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Klausur Zusammenfassung ( KA.1, KS.1 )

Klausur Zusammenfassung ( KA.1, KS.1 )

 Englisch KA. 2
• Listening Comprehension
Cartoon Analysis
- Globalization :
- Definition
- Pro and Cons
- Three eras of Globalisati

Klausur Zusammenfassung ( KA.1, KS.1 )

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- Globalization - United Kingdom




Englisch KA. 2 Themen: • Listening Comprehension Cartoon Analysis - Globalization : - Definition - Pro and Cons - Three eras of Globalisation - Globalisation and work-life balance - Global changes (Basic global trends, etc ) - Mindmap - Outsourcing (Advantages and Disadvantages ) - Climate Crisis - Paris Agreement - Carbon Footprint - Food miles - Greta Thunberg - United Kingdom : - British Empire (facts file) - The three stages of British Empire - The British Empire in Colour (negative and positive legacy) - Commonwealth - Colonialism - Bradford - Multicultural - Monarchy (Advantages, Disadvantages) - British Political System - Racism in British Society Immigration - Brexit - Current Development - Devolution Extra: - Political System and presidential Election - The US Presidential Election explained - Trump and John Biden 1. Definition: - Globalisation means to unite countries all around the globe to treat economically or technologically. Countries all around the world can profit from cheaper mass production. Conditions that are necessary for globalisation to spread : The labour and overhead costs are much cheaper in developing countries. People work efficient, fast and flexible. The cultural globalisation is furthered by continuing increase in global economic activity. Another important point is the ford that they can sell products throughout the global market - free trade - bordes opened PRO the spread of information increases cultural awareness lift people out of poverty - access to goods and services - better job opportunities - global research collaboration - globalisation...

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facilities trade / global communication better access to highly qualified people for companies - more open information flows (Information from anywhere in the world) Globalisation - cheaper prices for products and services (economic) - access to new cultural products (art, Entertainment, education) - smaller countries can work together and gain more influence internationally Globalisation 1.0: Cons - missed family time - more taxing - non-stop international communication - cross time zones - coordination is difficult and expensive - some countries struggle to compete - dangerous or violent ideals can also spread faster - dominance of foreign industries - exploitation of poor developing countries - increase in migration - global financial crisis situation -dependence on other countries regarding specific goods or services -global health issues and spread of pandemics - increase in average pollution The three eras of Globalisation - 1492-1800 - Columbus set sail, opening trade between the Old World and the New World - shrank the world from size large to a size medium - about countries and muscles - dynamic force driving the process of global integration, muscles, horsepower, windpower and later steam power - countries and governments breaking down walls and knitting the world together (inspired by Religion, Imperialism or combination of both ) - GLOBAL INTEGRATION Where does my country fit into global competition and opportunities? - How can I go global and collaborate with others through my country? - primarly driven by European and American individuals and businesses the world size Western countries competing with each other (for colonies) dynamic force = countries globalizing Globalisation 2.0: - 1800-2000 - interrupted by the Great Depression and World War I and II - shrank the world from a size medium to a size small - key agent of change = multinational companies = dynamic force went global for markets and labor - spearheaded by the expansion of the Dutch and English companies, Industrial Revolution 1. powered by falling transportation costs (thank to steam engine and railroad) - 2. by falling telecommunication costs (diffusion of telegraph, telephones, PC, satellites, fiber optic cable and the World Wide Web) - birth and maturation of global economy (movement of goods and information from steamships and railroads to telephones and mainframe computers - Where does my company fit into the global economy? - How does it take advantage of the opportunities? How can I go global ad collaborate with others through my company? - break through in hardware - dynamic force = companies globalizing Globalisation 3.0: - shrank the world from size small to size tiny - dynamic force = individuals collaboration and globally competition - people realising they had more power to go global - more opportunities to work, not just compete - Where do I as an individual fit into the global competition and opportunities of the day? - How can I, on my own, collaborate with others globally? - empowered individuals - Western companies, countries, explorers doing the most of it - driven not only by individuals, but also by much more diverse groups of individuals (non Western, non white ) - struggling profit to globalisation Globalisation and work-life balance - flying a lot around the world and working as long as it is office hours - missing family time - long conference time - too much time flying back - seeing yourself forced to stay in place and save time, money, even you are far away from your family - calls for several hours, long time of working, working late world wide trade - good produced in local countries and transported by ship to faraway destination - Globalisation more taxing - Businesses more complex - global trade increased = more need of communication and interaction - production and delivery become more team based and knowledge based = more people are needed to interact - global business = more people interacting for more time across more countries - cost and ecological considerations encourage to reduce travel and adopt video- conferencing - companies recognizing they need to set boundaries around working hours, personal time and holidays we need to separate work and home - we need to hold family time sacrosanct - interface standards, across work packages, will minimize the need for expensive communication and interaction Globalisation world wide change on an economic, technological and cultural level - growing interaction between cultures and economics = global village increasing global mobility of people (tourists, immigrants, refugees, business travelers) -> global flows of money and goods between international markets and production sites - global spread of ideas and values Global Challanges global distribution of information (computer, television, newspaper, radio) - process of globalisation made possible by technological process (after WW II ) -> communication and production methods - growing influence of international organisations Basic global trends Economic globalisation existence of global players -> multinational companies -> produce labour and sell throughout the global marketing, thus miximising their profits and expandig trade - increase in mergers between international companies = huge corporations world wide -> international trade and foreign direct Investment - capital flows around all over the world more easily encouraged by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund -> give loans to finance infrastructure projects and other development programmes Technological globalisation - rapid technological change over the last 30 years · microelectronic revolution changed human contact on earth - information spreading faster - Internet, World Wide Web and communications satellies -> make possible to communicate easily and efficiently across national boundaries Cultural Globalisation - new channels of communication helped to spread commercial culture - Hollywood & Bollywood movies - American style youth culture -> attract millions of people world wide - spread of fast foos chains and ethnic restaurants Effects on industrialised countries Growing competition - constant pressure to cut costs in a free market economy - hiring and firing or privatising state-owned companies priority of efficiency, speed and profits Changes in working conditions and job opportunities - longer working hours and fewer holidays - lower wages with poorer working conditions - rising unemployment and early retirement - demand for greater flexibility - higher mobility and better qualifications - more part time and temporary work instead of jobs for life Advantages and hopes In the developing countries - population hopes for new jobs -> local branches of multinational companies - businessmen expect new opportunities and markets - market economy seen as successful economic system, hopefully rising living standards and less poverty In the industrial world - hope through international trade and new business opportunities, able to preserve national social standards and income levels - spread of freedom, democracy and human rights -> hope for fewer wars and other conflicts worldwide For humankind as a whole - increasing opportunities for exchange on personal level may lead to greater understanding and friendship amog world citizens -> peaceful, borderless world of shared universal values Criticism and fears In the developing countries - people fear an increasing dependence on foreign support, investment and credits - warn against danger of foreign investors suddenly pulling out their capital - political danger: corrupt governments - negative cultural influences - manipulation through the mass media In the industrial world erosion of national cultures in Europa - massive illegal immigration - power of economic companies can no longer.be controlled by elected governments For Humankind as a whole - fear that majority of people will not profit from globalisation - uncontrolled economic activities are expected to increase inequality and growth in regional and ethnic tensions or in pollution - warn against cultural diversity and destruction of local cultures - Americanisation is predicted to widen the gap between rich and poor GLOBAL CHALLENGES Poverty - bridging the gap between the rich and the poor - poor people do not have access to employment, basic health care, education and essential commodities (food, clothing, shelter and water) narrow his gap through economic development and fair trading conditions for developing countries Ecological issues Pollution : - industrialised nations cause most of the environmental problems - air pollution (through industrial emissions and exhaust gases) - water pollution (chemical waste, by factories and private households) - soil pollution (use of herbicides, pesticides and fertilisers in intensive farming) Global warming : - greenhouse gases prevent natural process which keeps the Earth´s temperature ca. 15 Cº - those allow solar radiation t pass through atmosphere - also they stop most of infrared radiation from escaping into outer space - greenhouse effect increase global economic activity more heat trapping gases (emissions by industry, urning of fossil fuels, transport and deforestation) are released into the atmosphere -> increase global warming - Consequences : - polar ice will melt - see levels rise - climate will change - new deserts - hurricanes, heatwaves and droughts will occur more frequently Towards sustainable development - international conferences - 1992: Earth Summit´92 - urgent need for development in Third World countries - Agenda 21 laid down the principles of sustainable development (need of present without destroying the ability future generation to meet their own needs) - sustainable development : building markets and creating jobs, - Sept. 2000: 147 world leaders met at Milenium Summit - discuss ways of reducing poverty - achieve basic schools for all children promote gender equality and support women - reduce child mortality - fight HIV, AIDS, malaria - ensure environmental sustainability - develop a global partner ship Global political players America's global role in 21st century: - Colapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War - US became the only political superpower in the world = it took the role of the global policeman -> start of the Gulf War (1991) - terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York - Pentagon on 11st Sept. 2001 = President Bush declared war on terrorism - unstable Middle East : explosive poverty, oil interests, nuclear capacity, radical followers of Islam, international terrorism - US trying to control the danger - try to build up democratic and free societies using diplomacy, treaties, trade contracts, economic pressure and military interventions Ideas Money Blue-collar jobs The United Nations : - founded after the end of World War II by the victorious world powers to prevent conflicts between nations and to make future wars impossible promote peace, justice, human rights and economic development provide a framework for cooperation in international security through peace keeping forces and humanitarian assistance Goods Non-government organisation : - Greenpeace = use of nonviolent, direct actions compaign - stop things like nuclear testing, high seas whaling global warming and genetic engineering - Amnesty International = international, nongovernmental organisation which aims to promote human rights, to free al prisoners of consience, to ensure fair and prompt trials for political prisoners, to abolish the death penalty, torture and other ways of treating prisoners, to end political killings White-collar jobs Technology We can exchange Transnational companies Goods can be easily transferred from ships to truck Storage costs reduced Development Reasons for globalization / Containerization Labor Force Unrestricted Air freight transport Improve living standards Highly qualified jobs Production technology Increasingly cheap Logistics Exchange information quickly Reduced time and cost to moving goods over long distance Transport GLOBALISATION Technology Online sources of information Communication technology - Internet Data processing Freight shipping Worldwide distribution easily Aviation Seaports Rail Networks Cultural aspects Production facilities Communicate Developed countries Economy Manufacturing technology Transmitted instantly Goods produced in a faraway country are now accessible International music stars Developing countries Free trade Industrialized countries Foreign investments profit No import/export restrictions Outsource -> lower labour costs Boosted efficiency and output in industrial production Definition: Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that is or could be done internally and sometimes involves tranferring employees and assets from one firm to another Advantages and Disadvantages : Pro 1: Outsourcing can increase company profits. - Companies decide to outsource the production of goods and services if they think it can save them money and -> increase company profits. -> labor costs Companies might outsource to a country that has lower labor costs. - some people see the job loss negative, but increased profits are a good point - companies save themselves the expense of training and hiring all in-house employees, or to scale their business. Pro 2: Outsourcing can increase economic efficiency: - companies outsource because of the opportunity costs of doing or producing a good or service themselves. highly skilled people can outsource lower- value tasks and spend more time at high-value tasks- business benefits Pro 3: Outsourcing can distribute jobs from developed countries to developing countries. - less-developed nations benefit and that those benefits butweigh the costs to rich countries like the United States - it can narrow the gap between rich countries and poor countries. Pro 4: Outsourcing can strengthen international ties. - experts feel that the more countries trade with each other the less likely they are to go to war with each other and the more easily they can cooperate in pursuit of shared goals. - Outsourcing can : - increase company profits increase economic efficiency Outsourcing - produces job loss - labour and environmental standards my slip Con 1: U.S. job loss. - - The fact that workers in other countries may be getting job opportunities they hadn't had before is little comfort to members of, say, U.S. manufacturing communities hit hard by factory closures. Con 2: Lack of transparency. - More and more, consumers want to know where their products came from and who made them. Outsourcing makes this kind of transparency difficult. A U.S. company might outsource part of its business to a company in, say, Bangladesh, which might also outsource to another Bangladesh company for staffing. So if the staff at a Bangladesh factory is working in unsafe conditions, is that the fault of the staffing company, the Bangladesh manufacturing company, the U.S. clothing company or all three? Outsourcing makes it harder to follow the money and labor to gain insight into a company's supply chain. Con 3: Labor and environmental standards may slip : - general slippage in the labor and environmental standards that apply to the goods and services Americans consume - a problem for workers in other countries who can't get the wages they need to succeed and communities who feel the impact of pollution overseas it increases the net contribution to climate change if more goods are produced in countries with lower environmental standards. Con 4: It can backfire for the outsourcing company. - the company they've outsourced to misses deadlines, doesn't perform well or otherwise has a negative effect on business. - may be communication problems or costs might exceed expectations - distribute jobs from developed countries to developing countries - strengthen international ties - cause lack of transparency for the own company - Information can get lost where it is needed Disadvantages of Outsourcing 1. You Lose Some Control As you might expect, when you farm work out to external agencies or freelancers, you're losing control of how those tasks are being monitored and performed. So long as you know and trust who you've hired, that shouldn't be a huge issue - but you've got to tread carefully. 2. There are Hidden Costs Although outsourcing work is generally considered cheaper, yo must also beware of getting ripped off. Outsourcing companies or big agencies will typically ask small business owners to sign lengthy contractual agreements, and they'll include plenty of fine print. If you don't read the terms carefully, you could get hit with unexpected costs. 3. There are Security Risks In this age of data protection, it's essential that you exercise caution whenever using customer data. If you plan to outsource processes that require personal data, you could be placing the privacy of others or security of your ·business at risk by passing that data on to other people. 4. You Reduce Quality Control Outsourcing companies and some freelancers may often be motivated by profit rather than a job well done. That means the work you send out may come back quickly, but will lack the standard and quality that customers have come to expect from your products or services. 5. You Share Financial Burdens Although it can be nice to bring in expert agencies to share in risks, it can be pretty dangerous to tie your business to the financial well-being of another company. Again, you've got to spell out any and all terms and conditions in contractual arrangements plainly because you don't want to take a financial hit if they fail to deliver. 6. You Risk Public Backlash If you're taking work overseas (even just to write a blog or two), your business very well may run into ill will from consumers that have taken a moral stance against outsourcing. Right or wrong, for better or for worse, some form of criticism is often inevitable. 7. You Shift Time Frames One major disadvantage of outsourcing particular tasks is the risk that your freelancers or partner agency may be marching to the beat of a different drum. As a result, it might be difficult to synchronize schedules in order to ensure your customers receive what's promised to them on a reliable timeline. 8. You Can Lose Your Focus Because many outsourcing agencies or freelancers tend to service multiple clients at any given time, the work you're sending out may not be receiving the focus it deserves. Depending on the processes you're outsourcing, that lack of focus could be detrimental to your small business. 9. Things Get Lost in Translation It doesn't matter whether you're dealing with overseas freelancers or some talented expert just up the street - but if you're handing out remote work via email or telephone, important instructions are often lost in translation. That could cause you serious time, money and hassle. 10. You May Face Moral Dilemmas While it may not be an issue for everyone, a major disadvantage of outsourcing is that you may be denying your team or a talented local agency crucial work or development opportunities. Growth begets growth, and by outsourcing work, you may not be contributing to the growth of your community. Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing In the right context and deployed shrewdly, outsourcing can be a fantastic way for small business owners to improve efficiencies and bolster their company's bottom line. But that doesn't mean the practice isn't without its own disadvantages, too. Outsourcing isn't right for every situation, and so you've got to think long and hard before investing time and energy in farming out work. To help you get started, here are 20 advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing from small business. your Advantages of Outsourcing 1. You Get More Experts Your core team might be fantastic at a few things, but nobody is perfect at everything. By outsourcing particular tasks, companies are often able to substantially improve performance by drawing on the niche skills of experts in certain fields. 2. Things Get Done Fast One of the top reasons small businesses tend to outsource work is because it will get done quicker. If you're working with a limited number of staff members, you can get things done a whole lot quicker by passing time-consuming tasks on to freelancers or external agencies. 3. You're Able to Focus on What Matters Another benefit of outsourcing tasks is enhanced freedom. By passing on supporting processes, you'll be able to concentrate your skills on strengthening and improving the core processes that help make your business tick. 4. You Can Share Some Risk One of the most important factors in any project is risk assessment and analysis. By outsourcing certain campaigns or processes on to experts in their respective fields, you will benefit from their enhanced ability to plan and mitigate potential risks. 5. You Can Reduce Costs As one might imagine, outsourcing piecemeal work is almost always going to be cheaper than hiring permanent full time staff. Not only will you save time and money on recruitment, but your profit will also be extended than s to shorter overheads. One major benefit of outsourcing digital work overseas is the substantial differences you might encounter in terms of time zones and holidays. Although this can pose an initial hurdle logistically, once overcome it can effectively mean your business is running even while you're fast asleep. 7. You Can Simplify Project Management If you choose to outsource work via a wide range of specialist freelance websites and online services, you're often provided dynamic and intuitive platforms that will help you to effectively manage what's being done, when it's due for submission and how it will be paid. Most of this can be automated, freeing up your time for more important work. 8. You Simplify Work Relationships Quite a few small business teams are tight-knit groups of friends and family - which is fantastic. But when you're incredibly close to your staff members, it can also lead to issues when work isn't being done up to par. By outsourcing work, you'll typically be able to minimize work relationships to simple, contractual arrangements. See Also: Why Analytics Are the Hot Topic at This Small Business Conference 9. Efforts Are More Targeted Another overlooked advantage of outsourcing is that it enables you to plan and execute more effective, targeted campaigns and projects that you wouldn't ordinarily be able to take on. This gives your business the chance to take new risks and experiment with different methods of exposure. 10. You Get Peace of Mind At the end of the day, choosing to outsource with a reliable individual or agency should give you peace of mind that tasks are being handled expertly and efficiently without you having to worry or lift a finger. What could be better? Climate Crisis The Earth's natural greenhouse effect and how is it changing : - carbon dioxid, methan and methane and nitrous oxide and water vapour retain heat from the sun in the atmosphere - otherwise reflected into space - greenhouse effect = balance between retaining and losing heat = habitable for humans - humans increase production of greenhouse gases - Burn fossil fuels (oil and natural gas for transport) - excessive livestock farming producing methane - destroying rainforests -> otherwise be able to neutralize CO2 -> all contribute to dangerous global warming - polar ice will melt faster - planet heats faster - raising sea levels - coastal cities and essential fertile will dissapear within decades - forest fires - flooding - droughts and hurricanes -> Solution : Reduction of greenhouse gases Our planet: We are all in this together 1997: 50 states signed the Kyoto Protocol committing themselves to reduce greenhouse gas emissions until 2012 about 5% - 2015: Paris Agreement -> international Community ratified a new treaty to reduce global warming to less than 2°C -> nations encouraged to pledge voluntary measures in the hope that most countries would participate -> high emissions countries (Iran, Iraq, Turkey ) did not -> Trump announced a withdrawal from the Paris Agreement in 2017, taking effect in 2020 Critics : - measures of P.A not enough - cuts of carbon too little / come too late - emissions and environmental damage often accelerated rather than decreased Greta Thunberg: - swedish teenager - skipping school in order to make the world aware of continuing environmental crisis (2018) - beginning of the Friday for Future movement - supported by the vast majority (over 95%) - interest group lobbies (mineral oil concerns) deny this view of climate change argue that there were always natural variations -> the rise in temperature not man-made -> new interest in climate is being supported by companies which would profit from climate activists - climate denial compaigners have been proved to b deliberately spreading fake news and misinformation - going carless for a year could save about 2.6 tons of carbon dioxide -> try taking a train, bus or better yet, ride a bike. - tips to make your trip more climate-friendly: • Go easy on the gas and brakes -driving efficiently can help to reduce emissions Regularly service your car to keep it more efficient. ● - cutting down on meat, and red meat in particular, is a better choice for the environment. This is because the production of red meat uses a lot of feed, water and land. Cows themselves also give off methane emissions (a harmful greenhouse gas). ● Waste Less This is a big one: on average, Americans waste around 40 percent of the food they buy. Luckily, there are simple solutions to lower your food waste (and these tips will save you money, too.): Take stock. Organize your fridge regularly to check on what you already have, and make grocery shopping lists before you go to the store to prevent buying things you don't need. • Be wary of bulk Low-priced food might seem like a good deal, but it's not if you don't end up eating it before it goes bad. Plan. Don't cook more food than you can eat. Account for the right amount of food for the number of people eating, and adapt recipes to your needs. Get creative. Reuse leftovers instead of tossing them. Freeze. Extend the life of your food, including additional portions, as well as produce like fresh herbs, by freezing them properly. · Doggie bag. Take home half of oversized restaurant servings. ● Carbon Footprint How to Recycle Look for a number inside a triangle on the bottom of plastic containers. These indicate what kind of resin was used, and whether the container is recyclable in your state (check your city or state's website for accepted numbers). ● Check your tires. Keeping tires pumped correctly can reduce emissions. Air conditioning and intensive city driving can make emissions creep up Cut down on these as often as possible. Use cruise control on long drives in most cases, this can help to save gas. Don't weigh your car down with extra things that you don't need on your trip. Carpool this way, you're splitting emissions between the number of people in the car. ● ● • Recycle paper. Recycle paper and steel and tin cans. Before throwing away, ask: Can I re-use or repair this? Donate working electronics. Recycle broken electronics. Many local electronics stores offer free recycling programs for old goods. Collect dry cell batteries. You should be able to recycle them through your local municipality. ● ● Empty and rinse food containers before putting them in the recycling [bin. A dirty container can spoil a whole batch of recyclables. • Contact your local car dealer or municipality to recycle car batteries. • Don't put non-recyclables in the recycling bin. Garden hoses, sewing needles, propane tanks or cylinders, aerosol cans that aren't empty, hazardous waste and syringes, broken glass and broken light bulbs should all be avoided. Make Your Home Energy Efficient Small changes to the insulation and design of your home from do-it-yourself hacks to building changes - can help you reduce your carbon footprint at home. Before starting, you can also do an energy audit, or have a professional come in to rate and score your home's energy efficiency. Seal your home well. Trouble spots can include the attic, windows and doors, where heat and cool can escape. Insulate your home. This helps keep the temperature stable. There are a range of materials you can use. This guide can help you to choose the right one. A professional energy auditor can help you work out if it's time to re-insulate. Some insulation does degrade - for example, prior to the 1940s, sawdust and newspaper were used for insulation. You should remove insulation too if it has damage from pests, if it smells, or if it's wet or moldy. • Install a cool roof. This is made of a reflective material which redirects light away from your house, keeping it cool. Plant shrubs and trees around your home. This is an easy, and pretty, insulation fix, especially for older homes. Check the energy-efficiency rating for your windows, doors and skylights. Consider replacing those that don't meet modern standards. • Look into incentives. These may include tax credits and rebates. important words (five to ten English words which are neccessary to know for that topic) British Empire and Commonwealth references (where did you get the information from? Book, folder, internet?) empire = (Welt)reich dominions = teilweise unabhängige Länder allegiance Loyalität/Ergebenheit colony = Kolonie superiority = Überlegenheit That is what you exploited them. need to know! First Empire: Many colonies in North America, Canada, West Indies, India and Gibraltar. Used colonies for slaves (trading and labour), taxes and United Kingdom Failed because of rebellions and poor organization (scattered territories no colonial concept...) Second Empire: Colonies: Indian subcontinent, Africa and Australia Interests: economic, political, military -> extension of British rule and power and superiority of the white race. Birth of the Commonwealth: Evolution in British colonies. White colonies gain dominion status and India gets promised independence for help in WWII. Dissatisfaction with British rule and Britain in depts. → founding of the Commonwealth All owed allegiance to the queen/king but the UK has no power over the other countries anymore. The three stages of the British Empire (fact file) https://thecommonwealth.org/about- us/history#text-Over%20time%20different%20countries%20of,levels%20of%20freedom%20from%20Britain.& text-They%20all%20owed%20allegiance%20to, Nations%20or%20just%20the%20Commonwealth. The multicultural face of the UK multiculturalism = Multikulturalismus demographic Bevölkerung nationalistic idea = nationalistische Idee ethnicity = Ethnizität immigrants = Einwanderer multiculturalism has in a way become a part of the British identity influx of immigration since the Second World War the demographic went from largely white, ethnically British and Christian to one with all types of creeds, cultures and communities the UK allows immigrants from different cultures to live in the UK whilst still following and practising their own cultural traditions rather than wanting them to adapt the English language has changed a lot due to the many different people from different countries who bring new words into English and make it change and evolve over time there has often been discrimination against the minorities which caused some big riots (e.g. Bradford Riots) a fear that has existed all along but is coming up now more than ever is the undermining of the British culture and the traditions that go along with it increasing rates of terrorism and crime has also placed a certain fear into people and sometimes made them resistant to change and adapt to the changing demographic in more recent years there has been a noticable shift towards a nationalistic idea → people who believe the UK should not be multicultural however the multicultural idea is still supported by the majority of the people Britain's Monarchy (hereditary) monarchy = (vererbbare) Monarchie constitutional monarchy = konstitutionelle Monarchie to reign herrschen/regieren coronation = die Krönung royal prerogative = königliches Vorrecht Britain is a constitutional monarchy that means the monarch has limited powers The monarchs functions are mainly formal and their role is mostly symbolic → still Britain's head of state People in Britain are not citizens, but subjects to the monarch The Queen has the right to rule for example → Opening and dissolving parliament The monarch is politically neutral Monarchists want to keep the institution of the monarchy → Republicans are against it class folder and context book important words (five to ten English words which are neccessary to know for that topic) That is what you need to know! references (where did you get the information from? Book, folder, internet?) The British System of Government constitutional monarchy parliamentary democracy two chamber system (Zwei Kammern System) Britain is a constitutional monarchy -> represented by a King or a Queen, but governed by a Prime Minister ->queen is the Head of State but she has limited powers and is politically impartial It is a parliamentary democracy -> the government is controlled by a Parliament elected by the citizens Two chamber system -> The House of Commons (650 representatives) and the House of Lords (300 representatives, e.g. bishops) -> making laws, checking the work of the government, debating and voting on current issues -> check and balance -> Legislative branch Britain has a unwritten constitution called conventions Executive branch Queen, Prime Minister and the Cabinet Judicial branch > Supreme Court and the High Court of Justiciary The British political system is a two party system -> the two dominant parties are the Conservative party and the Labour Party class folder on Teams Brexit a brexiteer = Unterstützer des Brexits a remainer = jemand, der eher in der EU bleiben will a Euroscpetic = jemand, der der EU kritisch gegenübersteht referendum = Volksabstimmung voter turnout = Wahlbeteiligung constituency = Wahlkreis legally binding = gesetzlich verpflichtend ● 51,9% voted to leave (England: 53,4%, Wales: 52,5%, Scotland: 38%, Northern Island: 44,2%) 2 campaigns: Vote Remain / Vote Leave vote leave: able to save more money, in charge of their borders, control immigration, free to trade with the whole world, make their own laws vote remain: full access to the EU's single market, worker's rights protected, keeping the European Arrest Warrant, stability for the country withdrawal agreement February 2020: UK is no longer an EU State transition period: 1. February - 31 December 2020 Devolution and Scotland's Independence Referendum independence Unabhängigkeit referendum = Volksabstimmung/Volksentscheid devolution = Dezentralisierung/Regionalisierung (Übertragung von administrativer Unabhängigkeit) to apply = gelten/betreffen/zutreffen reserved matters = vorbehaltene Angelegenheiten/Entscheidungen/Macht devolved matters = übertragene/deligierte Angelegenheiten/Entscheidungen/Macht impact = Auswirkung Devolution: Devolution is the transfer of powers from a central to a regional authority. (transport, environment,...) This applies to Scotland, Wales and Northern Irland = Scotland's Independence Referendum: Scotland Independence Referendum 2014 Scottish voters voted to stay in the UK by 55% to 45% in September 2014. The independence debate never really went away, but Scotland's first minister Nicola Sturgeon started openly pushing for another referendum immediately after the UK voted to leave the EU in 2016. Scottish voters backed Remain in the EU referendum by 62% to 38%, but the UK as a whole voted to Leave by 52% to 48%. For nationalists, this was proof that Scotland needed to take its future into its own hands rather than being tied to the UK and its Conservative government. https://www.deliveringforscotland.gov.uk/scotland-in-the- uk/devolution/#WhatIsDevo United Kingdom - Spot on facts How big was the British Empire: - 19th century: the largest in the world history, covering about a quarter of the world s land surface -> ,, The sun never sets on the British Empire, world's foremost global power - large areas of North America, Australia, Africa and Asia How did such a small country come to rule so much territory : - defeated other European countries and conquered ingineous peoples thanks to its army and navy - rapid technological advances in 19th century expansion - inventions (telegraph, railroads, steamships ) = Britain people had advantages What were the motives behind Britain s expansion ? - trade -> desire to benefit British companies and secure trade routes -> East India Company (British-owned ) had a monopoly with Asia -economics -> increase Britain s wealth - politics -> urge to prevent other European countries from becoming too powerful -> Scramble for Africa at the end of the 19th century ambition -> The Raj ,, was founded not on consent but on conquest - religion -> desire to spread Christianity adventure and curiosity -> explore and learn about new countries and people What changes did the Empire bring about : often said to have been liberal - guided by principle that colonial government was to be exercised for the good of the subject peoples -> be given the right to self rule - improve the welfare of the ingenious peoples - better medical care - better legal, education and transport systems -tried to eliminate barbaric practices (suttee, cannibalism, slavery) - arrogantly considered about the ingenious people to be children that needed to be educated - other people endured the loss of their lands, culture and met with discrimination and prejudice Why did the Empire decline ? - The first and second WW : decline in Britain s wealth and prestige - lessened the political impact of the Empire After wars: - - British more interested in rebuilding their own country than in concentrating on far away places - no longer feasible to run such a large empire - dominions (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Irish Free State and South Africa) has already been given the power to rule themselves by the Statue of Westminister (1931) -> example to other colonies which began to aspire - British lost a prized colony (Jewel in the Crown, 1947) -> India was partitioned - colonies either given self government or become independent - 1960: most of British territories had become independent (not always peacefully, especially in Ireland ) What legacy did the British Empire leave? - formation of the Commonwealth meant that the most of the colonies still have links with Britain - many of them, Parliamentary democracies with a legal system based on British law, a military, police and civil service system based on British models, and English is still the main or secondary language The British Empire in Colour - Documentary film 1) For how long was the British Empire the most powerful century in the world? - 200 years 2) How many people did the BE rule at the peak of its power? - a third of people India - Australia -Nigeria - Canada - North America - Singapore, etc 3) Some of the reasons why the British power started to fade India - left India devastaded India grown strength India is in poverty British raised taxes - self-government British lived in luxury 4) Why did the Indian elite of rules cooperate with the British for so long ? India was very poor. England has to answer. For them was the best life -> brought them luxury and superiority 5) Hunting was their favorite activity. What is it telling about them ? (in India ) - to show power - just for pleasure -> did not care about destroying 6) in 1937 King George VI was crowned. How many people did he rule over after his coronation ? 570 million 7) What was the Empire Day about that was formerly celebrated in Britain and her colonies ? - Queen Victoria Birthday and later n Commonwealth day. - to show kids how big/ powerful was British 8) What did WW II change with respect to the BE Singapore has fallen - They turned to the United States for protection 180 000 have died - felt grateful - exploit countries - promised India the independence 9) How many soldiers died defending the British Empire ? 130 000 trups 10) Civil war in India was imminent. What was the BE solution ? 11) Partition: What were the negative Effects of it? Struggling to get India / Pakistan (religious ) - 1 million are died - Religion (Muslims / Hindu) -> devided India - Parents killed their own kids -> because they were afraid - 12) What did India finally gain its independence? 5th august 1947 13) Gandhi: If India becomes free, the rest of the empire will fall. Evaluate the statement - to show rest of the colonies they made it The First British Empire - 2 million colonists Colonies : mainly of North America, Canada, West Indies (Jamaica, etc), India, Gibraltar (some conquered from Spain and France) - Britain indebted due the wars : very high taxes from the colonies - Triangular trade (slave triangle) in the 17th and 18th century Reasons for the disruption of the 1st empire : The three stages of the British Empire - stattered territories No political unity, no colonial concept Exploitation of colonies, repressive taxation - Some colonies (e.g America) did not need the British protection anymore -> Boston Tea Party / American War of Independence end The Second Empire ( Victorian Empire ) - 1783-1918/1945 - Mainly India subcontinent, 1/3 of Africa, Australia and some territories of strategic importance (e.g Gibraltar) - IDEOLOGIE - at first economic interest - 19th century: new ideology-> policy of imperialism. In addition to economic interests, also political, military and strategic advantages extention of British rule and power Doctrine : superiority of the white race Power reached by means of : conquest - Diplomacy - Discovery Purchase Commerce Two kinds of colonies: Canada, Australia, New Zealand -> Mainly colonies of settlement, almost only European civilization Africa, Asia -> Merchants, administrators, generals, Christian missionaries imposing wstern values an native population the white man s burden „, racial and moral superiority of the whites The third stage : decline of the Empire and birth of the Commonwealth : - result of evolution within the colonies - white colonies gain dominion status (e.g Australia, Canada, New Zealand ) Dissatisfaction with British rule (e.g India ) - Growing nationalism in African colonies وو 1st and 2nd WW have cost money; poverty in Britain (problems at home) - WW II; people from colonies helped Britain win the war for promise of independence; due to that : new self-confidence of colonies - GB in debts, no economic power to hold ts empire together Commonwealth was founded : 53 independent states, 1/3 of world population - Democracies based on British system of government - Human rights - economic and cultural links - Queen symbolic head of state in 16 states Some strategic overseas territories have remained British ( Falkland, Island, Gibraltar,...) Positive Legacy: The British in colour - Legacy In the former colonies : As at least partly positive effects of the British Empire on it former we can see : In some colonies parts of the British Systems of... remained after the British left: - lay system - democracy - education - parts of the British culture - sports - infrastructure (travel goods, transport) Concerning Great Britain: - well-working multi-ethnic society Rule, Britannia ! Britannia, rule the Waves ! song performed in 1740 - famous ,, Proms ,, concerts in London Negative Legacy: In former colonies: - - Britain left many of its colonies in a devastated state with no working democratic structure which led to totalitarian regimes - atrocitites were commited - civil wars -> Spain was still strong in this region -> France held territory -> conflicts between the three countries - The Palestine Conflict (current conflict in Ghanza of today) - Partition: The conflict between Palastan and India is still present; the dashmere ? Conflict -> millions of deaths - alcohol Concerning GB : Race riots Commonwealth the whole audience join in by the refrain - reminder of Britains past as a sea power - the reason why a small island nation was able to build a great empire around world - After John Cabot crossed the Atlantic from England ( 1497 ) other explorers continued to look for new lands —> Trouble with Britain's neighbours -> they also wanted more territory And trade - Spain had also a lot of power -> already had an empire in the Americas -> the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588, Elizabeth I) gave Britain the chance to develop her own influence - 1607: English settlers founded Virginia = first of 13 colonies along the east coast of North America - 1600: Caribbean islands (Bermuda, Bahamas, Barbados) were taken by Britain - France and Britain : The conflict last till the Seven Years Wars n Europe (1763) -> opposite sides -> When Britain and her allies won, France had to give Britain most of her land in North America - Meanwhile British had been building up their influence in Asia - 1600: East India Company formed to develop trade in Southeast Asia and India - Competition with Dutch : - massacre of British merchants in the Spice Island (1623) - Company concentrated on India, more important trading stations around the coast France was a big rival -> North America and France tried to win influence through military support for Indian leaders Seven Years War brought advantages for Britain - Bengal came under the control of the East India Company (1757) - other areas followed this company ruled India until British government took over officially (1858) - losing American colonies by fighting for independence did not stop Britain power growing up - exploration of the Pacific region = new colony of Australia ( 1788), New Zealand in 1840 and other smaller territories - Africa also offered possibilities - Portuguese, Dutch and French too - British already involved in trade in West Africa - Only permanent european settlement Dutch colony (Cape of Good Hopes) - Cape was taken from the Dutch (1806) by the british - later missionaries, explorers and merchants helped to open the way north into the centre of the continent - Portugal, France, Germany had the same idea as British ( to grab land in Africa ) - 20th century British ruled over a quarter of the world - most people saw the Empire as great triumph - mother country should have the duty to teach British values to the ingenious populations -> Feeling that the British high status was part of God s plan for the world - Charles Darwin theory of evolution : argument that white people were more developed and so had the right to rule over everyone else = - British not always a reason to celebrate - land and rows were used as advantage, but ingenious people were often treated very badly - trade in slaves -> Africans were taken y force, transported to the Caribbean and America, and sold for work in the fields - other countries were also involved →> trade was dominated by British ships and markets until it was stopped across the empire - only little or no respect for the ingenious people and their traditions - seen as the natural servants of their white rulers - —> in Australia many of them were hunted or even killed like animals racist views were normal for those days many lives and cultures were destroyed when the British tried to force their of life way - non white colonies saw how the Dominions won full independence => they wanted to do the same pressure of self-government developed on many British territories at the end II WW speed up the break up of the Empire - - Britain promised independence to India in exchange for support during the war - war was over, no longer money or will to keep and protect a big empire - India became independent in 1947 next 20 years also other colonies followed - free, the new states joined the Commonwealth - they understoof the advantages of keeping links and working with each other - Commonwealth has no constitution - heads of government meet every two years to discuss important international subjects - South Africa left the Commonwealth for 30 years - other members criticized its racism system - huge group of over 50 different nations has always tried to stay close - many programs to bring people together in business, education, health, environment and culture - every 4 years athletes from member countries take part in the Commonwealth Games - Commonwealth = important legacy of the British Empire, but not the only one - many people did not experience freedom and equal rights during British rule - learnt about this values from the British religion, Protestantism when allowed to have their own governments, they choose the British style used the British legal, financial and education system - English survived as common language and official language in many Commonwealth countries Britain's monarchy - FACTS Definition of CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (Britannica) Constitutional monarchy, system of government in which a monarch shares power with a constitutionally organized government. The monarch may be the de facto head of state or a purely ceremonial leader. The constitution allocates the rest of the government's power to the legislature and judiciary. Britain became a constitutional monarchy under the Whigs; other constitutional monarchies include Belgium, Cambodia, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Thailand. What is the Queen's role? Elizabeth II is a constitutional monarch: that is, she is Britain's head of state, but her executive powers are limited by constitutional rules. Her role is mostly symbolic: she represents Britain on state visits and on ceremonial occasions. According to the royal website, her primary role is as a "focus of national unity". She is queen of 16 former British colonies, including Australia, Canada and New Zealand; and head of the Commonwealth, a multinational body created after the dissolution of the British Empire. What powers does the Queen have? The Queen has the right to rule: the people of Britain are not citizens, but subjects of the monarch. Most public servants must swear an oath of loyalty, or make an affirmation of their loyalty, to the crown. In practice the monarch performs several roles, but his or her power is largely ceremonial, such as: ● ● ● ● Opening and dissolving parliament Appointing the prime minister: The power to appoint a prime minister is also illusory because, by constitutional convention, the monarch has to ask the leader of the party which holds a majority in parliament. The personal feelings or wishes of the monarch don't come into it. The monarch's job is to rubber-stamp what goes on in parliament. Consenting to all bills passed by parliament (without this consent they can't become law) => symbolic act Appointing bishops and members of the House of Lords Although the Queen is politically neutral, she has the right to be consulted and to "advise and warn" ministers. Otherwise her residual powers - the "royal prerogative" - are mostly exercised through the government of the day. These include the power to enact legislation, to award honours (on the advice of the prime minister), to sign treaties and to declare war. So what would happen if the monarch decided to disobey his or her ministers - the government - and appoint someone he or she liked to be prime minister or refused to give consent to bills passed by parliament? Well, the majority of MPs in parliament would possibly vote to either ask the monarch to abdicate or even abolish the institution of monarchy altogether. Curious facts (a few out of many) The 1701 Act of Settlement excludes Roman Catholics, Muslims and other non-Protestants from succeeding to the throne. The Treason Felony Act of 1848, which inhibits discussion of republican forms of government. The Queen has amassed a fortune behind the scenes in her private funds and is estimated to be worth £420 million. Although the Queen is not legally obliged to pay tax, she chose in 1992 to start voluntarily paying income and capital gains tax. Any inheritance for the next sovereign will not be taxed. Advantages and disadvantages of the British constitutional monarchy Advantages * Unity -> Vision toward a better future - can bring people back together * Security - double structure of support - fewer opportunities to conduct a domestic uprising *System of equality - checks and balances (non can have too much power) History * Identity * Neutrality - Reputation of their country * Change of government is possible (elect. Periodically) Disadvantages * 17 % would like Britain to become a republic - identity problem (conflicts) *Slow decisions making ministers, senators, repräsentatives & other politicians - can not respond quickly to conflicts * high costs - big income, no taxes * complex structure unwritten constitution * no choice but to serve - born into it - same may be * only representative function That is how it works: Step 1: "BASIC INFORMATION" Step 2: "DESCRIPTION" Step 3: "ANALYSIS“ Step 4: "EVALUATION = COMMENT" → argument → supporting this argument → giving an example