I. Usefull Phrases Phrases for the Monologue getting started: → My task is to... → I would like to telll you something... Useful sentences: First...Second...Third → Let me comment on... ● ● ● Englisch Kommunikationsprüfung Another Argument we shouldnt forget I would like to point out On the contrary →>> To give you just one example Refering to the task sheet: → As you can see in the pictue → The author refers to the fact Personal opinion: → Personally, I feel / believe that → Im totally convinced that →→ Im sure that → I would suggest Commenting and explaining: → It may sound really obvious, but... → to me, this is the core problem of the whole issue Conclusion: → So, to come to an end... →All in all Introducton II. Cartoons the photo by... published in... the picture refers to / deals with this is a reference to → my first thought when I saw the drawing was... Phrases for the Dialogue Opening a conversation: → Have you ever thought about...? → I red an interesting article → Did you know that...? Expressing your own opinion: → In my opinion →As I see it... → I would like to ... Including your conversation partner: → how do you feel about it? → So what do you think? Changing the subject: → Lets also consider... → Another argument we should talk about Returning to the original subject: → To get back what we are talking about... → Anyways... Am 11.02.2021 Expressing agreement: → Youre absolutely right. →...
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I totally agree with you on that point. Youve got a good point there → You totally convinced me → So we are agreed that.. Disagree with your partner: → You may be right, but I still think On the contraty I would rather say... → To give you just one example → Im sorry to disagree, but I still believe → I cant really see what you mean Ending: → to sum up → → to round of our discussion Maybe a compromise would be to say... Description → In the center, there is → the focus of attention is on → in the backround, one can see →in the picture... → the speach bubble contains → It says Interpretation he artist criticizes/ wants to point out → the photo is meant to criticize → the cartoonist wants to make fun of... → the atmosphere in the picture seems rather... III. Gun Control US has much more guns (twice as much) than a country with war (Yemen) US has more guns than residents → 89% own guns ● ● ● ● ● ● mostly used for suicides, then homicides, then accidental deaths( children, school shooting, wrong handling) people tend to wanting to protect gun rights number of people wanting gun controle decreases → after school shootings (Candy Hook school shootings) even less people want gun control( to feel protected) Why are guns so important? → Tradition (hunting, Wild west) „national charackter" →self defense, protection status symbole masculinity, part of growing up → initation- freedom self-justice, self-determination → feeling of belonging due to mainstream → racial power NRA (national rifle association since 1871) →gun safety and education projects → Americans foremost defender of Second Amendment rights five million members educate future members NRA is especially active during presidential campaigns, contributing millions to candidates that support expanded gun rights. Biggest gun control lobbying group in the country. Barack Obamas conclusion: → stand up to the gun lobby and the gun culture → make their families safe → congress needs to make community safer Own opinion: → traditional value, may understand but there has to be more control → legal weapons dont make the country safer, school shooting even possible → not enough condemnation for police officers → banning guns will not turn the US into a gun-free country. IV. Police Brutality ● reasons → Racism, blacks are worthless and criminals → Fear because of bad experiences → Media, attention and awareness, reasons against police brutality? → Politics → prison industry war on drugs war of people of colours → the society gets divided and even white people are afraid of the police → police officers cover their crimes → No feeling of belonging by the blacks, because of the feeling of hate by the others. V. Immigration (USA) Push factors was crime → Poor medical care Political fear ● ● ● Not enough jobs Natural disasters History of immigration → Colonial period (1607-1776) ● → British settlers founded the first colony and started growing tobacco → 1620 the second colony was founded by the people called Pilgrim Fathers → New immigration (1890-1930) → Old immigration (1790-1890) → Immigrants came from Northern and Western Europe, and predominantly from Britain, Ireland, Germany and Scandinavia → economic conditions in Europe were difficult → the USA offered cheap and jobs in prospering industry → Ellis Island and statue of liberty → people from Asia and Latin America entered the country → changed the social fabric of America society Symbols The melting pot metaphor Pro → long tradition of immigration for over 4 centuries → still immigrant coming Pull factors →→ Better living conditions Family links → → → Better education → Economic opportunities → Better jobs and less crime immigrants shaped the culture and the country is built up by immigrants → economie relies on immigrants → forming a new society consisting of people from various backgrounds. Fully assimilated new culture →gave up native culture The salad bowl metaphor → made of people with different backrounds. Kept their distinct identities. → Its the concept of multiculturalism Still a country of immigration? → the majority of Americans are origininally immigrants → rich history of diverse immigrantion Political and religious freedom → the increase worries people Problems: Con → welcomes just well-educated immigrants → Trump builds a wall at the boarder to mexico → attitude towards immigrants has changed → strong feeling of distrust towards muslim (because auf 9/11 the fear of terrorism got higher) → America dont regard themselves immigrants anymore → they change the neighbourhood → becomes less valuable because of less taxes Illigal immigration → undocumented immigrants, especially from Mexico corss the border by crossing the Rio Grande the number ob illegal immigrants increases not difficult to find a job because they are cheap workers → they do work in agriculture and private homes immigrants apply for better paid jobs → 12 million people live in the shadows → hundreds of people die during their way to the USA VI. American Dream The term ,,American Dream" was first used by the historian John Truslow Adams in his book ,,The Epic of America“ in 1931. The concept, however had existed long before Adams book, can be seen as a concept of self-definition for the country. ● ● In the 20th century → ideal that everyone can be successful in America if they work hard enough → equal opportunities and social mobility to everyone → "from dishwasher to millionaire" → a dream of a social order which each man and each women shall be able fullfull their dreams. ● → the dream of a free and successful life → Bill gates, Mark Zuckerberg are examples for people who made it. Settlers shaped the dream → The American Dream is closely connected to the values freedom and democracy roots in the Declaration of Independence → life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness as unalienable rights. → immigrants came to the country of freedom(build up their own country with less laws ...) → the Founding Fathers themselves never used this term Became a Amercan Nightmare: → two jobs to survive no free education VII. → Racism wealth gap increases expensive health care always in danger of not being able to keep your living standarts, hire and fire Race Relations History → 17th century Slavery was introduced into the colonies for farmersand plantation owners → Africans proved as suitable for lifetime slavery because they were physically fit for the climate in the South → Africans were innately inferior and therefore were not entitled to basic human rights such as liberty →racial categories such as stereotype → Not biological but cultural and ideological categories that have been used as legitimization of white dominance → offical end of slavery had no impact on the relationship between blacks and whites Civil Rights Movement (1960's) → → → Rosa Parks: refused to give up her seat to a white person → bus boycott( because of segregation) → Marthin Luther King: non violent protest for civil rights Supreme Court ruled the „seperation but equal facilities" boycott, sitings, demonstrations Civil Rights Act was passed (milestone on the way to racial equality) Affirmative Action ensured same treatment for any employee → president Barack Obama was first black president (post racial society?) Racism Today a bus → blacks often live in their districts - hard to get out of there because of taxes, poor education white supremacy (different chances for the blacks even though all men are created equal) → KKK (against blacks and all minoritys) since 1865, dont consider African Americans as humans (mainly active in the South) VIII. ● Migration and Diversity (GB) ● Why is Britain a multicultural society? → Home of 37 ethnic groups → More than 300 languages are spoken → British history = history of continuous foreign influences → Language = Mixture of domestic and foreign accents → Lots of reasons to immigrate: → India - able to move freely (saw Britain as motherland) → Caribbean's - came to work in low-paid jobs (poverty to "wealth") Restaurants for all ethnic groups →All groups are able to celebrate own events in public ● Multicultural Britain today → Integration of non- white or non- British citizens has been enormously successful → cultural representation → But only in major cities, like London (being one of the most multicultural places in the world) There is also conspicuous resentment against migrants particularly amongst white-working class people, whose anxieties and cultural alienation are being exploited (ausnutzen) by far-right political parties. Immigration into Britain → two types of immigration → first generation: decided to leave their motherland, want to be as British as possible → immigration into mainstream society second generation: British born, experience the clash of cultures (outside: British friends and classmates, Inside: values, beliefs, traditions of their parent's home country) → Multicultural society in Britain due to their history; everyone born in the British Empire was a British citizen (law from 1914) → After WW2 many colonies became independent → Britain needs to work force for their textile industry, because of that Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Indians moved to Great Britain, what caused racial unrest in the UK Brexit was caused by European immigration laws, because every country should host the same number of refugees from e.g. Syria The Brititsh Empire → Colonization of North America, Africa, South Asia, Australia and Indonesia started in the 16th century → Advanced trading system between the UK and their colonies, slave trade One of the greatest economic and political powers in the world After the WW2 and the following independence of India and Pakistan, the British Empire end and the Commonwealth (organization for these territories to maintain some ties to Britain as they moved towards independence) was founded. Effects of the British Empire on the World →Reshaped the education system → Redefined how we think of ourselves → Trigger for immigration after wars → Begin of slave trade → International language → In 1931 the British Commonwealth was founded Cultural representation → Sadiq Kahn is the major of London → Actors → In sport: Lewi Hamilton IX. Friendship and Belonging ● Friendship is... ● → being there for each other → trust, share secrets, honesty, loyality → same interests, sense of belonging → important for mental health ● Belonging → Provides connection to other individuals → Is an essential human need Means you have to compromise → Feel a sense of belonging - more emotional than pragmatic → Maslow's pyramid idea X. Gran Torino Walt Kowalski → Walt experiences a strong feel of belonging to his values and culture, e.g., his grandchildren in church → Walt disapproves because they don't pay respect at the funeral of her grandmother → Walt has a strong feel of belonging to being a man: → Solves problems by himself - sets up the chairs in the living room → Doesn't see a doctor - strong enough himself → Doesn't show any emotions - suffers from his wife's death, and his war experiences →Allows himself to have anger as emotion - no "soft" emotions like sadness → Anger is like a wall that protects him Walt belongs to his neighborhood → It is more the place than the people around him - he feels close to his new neighbors in the end → Walt as a character: → 75 years old, war veteran → Used to work in the automotive industry (Ford) → Married to the late Dorothy, two sons, two grandchildren → Spends his time with his dog on the porch sipping beer and judging people → Suffers from a respiratory disease → Walt represents two types of society: → A person who has lost his status in society and rejects modern, multicultural America (grumpy, angry old white man) → A soldier who served his country, went to war and now suffers from severe traumatic experiences → Classic "hero's journey" Thao → Feels belonging to → his family → Close to his family, will to protect Sue very angry when Walt locks him up → Grandma criticizes him for "not being a real man" because he is doing the dishes → Contact to his cousin Spider → Doesn't stand up for himself - when he starts working for Walt, he is really passive, because he hasn't got a plan for his life → His neighborhood → Sees everyone as a human being, seems not to be prejudiced - helps the white lady with her dropped groceries → Being Hmong → Very respectful to his mother and grandmother → Doesn't want to end up in prison which seems to be normal for Hmong boys in the US ● → Thao as a character → Identity crisis → stuck between two cultures → Doesn't go to school but got no job either → Can't live up to the expectations others impose on him (isn't the head of the family; doesn't want to join the gang) → Insecure and shy → Stands between his loving and worrying sister and his cousin who wants him to join the gang → Too afraid to ask a girl out → Wants to gain confidence by committing crimes that the gang asks him to conduct → When Walt enters his life and fulfills the father-role that Thao desperately misses, he becomes more confident and gets a job → Is introduced to the American manly ways by Walt and eventually asks out a girl →Although he constantly is being mocked by his family, he loves them and defends them, he is even devastated when his cousin's gang attacks them and plans to avenge them Even wants to kill his cousin in blind rage → → Finally, arrives mentally in America through Walt's work with him (through his technical skills, might attend college, drives the Gran Torino) A gang as a part of your identity → Why are violent gangs founded? → A minority does not feel accepted by mainstream society → Don't have access to the mainstream (e.g., friends or institutions) → Look for their own identity as a group → form a gang → The Hmong gang: → Five members → Are aggressive counterparts to Walt → Cruise around in their card and bully people → Neighborhood is afraid of them and no one would dare to denounce them → Only Walt's death gets them to jail → Do not care about their own culture or family (Spider raping his own cousin) → Spider as an example: → Born in the US, do we know this? → Just got Hmong friends → Raised with Hmong ideas of society → Feeling to have to protect himself → Shoots at his family ➜ Just → No Hmong neighborhood → many feels accepted by his gang different people XI. Crooked Letter, Crooked Letter Larry Ott → What about Larry's sense of belonging? → Has his professional routine, identifies with his work, but no customers ➜ ostracization → Feels understood by the stories he reads ➜ distracts his mind from reality →is forced to be alone → Belongs to Chabot, this is his area, lives in his parents' home but he never changed anything, never made it his own home → Seems to live his parents' life ➜ lives in the past! → Does he try to keep his family alive? → Even though Ina and Carl were not loving parents, it is all he has → Hardly grown up: doesn't take decisions, never takes over responsibility → Has no emotional belonging → Attempts to belong → "monkey-lip"-Event: David and Kevin → Larry wants to belong to this peer group of white boys in school but is ridiculed by the black girl - It is in vain "nigger"-scene: Larry pleases his racist father by calling Silas "nigger" Cindy: again, David and Kevin and Carl put pressure on Larry to men him up or to date a girl like every real man should → Mask: Larry wears a zombie mask for a party → In order to belong to the others, he does something outstanding → Halloween - everybody is expected to act weirdly → Larry wearing a mask is normal and in such a way his weirdness is accepted on that night → has a feeling of belonging → Larry is humiliated by all young people after the party. He never gets any appreciation for his performance with the mask. They don't accept him as he is without a mask - symbol for identity Silas Jones → Personality → Black man, is in his late thirties → Engages, active, ambitious, has aims, likes connecting with others → Has a girlfriend, loves people but likes being alone as well →→>> Interested in Larry's stories because they are thrillers or horror novels → Loves solving problems because Alice always has to solve something → Believes in his ability to solve problems → Sees that Larry and he himself are influenced by their parents → Earns his own money in a job he loves → Looking for changes, wants to be promoted and more responsible Sense of belonging → No real family (Just Alice) → Baseball team and many friends - popular kid → Feels he belongs to Chabot => comes back