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1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis
1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis

1.Introduction 2.What is racism? 2.1 Definition of racism 2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not? 3. History of Racism in the USA 3.1 Slavery 3.2 Black Power Movement - Rosa Parks 3.3 Black Power Movement - Martin Luther King 3.4 White Supremacy 4.Black Lives Matter Outline 4.1 The new millennium 4.2 Police Brutality 4.3 What is "Black Lives Matter"? 4.4 Why "Black Lives Matter" and not "All Lives Matter"? 5. Conclusion Attachments 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 9 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 Research Paper English GK March, 2021 Black Lives Matter Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter? Q1, 12th class 1.Introduction After much deliberation, I decided on the topic of ,,Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter?" The Black Lives Matter" movement is one of the largest in US history and has gained considerable media attention in 2020. This movement has also received huge support from many people from all around the world. Personally I felt very affected by all this events and decided to write this project paper about the topic "Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter." Many people are still not aware of this topic and are misinformed when it comes to racist remarks. My goal is to inform them about systematically racism towards black people. This research paper deals with the question why ,,Black Lives Matter and not All lives Matter" because of the criticism many people have shown towards...

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this movement regarding the importance of all races. When the ,,Black Lives Matter" movement has started, many critical voices have been raised because the movement only supported the black community. In the following chapters of this research paper I will discuss in detail why black people need more support than other races. I also believe that it is important for this matter to be discussed at every school. Topics like racism are discussed very poorly at school lessons. Many students are not very well informed about its importance and do not even know the historical background of black people. Even the famous speech of Dr. Martin Luther King remains unknown to many students. Because of that, some students behave wrongly at school towards students of color and even call them by names e.g. by using the „N-Word." But not only at schools people behave wrongly towards other races. This can also been seen on German TV recently. At a round table from WDR (West German Radio and Television Network) participants of white race have criticized and commented what are considered as racism and not. They have not taken the topic racism seriously and have made fun of many names people of different races are been called in Germany. The participants of the TV show and the TV channel itself have provoked a wave of protest. Many Germans do not understand how a discussion of racism take place on TV without the participation of victims of racism or people of different races. This 3 incident brings out the importance of the topic and shows that racism is not only a big issue in the USA, but also in Germany. My hope is that the Black Lives Matter" movement have created room for conversation between all races. This research paper is part of the discussion why ,,Black Lives matter and not All Lives Matter." The main goal is to show that black people are more affected towards racism. Police violence, discrimination and systemic racism are major topics which will been discussed in this research paper. 2.What is racism? 2.1 Definition of racism The beginnings of racism were laid in antiquity, where different ethnic groups were oppressed. Many researchers use the concept of race on people. The term racism is derived from the doctrine that believes in the existence of human races. Under the concept of race theory, pan-European people with a different appearance or religion were murdered and enslaved. After the Second World War, the concept of racism was worked up and processed. In the USA this lasted a little longer, between white and dark-skinned people was made until 1948. Even today, racist structures can still be recognized in society, such as the problems within the police force that became large in 2020.1 There are different forms of racism as one foundation shows here. On the one hand, there is daily racism. A partly unconscious form of racism. For example, we talk about Africa in class and everyone looks at the black child in the class. This is called "daily racism". Then there is "state racism". The whole thing is a legal discrimination within the state. For example National Socialism, Apartheid in the Southern States in 1877.² And last but not least we have Structural Racism. There are some studies that prove that black people in the rules are controlled more often by the police than white people (please find attached: Black People are more likely to be victims of deadly police violence). Apart from that, the punishments for the same crime are harsher for black people. That is, black people get a 20% longer prison sentence than white people. The 1 https://www.humanrights.ch/de/ipf/menschenrechte/rassismus/dossier/was-ist-rassismus/ (27.02.2021). Human rights: Was ist Rassismus? - Definitionen Meldung vom 07.01.2013 2 https://www.amadeu-antonio-stiftung.de/rassismus/was-ist-rassismus/ (27.02.2021) Amadeu Antonio Stiftung: Was ist Rassismus? Meldung vom 05.02.2019 4 unemployment rate for black americans is also significantly higher than that for white americans(please find attached: unemployment rate USA) Basically, we speak of racism when people think that they are better because of their origin and, accordingly, they attribute negative characteristics to others who do not have this origin. They do this to strengthen their position. Racism is different from discrimination in that not only individuals are considered inferior, but entire groups are considered inferior. Racism is so dangerous because it is not only exclusion that can lead to inferiority complexes, but also persecution and murder because of it.3 2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not? The term "black" people is the one that black people have chosen for themselves. When we speak of dark-skinned people, we can just as well mean Indians or people who simply have a dark skin tone. But when we talk about black people, we are talking about the people who experience racism because their skin color and have been enslaved for centuries. Means nothing other than not white. This is not about skin color but about political construction in a global power structure. The self-drawing black is one that takes place predominantly outside the African continent. The term black is a break against foreign attribution that white people use as pejorative terms such as the N word or colored.4 Terms like "colored" have Black People not chosen by themselves and are therefore not correct. This term was created at the time of colonialism by white people who oppressed black people. In addition, "people of color" is also a term that people who have experienced racism have given themselves. Here, a political position is marked which understands itself in solidarity. 5 To sum up as mentioned at the beginning, being black does not necessarily mean looking black. There are people who have both a white and a black parent. So it can be that the child or the person is lightskin or darkskin. Either way, this person is black. So it can also be that someone with a non-African background is 3 https://www.frieden-fragen.de/entdecken/leben-in-vielfalt/was-ist-rassismus.html (27.02.2021) Berghof Foundation: Was ist Rassismus? Meldung vom Jahre 2021 4 https://diversity-arts-culture.berlin/woerterbuch/schwarz 5 .https://www.zdf.de/kinder/logo/sprache-gegen-rassismus-100.html (28.02.2021) ZDF Sprache gegen Rassismus Meldung vom 17.06.2020 & https://www.amadeu-antonio-stiftung.de/w/files/ pdfs/juan-faecher.pdf (28.02.2021)Amadeu Antonio Stiftung- Antisemitismus und rassismuskritische Jugendarbeit Meldung vom 28.02.2017 5 darker than someone with an African background. So here I would like to say again that this term is not dependent on the skin color. This is about those of African descent who are affected by racism. I.e. but not that the person must be African. For African-Americans, the roots are far behind. So they are Americans who are black. 3. History of Racism in the USA 3.1 Slavery It all started back by the first settlers in the USA. "Hundreds of thousands of Africans, both free and entslaved, aided the establishment and survival of colonies in the Americas and the New World"6. In 1501, the Spanish king Ferdinand of aragon allowed the settlers to bring African labor to America in form of black slaves to help build the country. During the 17th century, Europeans realized that African slaves were cheaper, so the number increased. It is not possible to give an exact number. But it is estimated that 6 to 7 million were enslaved to build America. As a result, many people in Africa lost their families. Trade developed between Europe, West Africa and the Caribbean. Also known as ,,Triangle Trade". Ships were loaded with weapons, textiles, horses, alcohol etc. These goods were used to exchange them for people- so slaves. In the second stage, the ships were then loaded with the purchased slaves (please find attached:Sitting Plan of a ship with upper and lower deck). This systematically promoted the business with slaves. Countries that contributed to this were: "Portugal, Great Britain, Netherlands, France, Spain, Denmark, Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden".7 "Slaves were human capital in the USA". Slaves were not treated like human beings. The black women were raped by the white mens and treated like serf whores. Often these women were even married. The men who tried to resist or tried to escape were whipped.Killing a slave was forgivable but stupid, since they were considered human capital. It is like throwing away your money.8 Abraham Lincoln ensured the liberation of the slaves. He did this not only for moral values, but also for political reasons. He also wanted to mess with the 6 https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/slavery (21.03.2021),zitiert 7 https://www.planet-wissen.de/geschichte/menschenrechte/sklaverei/ pwiesklavenfueramerika100.html (21.03.2021) 8 https://www.welt.de/geschichte/article112767236/Schwarze-Frauen-wie-leibeigene-Huren- gehalten.html (21.03.2021) 6 South with the liberation of the slaves. On January 1, 1863, the freedom of all slaves was proclaimed (Emancipation Proclamation). The slaveholders were not interested in this new law. But some slaves took the chance and escaped to the north. So 500,000 black people escaped. 9 Since nothing really changed, a civil war broke out. There were many victims here "No war in U.S. history has claimed more American lives the number is estimated at over 600,000 soldiers and several 100,000 civilians". It is obvious that the main cause of the war was slavery. So the north and the south were facing each other. The North was for the liberation of slaves. But the South was afraid that it would be expensive and that the plantation economy would be destroyed.So fire was fought with fire. On April 9, 1865, the Southern states surrendered. The 14th of April 1865 was the day where President Lincoln was shot¹0. Through the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the president became a martyr and symbol of the immediate nation. Without this civil war, we would not be at the point we are today. The liberation of the slaves would certainly have taken much longer. However, the mentality that blacks were inferior did not change immediately until today. Black people were still systematically disadvantaged by laws, but no longer enslaved. For the Southern states, this civil war meant a psychological and economic defeat.11 3.2 Black Power Movement - Rosa Parks December 01, 1955 was the beginning of a movement. An African American citizen named Rosa Parks was arrested in the city of Montgomery in the US state of Alabama because she did not want to change her seat. Her seat was a priority for white people. The arrest stirred up a lot of attention across the country. It especially moved the black residents of the city who then started peaceful protests against the policy of racial segregation. This was followed by black residents across the country. It is hard to believe that the whole thing took place only in 1955. But the times of racial segregation in the USA are not too long ago. In 1865, slavery was abolished, but black people were still disadvantaged and little changed in their situation. There were differences in voting rights, for example, and they were paid less. 9 https://www.planet-wissen.de/geschichte/neuzeit/amerikanischer buergerkrieg/ pwieschwarzenregimenterexsklavenkaempfenfuerdieunion100.html 10 https://www.merkur.de/politik/abraham-lincoln-praesident-usa-leben-familie-politische- laufbahn-partei-90180156.html 11 https://www.bpb.de/internationales/amerika/usa/10595/buergerkrieg-und-sklaverei 7 It was said that both blacks and whites should be treated equally, and so it was in the law, but this requirement was not checked. It was a fact that black citizens were treated worse. This also applied to educational institutions such as schools. Schools attended by African-American children received less money from the state and were correspondingly less well equipped. Black people could therefore only educate themselves with difficulty or not at all. Education was something that only white people could afford. It was the same with hospitals and universities. None of them wanted to admit and educate black people because they would be disadvantaged as well. Therefore, blacks were on their own. No one cared whether a black person had the same rights. In places where white and black had to clash, such as restrooms or even on buses, there were segregated places. There were toilets for both white and black people. There were carriages in trains for white people as well as for black people. In buses, black people were only allowed to sit in certain seats - the front seats were out of the question. No white person had to stand when a black person sat. In Montgomery where rosa Parks had lived, this principle was strictly observed. And no one did anything about it. Blacks and whites went to separate schools, separate restrooms, and separate universities. The back seat pure were also here for the black people. In the middle of the bus, however, there was an area that was open to black passengers, but if even one white passenger wanted to sit there, the black passengers had to vacate the entire row of seats.12 Rosa Parks again opposed this, however, and was arrested as a result. She did not accept having to stand after a long day's work just because a white man had priority. She was physically tired and therefore stressed. The bus driver asked her to stand up so the white man could sit down, but she ignored him. This Daily racism was normality in the 1950s. Until that day. Of course, nothing changed from that day on. But Rosa parks created a movement. There was no concrete reason why she sat down again exactly on that day. Probably only one drop was missing until she defected, because people with such a skin color were discriminated every day. Rosa Parks says " I didn't want to be constantly insulted for something I have no control over; my skin".13 12. https://www.biography.com/activist/rosa-parks biography.com (01.03.2021) Editors: Rosa Parks Meldung vom 05.01.2021 13 https://www.spiegel.de/geschichte/buergerrechtlerin-rosa-parks-a-951024.html 8 This incident led to the protest action. Their arrest spread throughout the country. After 381 days, the strikers were able to get their funding desegregated. With this action, Rosa Parks is considered a hero in history. To this day, she is revered as the mother of the civil rights movement. even though I was not the first woman to refuse to give up her seat for a white man. In the past there were often such incidents but the case of Rosaparks was the one that triggered the protests. 3.3 Black Power Movement - Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Jr. was the leader of the civil rights movement in America. He was a clergyman with great impact on racism in the US. Through activism and inspirational speeches, he ended segregation in the US. He created the Civil Rights Act in 1964 as well as the Voting Rights Act in 1965. In 1964, he also won the Nobel Prize. His life was ended by an assassination attempt and was immortalized with Martin Luther King Day. Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, as middle child with two siblings. The King family children grew up in a safe environment. But the parents could not protect their children from racism in the United States. Michael Sr. fight against racism, as well as against his own race and against God's will. He raised his children that class superiority is bad and left a lasting impression on Martin Luther King Jr. He attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he turned out to be a very precocious student. He skipped the ninth and eleventh grades and transferred to Morehouse College in Atlanta at 15. There he was a very popular but unmotivated student. In general, he questioned religion and found himself rather uncomfortable with religious worship. This caused him to decide against the parish ministry, which caused disappointment with his father. Through his 1st semester, however, where he took a Bible course, he renewed his faith and a turnaround occurred: King Jr. became a minister after all.14 On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old girl refused to give her seat to a white man. Claudette Colvin was subsequently arrested. A local group, the Advocates for Racial Equality NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) used this case to challenge segregated busing. But the girl was unfortunately pregnant, so it would hav een too scandalous the black community. 14 http://www.martin-luther-king-zentrum.de/mlkz/lebenslauf Zentrum Werdau e.V Meldung vom (nicht angegeben) • https://www.biography.com/activist/martin-luther-king-jr Martin Luther King Biography Meldung vom 13.01.2021 (10.03.2021) Martin Luther King (10.03.2021) biography.com 9 On December 1, 1955, however, an opportunity came for the NAACP. Rosa Parks boarded a bus after work. She sat in the front row of the "colored" compartment, the bus was very crowded and all the seats were taken. The bus driver asked the blacks to vacate the seat for the whites. Rosa Parks still did not stand up. She was arrested and had to pay a fine of 10 dollars. As a result, E.D. Nixon (head of NCAAP) and King met and planned a bus boycott together. King was chosen to lead this boycott because he was young educated and credible. He gave his first speech and used skillful rhetoric to unleash new energy in the struggle for civil rights. The bus boycott included 382 people walking to work against violence and harassment against African Americans. Afterwards, legal action was also taken against the city ordinance because the laws were unconstitutional. The City of Montgomery suffered a financial and legal defeat in the process and the bus laws were repealed.15 On August 28, 1963, in Washington, D.C., Martin Luther King gave the world- famous speech. Over 200,000 people had gathered on the square in front of the Lincoln Memorial to "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom." 16 He says: "(...)I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day, even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by content of their character. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, that one day, right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together. 15 https://naacp.org/dr-martin-luther-king-jr-history/ (10.03.2021) NAACP DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR Meldung vom (keine Angaben) 16 https://www.bpb.de/politik/hintergrund-aktuell/267010/i-have-a-dream 10 This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride; from every mountainside, let freedom ring!"—and if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children-black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics-will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last, Free at last; thank God Almighty, we are free at last."17 With this speech, Martin Luther King also caused a movement in history. 3.4 White Supremacy White supremacy is a more blatant form of racism. It is the belief that white people are worth more than non-white people because of their skin color. The past, such as the civil war, is discussed. According to such people, the white 17 https://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/gna/Quellensammlung/10/10 mlkihaveadream 1963.htm (15.03.2021) Rede von Martin Luther King 11 people did everything right back then and it should still be the same today. Such is the mindset of these people.18 There were different groups that hated and hunted black people. They did not accept that they losing the Civil War. A very famous group is the "Ku-Klux- Klan". It was founded on Christmas Eve 1865. For these people, black people are not real Humans. They have no problem watching black people being discriminated against or killed. They have certain rituals in which they also torture and kill people. These people are usually black. The uniforms are such that their identity is not recognizable.19 But it is not only such groups that act against blacks. In general, white ideology still rules American society.In cases such as George Floyd, this was again clear to see. Also, on Donald Trump's policies, white people were portrayed as better people and non-white people were portrayed as worse and worthless. Of course, nowadays such things are not said directly. He wouldn't directly say "black lives have no value" or something like that. But it was obvious that his policy had divisive goals. For example, some of Donald Trump's statements were: - "I don't like it when black people count my money" This is what he said to his black accountant in 1991. "They bring drugs, they bring criminals, they are rapists" His statement towards migrants 20 So it's also the systematic racism that is "white supremacy" here. For example, black people don't get as good jobs, they have less money and their children don't have as good an education as white people. They are also disadvantaged in terms of health.21 4.Black Lives Matter 4.1 The new millennium Barack Obama is elected in 2008 as the first black U.S. president. 18 https://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/white-supremacy/ (21.03.2021) Slavery by another name - White supremacy and Terrorism Meldung von 2017 19 https://www.welt.de/geschichte/article223180316/Ku-Klux-Klan-Lynchmorde-sollten-die-Ex- Sklaven-brechen.html (21.03.2021) Welt- Lynchmorde und brutaler Hokuspokus sollten die Ex- Sklaven brechen Meldung vom 24.12.2020 20 https://www.wmn.de/lifestyle/entertainment/rassistische-aussagen-von-donald-trump-id30721 21 https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/rassismus-in-den-usa-white-supremacy-dominiert- die.911.de.html?dram:article id=478067 (21.03.2021) Deutschland Funk ,,White Supremacy dominiert die amerikanische Gesellschaft" Meldung vom 07.06.2020 12 "Change has come to America", Obama said in his victory speech. 22Back in 2004, obama competed in the primaries. He won 52% of the votes. 2³Obama's 2008 speech is world famous. He has realized the American Dream. A black man who became the most powerful man in the world. He uses the phrase "Yes we can" very often in his speech; "[...] And Tonight, I think about all that she's seen throughout her century in America - the heartache and the hope; the struggle and the progress; the times we were told that we can't, and the people who pressed on with that American creed: Yes we can. [...]" "[...] New Deal, new jobs and new sense of common purpose. Yes we can.[...]"24 Yet Obama went down in history as the first black president and also brought hope to America, the racism and police violence against blacks did not stop.25 4.2 Police Brutality The Significance of police brutality "Police violence is a leading cause of death for young men in the United States. Over the life course, about 1 in every 1,000 black men can expect to be killed by police. Risk of being killed by police peaks between the ages of 20 y and 35 y for men and women and for all racial and ethnic groups. Black women and men and American Indian and Alaska Native women and men are significantly more likely than white women and men to be killed by police. Latino men are also more likely to be killed by police than are white men." 26 "Statistics show estimates of lifetime risk of being killed by police use of force by race and sex, using data from 2013 to 2018." (please find attached: Lifetime risk of being killed by police, per 100,000.) For example, a well-known case of police violence is the expiration of Trayvon martin. The juvenile had been followed by a private neighborhood watch, in Sanford on Feb. 26, 2012. There was no real reason for this. 22 https://www.welt.de/politik/article2677162/Barack-Obama-wird-erster-schwarzer-US- Praesident.html (20.03.2021) Welt, Barack Obama wird erster schwarzer US-Präsident Meldungen vom 05.11.2008 23 Hans Peter Oswald Yes, we can Biografie und Reden eines Präsidenten, Books of Demand Biografie 24Hans Peter Oswald Yes, we can Biografie und Reden eines Präsidenten, Books of Demand Election Night Speech 25 https://www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de/obamas-bilanz-hat-sich-der-rassismus-in-den-usa- veraendert.1008. de.html?dram: article id=369926 (20.03.2021) Hat sich der Rassismus in den USA verändert? Meldungen vom 29.10.2016 26https://www.pnas.org/content/116/34/16793 (20.03.2021) Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex Meldungen vom 20.08.2019 13 The reason was only "because he seemed suspicious to them".27 The frightening thing about this case is that it was obviously murder. But Zimmermann (the murderer) was acquitted because he had a right to shoot. The "Stand your Ground" law applies, which means that you can shoot on your property if someone enters it without permission.28 Some speakers therefore criticized the gun law. Unfortunately, this is not the only expiration where a person is killed because of the color of his skin. Another well-known expirations, was that of Elijah McClain. In elijah's case, it was claimed that someone had called the police because the 23-year-old was probably armed and wearing a ski mask. The officers put him in a carotid hold for 15minutes and called and injected him with kentamine. On the way to the hospital, Elijah died of brain death. And again, the crime was not recognized for murder.29 As already mentioned, there were many more expirations. But now I would like to talk about the one of George Floyd, through whom the "Black Lives Matter" movement became known again. George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man had allegedly tried to pay with counterfeit money. With a $20 bill. "Floyd was handcuffed on the ground as officer Derek chauvin knelt on his neck for eight minutes and 46 seconds - as Floyd pleaded with the four officers present and repeatedly told them that he could not breathe. Chauvin kept his knee on Floyd's neck even when he became unresponsive. Two autopsy reports listed Floyds death as homicide, although they gave different causes."30 The crime was filmed and shared around the world. The whole thing caused a lot of excitement. 4.3 What is "Black Lives Matter"? Black Lives Matter is a US American movement against violence and racism against African Americans and people of color. It originated in 2013 with the 27https://www.handelsblatt.com/politik/international/trayvon-martin-prozess-sperrt-rassistische- moerder-ein-nicht-schwarze-jugendliche/8496472.html Mörder ein, nicht schwarze Jugendliche" Meldungen vom 15.07.2013 28 https://www.cnn.com/2018/07/29/us/stand-your-ground-law-explainer-trnd/index.html (21.03.2021) CNN What you need to know about 'stand your ground' laws Meldungen vom 29.07.2018 (21.03.2021)VGH,,Sperrt rassistische 29 https://www.thecut.com/2021/02/the-killing-of-elijah-mcclain-everything-we-know.html (21.03.2021)The cut What We Know About the Killing of Elijah McClain Meldungen vom 22.02.2021 30 https://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2020/know-their-names/index.html (21.02.2021) Know their names Meldungen vom nicht angegeben 14 hashtag #blacklivesmatter.31 It all started at the Trayvon Martin trial. It was reported that a WHITE man had shot a BLACK boy. The skin colors should not really play a role in such a topic or should not be mentioned. It seems as if the life of the white man would be more important. The mother, Sybrina Fulton, was shocked and angry. She kept telling it until the story landed with a young group of activists. Led by Umi Agnew, the governor's office was occupied and protests began. People WENT out into the streets and shared it on social media (please find attached: protests) 32 The death of George Floyd triggered this movement again. All over the world, people took to the streets and protested with "Black lives matter" signs. Founders of this movement were ; Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors und Opal Tometi. Racism has not been an unknown topic throughout history. Everyday racism and injustice are discussed all over the world. In the U.S., people are debating police reform, which means police violence. Some streaming platforms even remove movies or series that use racist stereotypes. So this movement is not pointless. People are becoming more and more concerned about how unconsciously racism is used in everyday life. More and more people are becoming aware of police violence in the US. 4.4 Why "Black Lives Matter" and not "All Lives Matter"? Some people, some white people, think that the slogan Black Lives Matter is not correct. They think that all lives matter. Of course all lives matter but that is not the point. The problem is that black lives in the US are disadvantaged and suffer from police violence. A good example is that when a house is on fire, we don't call the fire department and say: all houses are important, please put mine out, even if it's not on fire. Because all houses are important. That's just the way it is in the USA. Black people are killed because of the color of their skin. White people are not killed because they are white. Of course, there are also white people who have a hard time in life. But they don't have it hard because they are white, they are not systematically disadvantaged because they are white. If a black person calls a white person white bread, for example, this is not racism. Then it is called discrimination or mobbing. Black people have been through slavery because of the color of their skin, are systematically discriminated against, and are being killed, all because they are black. Therefore, you should think twice if you want to badmouth the slogan. It is also a kind of 31 https://www.merkur.de/politik/black-lives-matter-bewegung-hashtag-rassismus- afroamerikaner-polizeigewalt-13786901.htmlGeschichte der wachsenden Bewegung in den USA 32 Black Lives Matter Eine Geschichte vom Überleben, Patrisse Khan-Cullors mit Asha bandele Verlag: Kiepenheuer & Witsch 15 ,,Whataboutism" I.e. one talks a topic badly and/or small by comparing it with another topic. 33 5. Conclusion In this research paper, the topic of Black Lives Matter was examined by the question, "Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter?". At the beginning I had explained what racism is in general. I found out that when I told people about it, most of them didn't know the correct definition. Also why one does not say colored was not aware of many. Some even thought it would be more polite to say "colored". I am really glad to have learned more about history in the US. Although I knew the stories of Martin Luther King or Rosa Parks. But of course I was not as informed before as I was after this work. When I was in Washington myself, I had seen many Protestants who were black in front of the White House. That was in 2018, and at that time I had not really perceived the whole thing. I was more focused on the white house or the city. I regret that. Black Lives Matter is an important issue that should continue to be talked about. When I read through the book on Black Lives Matter I had goosebumps when I read the words of Trayvon Martin's mother. It really made me very sad to have to imagine losing a child and then not having justice done. Trayvon martin was also still my age. Something like that goes to your heart. Something like this should simply not be the norm. There are many artists who are black themselves. Like Beyoncé, for example. Beyoncé is using her reach to bring attention to the issue and even hosted a "Black Parade". This has disturbed some fans but she don't care. And that's how it should be ; everyone should use their voice and not be too shy. No matter whether an artist, teacher, mayor, president or other. You can also just talk to your friends about it or spread these topics on social media. If everyone just watches, nothing will change. And in the meantime we have 2021. Everyone should have slowly understood that Black Live's Matter! 33 https://www.br.de/nachrichten/deutschland-welt/warum-alllivesmatter-der-falsche-slogan-ist- possoch-klaert,S11 Ueld (23.03.2021) Possoch, Warum #AllLivesMatter der falsche Slogan ist Meldungen vom 06.06.2020 16 American Indian/AK Native 20% 15 10 African American 5 0 Unemployment rates by race Seasonally adjusted Asian/Pacific Islander 9.9% Q Latinx 5% Total $54 '60 White 100 50 0 50 100 Lifetime risk of being killed by police, per 100,000 '70 '80 Ole Theil Attachments wwwwwwwwwwwwwww.ERMA 19.5% 8.4% '90 1983 '00 Unterer Boden des Schiffes Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Note: "Black and other," 1954-1971; "Black or African American" thereafter. 2013 average is January-July. PEW RESEARCH CENTER des Schiffes 13.4% Black 6.7% White '10'13 HHII 1.Black People are more likely to be victims of 2. Unemployment rate USA 3. Sitting Plan of a ship with upper and lower dec 17

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1.Introduction
2.What is racism?
2.1 Definition of racism
2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not?
3. History of Racis

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1.Introduction 2.What is racism? 2.1 Definition of racism 2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not? 3. History of Racism in the USA 3.1 Slavery 3.2 Black Power Movement - Rosa Parks 3.3 Black Power Movement - Martin Luther King 3.4 White Supremacy 4.Black Lives Matter Outline 4.1 The new millennium 4.2 Police Brutality 4.3 What is "Black Lives Matter"? 4.4 Why "Black Lives Matter" and not "All Lives Matter"? 5. Conclusion Attachments 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 9 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 Research Paper English GK March, 2021 Black Lives Matter Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter? Q1, 12th class 1.Introduction After much deliberation, I decided on the topic of ,,Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter?" The Black Lives Matter" movement is one of the largest in US history and has gained considerable media attention in 2020. This movement has also received huge support from many people from all around the world. Personally I felt very affected by all this events and decided to write this project paper about the topic "Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter." Many people are still not aware of this topic and are misinformed when it comes to racist remarks. My goal is to inform them about systematically racism towards black people. This research paper deals with the question why ,,Black Lives Matter and not All lives Matter" because of the criticism many people have shown towards...

1.Introduction 2.What is racism? 2.1 Definition of racism 2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not? 3. History of Racism in the USA 3.1 Slavery 3.2 Black Power Movement - Rosa Parks 3.3 Black Power Movement - Martin Luther King 3.4 White Supremacy 4.Black Lives Matter Outline 4.1 The new millennium 4.2 Police Brutality 4.3 What is "Black Lives Matter"? 4.4 Why "Black Lives Matter" and not "All Lives Matter"? 5. Conclusion Attachments 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 9 11 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 Research Paper English GK March, 2021 Black Lives Matter Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter? Q1, 12th class 1.Introduction After much deliberation, I decided on the topic of ,,Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter?" The Black Lives Matter" movement is one of the largest in US history and has gained considerable media attention in 2020. This movement has also received huge support from many people from all around the world. Personally I felt very affected by all this events and decided to write this project paper about the topic "Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter." Many people are still not aware of this topic and are misinformed when it comes to racist remarks. My goal is to inform them about systematically racism towards black people. This research paper deals with the question why ,,Black Lives Matter and not All lives Matter" because of the criticism many people have shown towards...

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this movement regarding the importance of all races. When the ,,Black Lives Matter" movement has started, many critical voices have been raised because the movement only supported the black community. In the following chapters of this research paper I will discuss in detail why black people need more support than other races. I also believe that it is important for this matter to be discussed at every school. Topics like racism are discussed very poorly at school lessons. Many students are not very well informed about its importance and do not even know the historical background of black people. Even the famous speech of Dr. Martin Luther King remains unknown to many students. Because of that, some students behave wrongly at school towards students of color and even call them by names e.g. by using the „N-Word." But not only at schools people behave wrongly towards other races. This can also been seen on German TV recently. At a round table from WDR (West German Radio and Television Network) participants of white race have criticized and commented what are considered as racism and not. They have not taken the topic racism seriously and have made fun of many names people of different races are been called in Germany. The participants of the TV show and the TV channel itself have provoked a wave of protest. Many Germans do not understand how a discussion of racism take place on TV without the participation of victims of racism or people of different races. This 3 incident brings out the importance of the topic and shows that racism is not only a big issue in the USA, but also in Germany. My hope is that the Black Lives Matter" movement have created room for conversation between all races. This research paper is part of the discussion why ,,Black Lives matter and not All Lives Matter." The main goal is to show that black people are more affected towards racism. Police violence, discrimination and systemic racism are major topics which will been discussed in this research paper. 2.What is racism? 2.1 Definition of racism The beginnings of racism were laid in antiquity, where different ethnic groups were oppressed. Many researchers use the concept of race on people. The term racism is derived from the doctrine that believes in the existence of human races. Under the concept of race theory, pan-European people with a different appearance or religion were murdered and enslaved. After the Second World War, the concept of racism was worked up and processed. In the USA this lasted a little longer, between white and dark-skinned people was made until 1948. Even today, racist structures can still be recognized in society, such as the problems within the police force that became large in 2020.1 There are different forms of racism as one foundation shows here. On the one hand, there is daily racism. A partly unconscious form of racism. For example, we talk about Africa in class and everyone looks at the black child in the class. This is called "daily racism". Then there is "state racism". The whole thing is a legal discrimination within the state. For example National Socialism, Apartheid in the Southern States in 1877.² And last but not least we have Structural Racism. There are some studies that prove that black people in the rules are controlled more often by the police than white people (please find attached: Black People are more likely to be victims of deadly police violence). Apart from that, the punishments for the same crime are harsher for black people. That is, black people get a 20% longer prison sentence than white people. The 1 https://www.humanrights.ch/de/ipf/menschenrechte/rassismus/dossier/was-ist-rassismus/ (27.02.2021). Human rights: Was ist Rassismus? - Definitionen Meldung vom 07.01.2013 2 https://www.amadeu-antonio-stiftung.de/rassismus/was-ist-rassismus/ (27.02.2021) Amadeu Antonio Stiftung: Was ist Rassismus? Meldung vom 05.02.2019 4 unemployment rate for black americans is also significantly higher than that for white americans(please find attached: unemployment rate USA) Basically, we speak of racism when people think that they are better because of their origin and, accordingly, they attribute negative characteristics to others who do not have this origin. They do this to strengthen their position. Racism is different from discrimination in that not only individuals are considered inferior, but entire groups are considered inferior. Racism is so dangerous because it is not only exclusion that can lead to inferiority complexes, but also persecution and murder because of it.3 2.2Why is "black people" correct but ,,colored people" is not? The term "black" people is the one that black people have chosen for themselves. When we speak of dark-skinned people, we can just as well mean Indians or people who simply have a dark skin tone. But when we talk about black people, we are talking about the people who experience racism because their skin color and have been enslaved for centuries. Means nothing other than not white. This is not about skin color but about political construction in a global power structure. The self-drawing black is one that takes place predominantly outside the African continent. The term black is a break against foreign attribution that white people use as pejorative terms such as the N word or colored.4 Terms like "colored" have Black People not chosen by themselves and are therefore not correct. This term was created at the time of colonialism by white people who oppressed black people. In addition, "people of color" is also a term that people who have experienced racism have given themselves. Here, a political position is marked which understands itself in solidarity. 5 To sum up as mentioned at the beginning, being black does not necessarily mean looking black. There are people who have both a white and a black parent. So it can be that the child or the person is lightskin or darkskin. Either way, this person is black. So it can also be that someone with a non-African background is 3 https://www.frieden-fragen.de/entdecken/leben-in-vielfalt/was-ist-rassismus.html (27.02.2021) Berghof Foundation: Was ist Rassismus? Meldung vom Jahre 2021 4 https://diversity-arts-culture.berlin/woerterbuch/schwarz 5 .https://www.zdf.de/kinder/logo/sprache-gegen-rassismus-100.html (28.02.2021) ZDF Sprache gegen Rassismus Meldung vom 17.06.2020 & https://www.amadeu-antonio-stiftung.de/w/files/ pdfs/juan-faecher.pdf (28.02.2021)Amadeu Antonio Stiftung- Antisemitismus und rassismuskritische Jugendarbeit Meldung vom 28.02.2017 5 darker than someone with an African background. So here I would like to say again that this term is not dependent on the skin color. This is about those of African descent who are affected by racism. I.e. but not that the person must be African. For African-Americans, the roots are far behind. So they are Americans who are black. 3. History of Racism in the USA 3.1 Slavery It all started back by the first settlers in the USA. "Hundreds of thousands of Africans, both free and entslaved, aided the establishment and survival of colonies in the Americas and the New World"6. In 1501, the Spanish king Ferdinand of aragon allowed the settlers to bring African labor to America in form of black slaves to help build the country. During the 17th century, Europeans realized that African slaves were cheaper, so the number increased. It is not possible to give an exact number. But it is estimated that 6 to 7 million were enslaved to build America. As a result, many people in Africa lost their families. Trade developed between Europe, West Africa and the Caribbean. Also known as ,,Triangle Trade". Ships were loaded with weapons, textiles, horses, alcohol etc. These goods were used to exchange them for people- so slaves. In the second stage, the ships were then loaded with the purchased slaves (please find attached:Sitting Plan of a ship with upper and lower deck). This systematically promoted the business with slaves. Countries that contributed to this were: "Portugal, Great Britain, Netherlands, France, Spain, Denmark, Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden".7 "Slaves were human capital in the USA". Slaves were not treated like human beings. The black women were raped by the white mens and treated like serf whores. Often these women were even married. The men who tried to resist or tried to escape were whipped.Killing a slave was forgivable but stupid, since they were considered human capital. It is like throwing away your money.8 Abraham Lincoln ensured the liberation of the slaves. He did this not only for moral values, but also for political reasons. He also wanted to mess with the 6 https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/slavery (21.03.2021),zitiert 7 https://www.planet-wissen.de/geschichte/menschenrechte/sklaverei/ pwiesklavenfueramerika100.html (21.03.2021) 8 https://www.welt.de/geschichte/article112767236/Schwarze-Frauen-wie-leibeigene-Huren- gehalten.html (21.03.2021) 6 South with the liberation of the slaves. On January 1, 1863, the freedom of all slaves was proclaimed (Emancipation Proclamation). The slaveholders were not interested in this new law. But some slaves took the chance and escaped to the north. So 500,000 black people escaped. 9 Since nothing really changed, a civil war broke out. There were many victims here "No war in U.S. history has claimed more American lives the number is estimated at over 600,000 soldiers and several 100,000 civilians". It is obvious that the main cause of the war was slavery. So the north and the south were facing each other. The North was for the liberation of slaves. But the South was afraid that it would be expensive and that the plantation economy would be destroyed.So fire was fought with fire. On April 9, 1865, the Southern states surrendered. The 14th of April 1865 was the day where President Lincoln was shot¹0. Through the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the president became a martyr and symbol of the immediate nation. Without this civil war, we would not be at the point we are today. The liberation of the slaves would certainly have taken much longer. However, the mentality that blacks were inferior did not change immediately until today. Black people were still systematically disadvantaged by laws, but no longer enslaved. For the Southern states, this civil war meant a psychological and economic defeat.11 3.2 Black Power Movement - Rosa Parks December 01, 1955 was the beginning of a movement. An African American citizen named Rosa Parks was arrested in the city of Montgomery in the US state of Alabama because she did not want to change her seat. Her seat was a priority for white people. The arrest stirred up a lot of attention across the country. It especially moved the black residents of the city who then started peaceful protests against the policy of racial segregation. This was followed by black residents across the country. It is hard to believe that the whole thing took place only in 1955. But the times of racial segregation in the USA are not too long ago. In 1865, slavery was abolished, but black people were still disadvantaged and little changed in their situation. There were differences in voting rights, for example, and they were paid less. 9 https://www.planet-wissen.de/geschichte/neuzeit/amerikanischer buergerkrieg/ pwieschwarzenregimenterexsklavenkaempfenfuerdieunion100.html 10 https://www.merkur.de/politik/abraham-lincoln-praesident-usa-leben-familie-politische- laufbahn-partei-90180156.html 11 https://www.bpb.de/internationales/amerika/usa/10595/buergerkrieg-und-sklaverei 7 It was said that both blacks and whites should be treated equally, and so it was in the law, but this requirement was not checked. It was a fact that black citizens were treated worse. This also applied to educational institutions such as schools. Schools attended by African-American children received less money from the state and were correspondingly less well equipped. Black people could therefore only educate themselves with difficulty or not at all. Education was something that only white people could afford. It was the same with hospitals and universities. None of them wanted to admit and educate black people because they would be disadvantaged as well. Therefore, blacks were on their own. No one cared whether a black person had the same rights. In places where white and black had to clash, such as restrooms or even on buses, there were segregated places. There were toilets for both white and black people. There were carriages in trains for white people as well as for black people. In buses, black people were only allowed to sit in certain seats - the front seats were out of the question. No white person had to stand when a black person sat. In Montgomery where rosa Parks had lived, this principle was strictly observed. And no one did anything about it. Blacks and whites went to separate schools, separate restrooms, and separate universities. The back seat pure were also here for the black people. In the middle of the bus, however, there was an area that was open to black passengers, but if even one white passenger wanted to sit there, the black passengers had to vacate the entire row of seats.12 Rosa Parks again opposed this, however, and was arrested as a result. She did not accept having to stand after a long day's work just because a white man had priority. She was physically tired and therefore stressed. The bus driver asked her to stand up so the white man could sit down, but she ignored him. This Daily racism was normality in the 1950s. Until that day. Of course, nothing changed from that day on. But Rosa parks created a movement. There was no concrete reason why she sat down again exactly on that day. Probably only one drop was missing until she defected, because people with such a skin color were discriminated every day. Rosa Parks says " I didn't want to be constantly insulted for something I have no control over; my skin".13 12. https://www.biography.com/activist/rosa-parks biography.com (01.03.2021) Editors: Rosa Parks Meldung vom 05.01.2021 13 https://www.spiegel.de/geschichte/buergerrechtlerin-rosa-parks-a-951024.html 8 This incident led to the protest action. Their arrest spread throughout the country. After 381 days, the strikers were able to get their funding desegregated. With this action, Rosa Parks is considered a hero in history. To this day, she is revered as the mother of the civil rights movement. even though I was not the first woman to refuse to give up her seat for a white man. In the past there were often such incidents but the case of Rosaparks was the one that triggered the protests. 3.3 Black Power Movement - Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Jr. was the leader of the civil rights movement in America. He was a clergyman with great impact on racism in the US. Through activism and inspirational speeches, he ended segregation in the US. He created the Civil Rights Act in 1964 as well as the Voting Rights Act in 1965. In 1964, he also won the Nobel Prize. His life was ended by an assassination attempt and was immortalized with Martin Luther King Day. Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, as middle child with two siblings. The King family children grew up in a safe environment. But the parents could not protect their children from racism in the United States. Michael Sr. fight against racism, as well as against his own race and against God's will. He raised his children that class superiority is bad and left a lasting impression on Martin Luther King Jr. He attended Booker T. Washington High School, where he turned out to be a very precocious student. He skipped the ninth and eleventh grades and transferred to Morehouse College in Atlanta at 15. There he was a very popular but unmotivated student. In general, he questioned religion and found himself rather uncomfortable with religious worship. This caused him to decide against the parish ministry, which caused disappointment with his father. Through his 1st semester, however, where he took a Bible course, he renewed his faith and a turnaround occurred: King Jr. became a minister after all.14 On March 2, 1955, a 15-year-old girl refused to give her seat to a white man. Claudette Colvin was subsequently arrested. A local group, the Advocates for Racial Equality NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) used this case to challenge segregated busing. But the girl was unfortunately pregnant, so it would hav een too scandalous the black community. 14 http://www.martin-luther-king-zentrum.de/mlkz/lebenslauf Zentrum Werdau e.V Meldung vom (nicht angegeben) • https://www.biography.com/activist/martin-luther-king-jr Martin Luther King Biography Meldung vom 13.01.2021 (10.03.2021) Martin Luther King (10.03.2021) biography.com 9 On December 1, 1955, however, an opportunity came for the NAACP. Rosa Parks boarded a bus after work. She sat in the front row of the "colored" compartment, the bus was very crowded and all the seats were taken. The bus driver asked the blacks to vacate the seat for the whites. Rosa Parks still did not stand up. She was arrested and had to pay a fine of 10 dollars. As a result, E.D. Nixon (head of NCAAP) and King met and planned a bus boycott together. King was chosen to lead this boycott because he was young educated and credible. He gave his first speech and used skillful rhetoric to unleash new energy in the struggle for civil rights. The bus boycott included 382 people walking to work against violence and harassment against African Americans. Afterwards, legal action was also taken against the city ordinance because the laws were unconstitutional. The City of Montgomery suffered a financial and legal defeat in the process and the bus laws were repealed.15 On August 28, 1963, in Washington, D.C., Martin Luther King gave the world- famous speech. Over 200,000 people had gathered on the square in front of the Lincoln Memorial to "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom." 16 He says: "(...)I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day, even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by content of their character. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, that one day, right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together. 15 https://naacp.org/dr-martin-luther-king-jr-history/ (10.03.2021) NAACP DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR Meldung vom (keine Angaben) 16 https://www.bpb.de/politik/hintergrund-aktuell/267010/i-have-a-dream 10 This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride; from every mountainside, let freedom ring!"—and if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children-black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics-will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last, Free at last; thank God Almighty, we are free at last."17 With this speech, Martin Luther King also caused a movement in history. 3.4 White Supremacy White supremacy is a more blatant form of racism. It is the belief that white people are worth more than non-white people because of their skin color. The past, such as the civil war, is discussed. According to such people, the white 17 https://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/gna/Quellensammlung/10/10 mlkihaveadream 1963.htm (15.03.2021) Rede von Martin Luther King 11 people did everything right back then and it should still be the same today. Such is the mindset of these people.18 There were different groups that hated and hunted black people. They did not accept that they losing the Civil War. A very famous group is the "Ku-Klux- Klan". It was founded on Christmas Eve 1865. For these people, black people are not real Humans. They have no problem watching black people being discriminated against or killed. They have certain rituals in which they also torture and kill people. These people are usually black. The uniforms are such that their identity is not recognizable.19 But it is not only such groups that act against blacks. In general, white ideology still rules American society.In cases such as George Floyd, this was again clear to see. Also, on Donald Trump's policies, white people were portrayed as better people and non-white people were portrayed as worse and worthless. Of course, nowadays such things are not said directly. He wouldn't directly say "black lives have no value" or something like that. But it was obvious that his policy had divisive goals. For example, some of Donald Trump's statements were: - "I don't like it when black people count my money" This is what he said to his black accountant in 1991. "They bring drugs, they bring criminals, they are rapists" His statement towards migrants 20 So it's also the systematic racism that is "white supremacy" here. For example, black people don't get as good jobs, they have less money and their children don't have as good an education as white people. They are also disadvantaged in terms of health.21 4.Black Lives Matter 4.1 The new millennium Barack Obama is elected in 2008 as the first black U.S. president. 18 https://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/white-supremacy/ (21.03.2021) Slavery by another name - White supremacy and Terrorism Meldung von 2017 19 https://www.welt.de/geschichte/article223180316/Ku-Klux-Klan-Lynchmorde-sollten-die-Ex- Sklaven-brechen.html (21.03.2021) Welt- Lynchmorde und brutaler Hokuspokus sollten die Ex- Sklaven brechen Meldung vom 24.12.2020 20 https://www.wmn.de/lifestyle/entertainment/rassistische-aussagen-von-donald-trump-id30721 21 https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/rassismus-in-den-usa-white-supremacy-dominiert- die.911.de.html?dram:article id=478067 (21.03.2021) Deutschland Funk ,,White Supremacy dominiert die amerikanische Gesellschaft" Meldung vom 07.06.2020 12 "Change has come to America", Obama said in his victory speech. 22Back in 2004, obama competed in the primaries. He won 52% of the votes. 2³Obama's 2008 speech is world famous. He has realized the American Dream. A black man who became the most powerful man in the world. He uses the phrase "Yes we can" very often in his speech; "[...] And Tonight, I think about all that she's seen throughout her century in America - the heartache and the hope; the struggle and the progress; the times we were told that we can't, and the people who pressed on with that American creed: Yes we can. [...]" "[...] New Deal, new jobs and new sense of common purpose. Yes we can.[...]"24 Yet Obama went down in history as the first black president and also brought hope to America, the racism and police violence against blacks did not stop.25 4.2 Police Brutality The Significance of police brutality "Police violence is a leading cause of death for young men in the United States. Over the life course, about 1 in every 1,000 black men can expect to be killed by police. Risk of being killed by police peaks between the ages of 20 y and 35 y for men and women and for all racial and ethnic groups. Black women and men and American Indian and Alaska Native women and men are significantly more likely than white women and men to be killed by police. Latino men are also more likely to be killed by police than are white men." 26 "Statistics show estimates of lifetime risk of being killed by police use of force by race and sex, using data from 2013 to 2018." (please find attached: Lifetime risk of being killed by police, per 100,000.) For example, a well-known case of police violence is the expiration of Trayvon martin. The juvenile had been followed by a private neighborhood watch, in Sanford on Feb. 26, 2012. There was no real reason for this. 22 https://www.welt.de/politik/article2677162/Barack-Obama-wird-erster-schwarzer-US- Praesident.html (20.03.2021) Welt, Barack Obama wird erster schwarzer US-Präsident Meldungen vom 05.11.2008 23 Hans Peter Oswald Yes, we can Biografie und Reden eines Präsidenten, Books of Demand Biografie 24Hans Peter Oswald Yes, we can Biografie und Reden eines Präsidenten, Books of Demand Election Night Speech 25 https://www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de/obamas-bilanz-hat-sich-der-rassismus-in-den-usa- veraendert.1008. de.html?dram: article id=369926 (20.03.2021) Hat sich der Rassismus in den USA verändert? Meldungen vom 29.10.2016 26https://www.pnas.org/content/116/34/16793 (20.03.2021) Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex Meldungen vom 20.08.2019 13 The reason was only "because he seemed suspicious to them".27 The frightening thing about this case is that it was obviously murder. But Zimmermann (the murderer) was acquitted because he had a right to shoot. The "Stand your Ground" law applies, which means that you can shoot on your property if someone enters it without permission.28 Some speakers therefore criticized the gun law. Unfortunately, this is not the only expiration where a person is killed because of the color of his skin. Another well-known expirations, was that of Elijah McClain. In elijah's case, it was claimed that someone had called the police because the 23-year-old was probably armed and wearing a ski mask. The officers put him in a carotid hold for 15minutes and called and injected him with kentamine. On the way to the hospital, Elijah died of brain death. And again, the crime was not recognized for murder.29 As already mentioned, there were many more expirations. But now I would like to talk about the one of George Floyd, through whom the "Black Lives Matter" movement became known again. George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man had allegedly tried to pay with counterfeit money. With a $20 bill. "Floyd was handcuffed on the ground as officer Derek chauvin knelt on his neck for eight minutes and 46 seconds - as Floyd pleaded with the four officers present and repeatedly told them that he could not breathe. Chauvin kept his knee on Floyd's neck even when he became unresponsive. Two autopsy reports listed Floyds death as homicide, although they gave different causes."30 The crime was filmed and shared around the world. The whole thing caused a lot of excitement. 4.3 What is "Black Lives Matter"? Black Lives Matter is a US American movement against violence and racism against African Americans and people of color. It originated in 2013 with the 27https://www.handelsblatt.com/politik/international/trayvon-martin-prozess-sperrt-rassistische- moerder-ein-nicht-schwarze-jugendliche/8496472.html Mörder ein, nicht schwarze Jugendliche" Meldungen vom 15.07.2013 28 https://www.cnn.com/2018/07/29/us/stand-your-ground-law-explainer-trnd/index.html (21.03.2021) CNN What you need to know about 'stand your ground' laws Meldungen vom 29.07.2018 (21.03.2021)VGH,,Sperrt rassistische 29 https://www.thecut.com/2021/02/the-killing-of-elijah-mcclain-everything-we-know.html (21.03.2021)The cut What We Know About the Killing of Elijah McClain Meldungen vom 22.02.2021 30 https://interactive.aljazeera.com/aje/2020/know-their-names/index.html (21.02.2021) Know their names Meldungen vom nicht angegeben 14 hashtag #blacklivesmatter.31 It all started at the Trayvon Martin trial. It was reported that a WHITE man had shot a BLACK boy. The skin colors should not really play a role in such a topic or should not be mentioned. It seems as if the life of the white man would be more important. The mother, Sybrina Fulton, was shocked and angry. She kept telling it until the story landed with a young group of activists. Led by Umi Agnew, the governor's office was occupied and protests began. People WENT out into the streets and shared it on social media (please find attached: protests) 32 The death of George Floyd triggered this movement again. All over the world, people took to the streets and protested with "Black lives matter" signs. Founders of this movement were ; Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors und Opal Tometi. Racism has not been an unknown topic throughout history. Everyday racism and injustice are discussed all over the world. In the U.S., people are debating police reform, which means police violence. Some streaming platforms even remove movies or series that use racist stereotypes. So this movement is not pointless. People are becoming more and more concerned about how unconsciously racism is used in everyday life. More and more people are becoming aware of police violence in the US. 4.4 Why "Black Lives Matter" and not "All Lives Matter"? Some people, some white people, think that the slogan Black Lives Matter is not correct. They think that all lives matter. Of course all lives matter but that is not the point. The problem is that black lives in the US are disadvantaged and suffer from police violence. A good example is that when a house is on fire, we don't call the fire department and say: all houses are important, please put mine out, even if it's not on fire. Because all houses are important. That's just the way it is in the USA. Black people are killed because of the color of their skin. White people are not killed because they are white. Of course, there are also white people who have a hard time in life. But they don't have it hard because they are white, they are not systematically disadvantaged because they are white. If a black person calls a white person white bread, for example, this is not racism. Then it is called discrimination or mobbing. Black people have been through slavery because of the color of their skin, are systematically discriminated against, and are being killed, all because they are black. Therefore, you should think twice if you want to badmouth the slogan. It is also a kind of 31 https://www.merkur.de/politik/black-lives-matter-bewegung-hashtag-rassismus- afroamerikaner-polizeigewalt-13786901.htmlGeschichte der wachsenden Bewegung in den USA 32 Black Lives Matter Eine Geschichte vom Überleben, Patrisse Khan-Cullors mit Asha bandele Verlag: Kiepenheuer & Witsch 15 ,,Whataboutism" I.e. one talks a topic badly and/or small by comparing it with another topic. 33 5. Conclusion In this research paper, the topic of Black Lives Matter was examined by the question, "Why Black Lives Matter and not All Lives Matter?". At the beginning I had explained what racism is in general. I found out that when I told people about it, most of them didn't know the correct definition. Also why one does not say colored was not aware of many. Some even thought it would be more polite to say "colored". I am really glad to have learned more about history in the US. Although I knew the stories of Martin Luther King or Rosa Parks. But of course I was not as informed before as I was after this work. When I was in Washington myself, I had seen many Protestants who were black in front of the White House. That was in 2018, and at that time I had not really perceived the whole thing. I was more focused on the white house or the city. I regret that. Black Lives Matter is an important issue that should continue to be talked about. When I read through the book on Black Lives Matter I had goosebumps when I read the words of Trayvon Martin's mother. It really made me very sad to have to imagine losing a child and then not having justice done. Trayvon martin was also still my age. Something like that goes to your heart. Something like this should simply not be the norm. There are many artists who are black themselves. Like Beyoncé, for example. Beyoncé is using her reach to bring attention to the issue and even hosted a "Black Parade". This has disturbed some fans but she don't care. And that's how it should be ; everyone should use their voice and not be too shy. No matter whether an artist, teacher, mayor, president or other. You can also just talk to your friends about it or spread these topics on social media. If everyone just watches, nothing will change. And in the meantime we have 2021. Everyone should have slowly understood that Black Live's Matter! 33 https://www.br.de/nachrichten/deutschland-welt/warum-alllivesmatter-der-falsche-slogan-ist- possoch-klaert,S11 Ueld (23.03.2021) Possoch, Warum #AllLivesMatter der falsche Slogan ist Meldungen vom 06.06.2020 16 American Indian/AK Native 20% 15 10 African American 5 0 Unemployment rates by race Seasonally adjusted Asian/Pacific Islander 9.9% Q Latinx 5% Total $54 '60 White 100 50 0 50 100 Lifetime risk of being killed by police, per 100,000 '70 '80 Ole Theil Attachments wwwwwwwwwwwwwww.ERMA 19.5% 8.4% '90 1983 '00 Unterer Boden des Schiffes Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Note: "Black and other," 1954-1971; "Black or African American" thereafter. 2013 average is January-July. PEW RESEARCH CENTER des Schiffes 13.4% Black 6.7% White '10'13 HHII 1.Black People are more likely to be victims of 2. Unemployment rate USA 3. Sitting Plan of a ship with upper and lower dec 17