takes responsibility, accepts that he will have to take care of his life himself stands up for his ideas develops plans for the future becomes active in their pursuit Sue: does not really change anything her optimism comes to an abrupt end when she is raped by her cousin's gang Sense of belonging in the end Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter Larry: • regarding Wallace: yes regarding Silas: partly, as the future is unknown (carburettor as a symbol of Gran Torino Walt: yes: from a psychological point of view ➜ he is no longer the grumpy, distanced, arrogant cynic as at the beginning of the film →he opens up, finds a new family and purpose in life, 27 Silas: ● regarding Angie: yes →he has learned that a relationship requires honesty and openness regarding Larry: partly, as the future is unknown (carburettor as a symbol of a starting friendship?) ● starting friendship?) Text Analysis ● ● 8. Analysis ● analyze / examine: describe and explain something accurately by examining its basic components (content and form) and then explaining its function characterize: describe and analyze a person becomes a role model to Thao no: sacrifices his life (but has succeeded in removing the gang from Sue's and Thao's lives) Thao: yes: shows stability and support for his sister and family, has connected to mainstream US society, has begun to actively shape his life What is said? - (content) How is it said? - (form/language) Why is it said in this way?- (function) Sue: ● no: from the optimistic, sensible and life-affirming young woman to a struggling, broken girl Character Analysis name of the character outward appearance: physique, clothes, movement, gestures, tone of voice, use of language, behavior, manners alliteration ● inner nature: motives and drives, attitudes, feelings and emotions relationship to other characters ● function in the story, character development antithesis Analysis of language and style ● stylistic devices and figures of speech: ellipsis euphemism Mehrere Wörter beginnen mit dem gleichen Laut. Gegenüberstellung gegensätzlicher Begriffe und Gedanken Auslassung eines Wortes oder Satzteils Beschönigung; Unangenehmes mit angenehmen Worten sagen hyperbole, exaggeration Übertreibung irony Man sagt das Gegenteil von dem, was man meint. 28 metaphor parallelism paradox personification pun repetition rhetorical question comparison Wort in übertragener Bedeutung; Bild, Vergleich gleichartiger Satzbau scheinbar falsche Aussage Vermenschlichung, Verkörperung (in Gestalt einer Person) Der witzige Effekt beruht auf der Doppeldeutigkeit des gebrauchten Wortes. mehrmaliges Aufführen desselben Wortes/Ausdrucks zur Verstärkung einer Aussage Scheinfrage, auf die keine Antwort erwartet wird Form des Bildes; direkter Vergleich (mit Vergleichswort) 9. Composition comment: express a reasoned personal opinion on a particular topic, problem or point of view compare: state similarities and differences between two or more things and draw conclusions from them ● contrast: contrast information, facts, arguments, judgments, etc. in a describing way criticize: express criticism of a person's behavior or attitude, or judge the advantages or disadvantages of a behavior, decision, etc. ● discuss: look at a problem from all sides, presenting arguments (supported by details, examples, further information) and organizing them in a meaningful way ● evaluate / assess: make a value judgement, make a negative or positive claim after careful consideration (evidences) explain: explain something, make something understandable ● interpret: examine something in detail to make the statement the author is intending to deliver clear • justify: state why an opinion, position, or action is correct or appropriate (a justification is usually positive) Comment 1) introduction: introduction to the topic, addressing the problem, arousing the reader's interest 2) body, main part: new paragraph for a new idea/argument, follow argumentation pattern (PEE), use of linking words 3) conclusion: short summary, evaluative statement, if possible provide reference to the introduction 29 Letter to the editor 1) your address (only if the editor's address is given) 2) date 3) the editor's address (if given) 4) salutation: Sir or Madam 5) body of letter: → reference, your opinion, arguments, rounding off, 6) closing, signature (full name, possible: hometown) 30