Globalization

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Maike

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Englisch

 

11/12/13

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Globalization

 Globalisation
●
●
2. Globalization and global challenges
refers to the worldwide change on an economic, technological and cultural level
wo

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Globalisation ● ● 2. Globalization and global challenges refers to the worldwide change on an economic, technological and cultural level worldwide movement involving the integration of financial, economic and communications systems often seen as an unstoppable process affecting everyone → no matter whether they live in industrialized or developing countries, in big cities or rural villages ● Transfer of goods, capital and services, as well as communications easier → but not everyone profits from the development → smaller economies may suffer The world is said to be getting smaller, I.e. it has become a “global village". It is not easy to say when globalization actually started Did it start with the discovery of America? Does it go even further back in time? Is it a phenomenon of the modern era? Everyone can experience the results of globalization - Travelling - Keeping in touch with friends or business partners in distant countries with the help of new means of communication - Buying goods which come from far away Basic global trends Economic globalization: Global players, e.g. multinational companies that produce wherever labour and overhead costs are cheapest and then maximizing their profit on the global market There's a huge increase in mergers between international companies Rise in international trade and foreign direct investment Technological globalization Human contact on earth has been changed by the microelectronic revolution Distances are shrinking and information is spreading...

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faster than ever before The internet and other technological inventions have made it possible for everyone to communicate more easily and efficiently across national boundaries Cultural globalization New channels of communication have helped to spread a largely commercial culture Hollywood and Bollywood movies & American-style youth culture attract millions of people worldwide The spread of fast-food chains and ethnic restaurants all over the world also prove cultural globalization Effects on the industrialized countries Growing competition: With the constant pressure to cut costs in a free market economy, by simplifying hiring & firing or privatising state-owned companies there is a clear priority for efficiency, speed and profits Changes in working conditions and job opportunities: Longer working hours and fewer holidays Lower wages and poorer working conditions Globalization as a negative process Some people fear that individual cultures will finally blend into a single global culture, thereby losing all their characteristic features ● ● Rising unemployment and early retirement More part-time and temporary work instead of jobs • Others work under cruel working conditions, producing goods which will be shipped to and sold in industrialized countries at a low price • A crisis which starts in one country will ultimately affect other countries • Due to increased mobility, disease can easily spread all around the globe, developing into a pandemic Thousands of people in developing countries still suffer from malnutrition or die of less curable diseases Refuge crisis in Europe can partly be seen as connected to Globalization: People from all over the world want to participate in growing economic wealth Many people from poor countries want to find a better a future and leave their homes – just like people have always done over the centuries (e.g. emigration to America in the last two centuries) At the same time civil and other wars forced people to emigrate as more and more countries close their borders, problems in many regions are growing Among these problems are huge refugee camps, and people drowning and starving during dangerous journeys Aspects of Globalization Progress • the development of planes, fast ships and trains made fast transportation of goods from one country to another possible • new means of communication, especially the Internet, make the collaboration between business partners easier ● multinational companies have branches all over the world, and cost-effectives is a decisive factor when new product sites are set up Social sectors ● Globalization only benefits developed countries (the rich) and exploits the poor Globalization therefore supports inequality → sweatshops, child labour Without fair trading conditions for developing countries there can't be any progress in the fight against poverty OUTSOURCING means the process of shifting Services or the production of goods to an external company → specialized in the respective field happens very often, e.g. when a car manufacturer has car parts produced by another firm in the home country When the other company is located in another country the process is called offshore outsourcing special today global economy is the transfer of all production to low-wage countries > mostly in Eastern Europe or Asia Nowadays lots of large firms tend to go abroad whereas middle-sized enterprises stay in their home country. Economic challenges As today's customers wish to buy products ate the best cost/performance ratio, the global market has become very competitive with the following (and related) consequences: ● ● ● While global players consider efficiency, speed, flexibility and profits as most important, employees are increasingly unable to defend their rights More and more jobs are being outsourced or off-shored to cut down production costs thereby severely damaging local labour markets When jobs are outsourced to low-wages countries, the workers often work for long hours at a stretch, earning only minimum wages and often under inhuman working conditions Safety measures in sweatshops are by no means comparable to western standards Sadly, the lack of efficient safety measures often results in catastrophes Critics accuse multinational companies of exploiting the poor and indirectly supporting child labour by only having their own profit in mind People in developing countries often live under poor conditions without decent education or access to new means of communication → can't reap the benefits of globalization Advocates of sweatshops claim that these factories provide work for the poor, enabling them to provide for their families Supposedly critics of sweatshops argue from a western point of view without considering the actual situation of people in developing countries fair trade is becoming increasingly important→ aim is to ensure that workers and small- scale producers in poor countries are paid a fair price for their work and products growing fear that the gap between rich and poor is widening The financial crisis which started in the USA in 2008 shows that a national crisis can quickly develop into a global one, affecting the economies of numerous countries Ecological challenges and the role customer Environmental pollution is growing rapidly The following factors in particular create global problems: O Exhaust fumes from factories number of vehicles on the roads has steadily increased. Cars are no longer found only in industrialized countries The number of people travelling by plane increased due to the fact plane tickets have become affordable for a larger number of people Short-haul flights especially O O ● o Everyone leaves a carbon footprint either directly or indirectly Greenhouse gases causes chemical damage to the atmosphere ο ο ο OOO O Biodiversity is threatened as many plants flowers and animals die out. Desertification is an increasingly frequent phenomenon today→ number of endargerd animals increased →The close links and collaboration between companies all across the globe is both a blessing and a curse Greenhouse gases form a layer around the earth trapping heat and thereby causing the temperature on the ground to rise (Global Warming) There are many consequences of climate change, e.g. floods in coastal areas, heavy rainfall, droughts, melting of polar ice-caps O Causes of global warming • Greenhouse effects • Emissions ● Deforestation Burning fossil fuels Effects of global warming Rising sea-levels b/c of melting ice • Hurricanes & other storms ● Change of ecosystem Animals are at risk • Less fresh water General solutions ● Stop deforestation Use renewable energy Reduce mass consumption Environmental sustainability Do to overgrazing, over-extraction of groundwater, unwise use if water resources, e.g. diverting rivers for industrial use or human consumption, deforestation and rising soil salinity, vast areas of land become useless Desertification Environmental sustainability is on the agenda of many governments and has been an important topic at various summits to date Globalization causes pollution Our high consumption lead to increasing greenhouse gases We are exhausting our resources and will soon need to find new ways to gain energy without further polluting the environment Global demand for energy Renewable Energy ● • Solar energy Fracking: Hydropower energy Wind energy • Geothermal energy • Biomass energy ● ● → the topic has recently become controversial because others believe that the benefits do not outweigh the possible negative effects of water contamination and air pollution To Frack or not to Frack? Consequences/Problems of Fracking 8 out of 10.000 injection induces wells have caused weak earthquakes • Before the drilling water was already low quality due to fracking and storage accidents method of drilling that extracts natural gas and oil from shale rock layers within the earth involves injecting chemicals, sand and water directly into the ground Fracking or hydraulic fracturing, can provide economic benefits by supplying a great deal of domestic energy Non-Renewable Energy • Coal • Nuclear power • Oil ● • gas Disadvantages Possibility of explosion Injection of brine can trigger small earthquakes Greenhouse gases contribute to climate change Counterarguments and Benefits of Fracking • Effects of fracking have caused more press than serious problems There are too many open question in regards to used 1000ft methods High water consumption Drinking water has not been found contaminated since drinking water is extracted from depts of 100ft and shoal gas from ● Out of 200 water wells only one has shown a different quality before and after the drilling Possibility to meet high demand Advantages ● • Less gas emission than coal Short-term advantages: New jobs are created Gas prices fall ● ● ● Every country can provide itself with gas/oil Cheap energy Conflict between economic & ecological aspects of globalization Companies face global competition: cost-effectiveness and profits seem more important than ecological issues ● Some governments refrain from setting up strict laws to protect the environment, as this might drive away multinational companies that offer many employment possibilities As environmental pollution does not stop at boarders, international cooperation, is crucial and will become even more in the future The journey of a blue jeans in a global liberalized world Producing jeans in other countries including its production is still cheaper than producing it in the country in which it is sold. Advantages Cheaper production of products • Less wages for the employees need to be paid by employers Materials liken cotton are already present in the producing country Lower prices for consumers • Greater economic growth for several countries in the process if production Providing jobs/employment in 3rd world countries Open markets- Economic liberalization Advantages Countries can fully and effectively use their comparative advantages Gains for firms and consumers Competitive strength Increase efficiency NGO's Economic growth Rising income Disadvantages • Problems with organizations that fight for the rights of employees and the environment • Unsafe working conditions • Bad publicity ● Exploitation of workers in developing countries • Pollution of environment Disadvantages Unrestricted entry of competing product "weak" industries will fall because they are not mature enough Loss of employment Labour intensive production in countries with low wages Political backlash non-governmental organizations (independence), gained publicity over the recent decades → relieve suffering, promote interests of the poor, provide basic social services → value based: charitable donations and voluntary services → + political distance, instance of moral, possibility for everyone to participate, often more transparent than politicians → - non-professionals, intransparency, used as ‘tourism', issues of political positioning → examples: Greenpeace, Oxfam and WWF

Globalization

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Maike

99 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/13

Lernzettel

Globalization

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 Globalisation
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●
2. Globalization and global challenges
refers to the worldwide change on an economic, technological and cultural level
wo

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So ein schöner Lernzettel 😍😍 super nützlich und hilfreich!

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Globalisation ● ● 2. Globalization and global challenges refers to the worldwide change on an economic, technological and cultural level worldwide movement involving the integration of financial, economic and communications systems often seen as an unstoppable process affecting everyone → no matter whether they live in industrialized or developing countries, in big cities or rural villages ● Transfer of goods, capital and services, as well as communications easier → but not everyone profits from the development → smaller economies may suffer The world is said to be getting smaller, I.e. it has become a “global village". It is not easy to say when globalization actually started Did it start with the discovery of America? Does it go even further back in time? Is it a phenomenon of the modern era? Everyone can experience the results of globalization - Travelling - Keeping in touch with friends or business partners in distant countries with the help of new means of communication - Buying goods which come from far away Basic global trends Economic globalization: Global players, e.g. multinational companies that produce wherever labour and overhead costs are cheapest and then maximizing their profit on the global market There's a huge increase in mergers between international companies Rise in international trade and foreign direct investment Technological globalization Human contact on earth has been changed by the microelectronic revolution Distances are shrinking and information is spreading...

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faster than ever before The internet and other technological inventions have made it possible for everyone to communicate more easily and efficiently across national boundaries Cultural globalization New channels of communication have helped to spread a largely commercial culture Hollywood and Bollywood movies & American-style youth culture attract millions of people worldwide The spread of fast-food chains and ethnic restaurants all over the world also prove cultural globalization Effects on the industrialized countries Growing competition: With the constant pressure to cut costs in a free market economy, by simplifying hiring & firing or privatising state-owned companies there is a clear priority for efficiency, speed and profits Changes in working conditions and job opportunities: Longer working hours and fewer holidays Lower wages and poorer working conditions Globalization as a negative process Some people fear that individual cultures will finally blend into a single global culture, thereby losing all their characteristic features ● ● Rising unemployment and early retirement More part-time and temporary work instead of jobs • Others work under cruel working conditions, producing goods which will be shipped to and sold in industrialized countries at a low price • A crisis which starts in one country will ultimately affect other countries • Due to increased mobility, disease can easily spread all around the globe, developing into a pandemic Thousands of people in developing countries still suffer from malnutrition or die of less curable diseases Refuge crisis in Europe can partly be seen as connected to Globalization: People from all over the world want to participate in growing economic wealth Many people from poor countries want to find a better a future and leave their homes – just like people have always done over the centuries (e.g. emigration to America in the last two centuries) At the same time civil and other wars forced people to emigrate as more and more countries close their borders, problems in many regions are growing Among these problems are huge refugee camps, and people drowning and starving during dangerous journeys Aspects of Globalization Progress • the development of planes, fast ships and trains made fast transportation of goods from one country to another possible • new means of communication, especially the Internet, make the collaboration between business partners easier ● multinational companies have branches all over the world, and cost-effectives is a decisive factor when new product sites are set up Social sectors ● Globalization only benefits developed countries (the rich) and exploits the poor Globalization therefore supports inequality → sweatshops, child labour Without fair trading conditions for developing countries there can't be any progress in the fight against poverty OUTSOURCING means the process of shifting Services or the production of goods to an external company → specialized in the respective field happens very often, e.g. when a car manufacturer has car parts produced by another firm in the home country When the other company is located in another country the process is called offshore outsourcing special today global economy is the transfer of all production to low-wage countries > mostly in Eastern Europe or Asia Nowadays lots of large firms tend to go abroad whereas middle-sized enterprises stay in their home country. Economic challenges As today's customers wish to buy products ate the best cost/performance ratio, the global market has become very competitive with the following (and related) consequences: ● ● ● While global players consider efficiency, speed, flexibility and profits as most important, employees are increasingly unable to defend their rights More and more jobs are being outsourced or off-shored to cut down production costs thereby severely damaging local labour markets When jobs are outsourced to low-wages countries, the workers often work for long hours at a stretch, earning only minimum wages and often under inhuman working conditions Safety measures in sweatshops are by no means comparable to western standards Sadly, the lack of efficient safety measures often results in catastrophes Critics accuse multinational companies of exploiting the poor and indirectly supporting child labour by only having their own profit in mind People in developing countries often live under poor conditions without decent education or access to new means of communication → can't reap the benefits of globalization Advocates of sweatshops claim that these factories provide work for the poor, enabling them to provide for their families Supposedly critics of sweatshops argue from a western point of view without considering the actual situation of people in developing countries fair trade is becoming increasingly important→ aim is to ensure that workers and small- scale producers in poor countries are paid a fair price for their work and products growing fear that the gap between rich and poor is widening The financial crisis which started in the USA in 2008 shows that a national crisis can quickly develop into a global one, affecting the economies of numerous countries Ecological challenges and the role customer Environmental pollution is growing rapidly The following factors in particular create global problems: O Exhaust fumes from factories number of vehicles on the roads has steadily increased. Cars are no longer found only in industrialized countries The number of people travelling by plane increased due to the fact plane tickets have become affordable for a larger number of people Short-haul flights especially O O ● o Everyone leaves a carbon footprint either directly or indirectly Greenhouse gases causes chemical damage to the atmosphere ο ο ο OOO O Biodiversity is threatened as many plants flowers and animals die out. Desertification is an increasingly frequent phenomenon today→ number of endargerd animals increased →The close links and collaboration between companies all across the globe is both a blessing and a curse Greenhouse gases form a layer around the earth trapping heat and thereby causing the temperature on the ground to rise (Global Warming) There are many consequences of climate change, e.g. floods in coastal areas, heavy rainfall, droughts, melting of polar ice-caps O Causes of global warming • Greenhouse effects • Emissions ● Deforestation Burning fossil fuels Effects of global warming Rising sea-levels b/c of melting ice • Hurricanes & other storms ● Change of ecosystem Animals are at risk • Less fresh water General solutions ● Stop deforestation Use renewable energy Reduce mass consumption Environmental sustainability Do to overgrazing, over-extraction of groundwater, unwise use if water resources, e.g. diverting rivers for industrial use or human consumption, deforestation and rising soil salinity, vast areas of land become useless Desertification Environmental sustainability is on the agenda of many governments and has been an important topic at various summits to date Globalization causes pollution Our high consumption lead to increasing greenhouse gases We are exhausting our resources and will soon need to find new ways to gain energy without further polluting the environment Global demand for energy Renewable Energy ● • Solar energy Fracking: Hydropower energy Wind energy • Geothermal energy • Biomass energy ● ● → the topic has recently become controversial because others believe that the benefits do not outweigh the possible negative effects of water contamination and air pollution To Frack or not to Frack? Consequences/Problems of Fracking 8 out of 10.000 injection induces wells have caused weak earthquakes • Before the drilling water was already low quality due to fracking and storage accidents method of drilling that extracts natural gas and oil from shale rock layers within the earth involves injecting chemicals, sand and water directly into the ground Fracking or hydraulic fracturing, can provide economic benefits by supplying a great deal of domestic energy Non-Renewable Energy • Coal • Nuclear power • Oil ● • gas Disadvantages Possibility of explosion Injection of brine can trigger small earthquakes Greenhouse gases contribute to climate change Counterarguments and Benefits of Fracking • Effects of fracking have caused more press than serious problems There are too many open question in regards to used 1000ft methods High water consumption Drinking water has not been found contaminated since drinking water is extracted from depts of 100ft and shoal gas from ● Out of 200 water wells only one has shown a different quality before and after the drilling Possibility to meet high demand Advantages ● • Less gas emission than coal Short-term advantages: New jobs are created Gas prices fall ● ● ● Every country can provide itself with gas/oil Cheap energy Conflict between economic & ecological aspects of globalization Companies face global competition: cost-effectiveness and profits seem more important than ecological issues ● Some governments refrain from setting up strict laws to protect the environment, as this might drive away multinational companies that offer many employment possibilities As environmental pollution does not stop at boarders, international cooperation, is crucial and will become even more in the future The journey of a blue jeans in a global liberalized world Producing jeans in other countries including its production is still cheaper than producing it in the country in which it is sold. Advantages Cheaper production of products • Less wages for the employees need to be paid by employers Materials liken cotton are already present in the producing country Lower prices for consumers • Greater economic growth for several countries in the process if production Providing jobs/employment in 3rd world countries Open markets- Economic liberalization Advantages Countries can fully and effectively use their comparative advantages Gains for firms and consumers Competitive strength Increase efficiency NGO's Economic growth Rising income Disadvantages • Problems with organizations that fight for the rights of employees and the environment • Unsafe working conditions • Bad publicity ● Exploitation of workers in developing countries • Pollution of environment Disadvantages Unrestricted entry of competing product "weak" industries will fall because they are not mature enough Loss of employment Labour intensive production in countries with low wages Political backlash non-governmental organizations (independence), gained publicity over the recent decades → relieve suffering, promote interests of the poor, provide basic social services → value based: charitable donations and voluntary services → + political distance, instance of moral, possibility for everyone to participate, often more transparent than politicians → - non-professionals, intransparency, used as ‘tourism', issues of political positioning → examples: Greenpeace, Oxfam and WWF