Englisch LK GREAT BRITAIN The Monarchy general information: kommunikationsprüfung The monarch is the Head of State and has many representational or ceremonial functions, e.g. the State Opening of Parliament However, the power to make and pass laws resides with Parliament as the elected legislative The monarch is, among other functions, the Head of the Church of England, the Head of the Armed Forces and the Fountain of Justice - However, in these functions (s) he always has to act on the advice of e.g. the Prime Minister, other ministers, or a church commission pro The monarch gives a weekly audience to the Prime Minister in which (s) he has the right and the duty to discuss current government matters the monarch provides a focus for national unity and British values → stands above party politics = real representative of the country (no interest in short-term polit. interests + strategies) the monarch as remnant of British Empire → Connection to Commonwealth the monarch is clearly separated from the government independent stability and experience → monarch remains in power for a long time can advise Prime Ministers with experience and polit. Knowledge in weekly audiences outside of party attracts huge numbers of visitors to the UK → can make up for the expenses →Symbol of the UK and the so called "Britishness" the monarchy has shown (modern) development → Prince Charles was able to...
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marry a divorced woman, Queen + Prince Charles have been paying de-facto taxes since 1993 → With the new generation of Prince William, Kate and George and Charlotte, the monarchy has gathered new momentum and enjoys widespread sympathy in Britain → The members of the Royal Family have important functions heading all kinds of charities. Their image and popularity help charities to continue their good work. Elena K. J2 a president wouldn't necessarily be cheaper → other european leaders are as expensive (e. g. France) con hereditary monarchy is inappropriate in modern (classless) democracy → makes UK seem backwards and out of touch with modern life → hereditary. = the successor to the throne will take the crown regardless of his/her suitability, character, previous scandals etc. democracy people as sovereign → source of all political power → people should be able to elect their head of state and have instruments to check/ impeach her/him (not possible with hereditary monarch) royal prerogative can be misused to bypass parliament the monarch is very expensive (over £100m a year) the monarch has no real political power → mainly formal functions → could easily be taken over by other polit. bodies/ an elected president 1 Englisch LK BREXIT general information: 2016 23 June 2020 since January 31, 2020 the UK is no longer a member of the EU Referendum about Brexit (2016): 51,9% voted leave, 41,1% voted remain pro - Brexit referendum -51.89% voted to leave Trade with the EU would still be possible → could negotiate new trade agreements, like Norway → No EU rules/ restrictions = more economic success Post-Brexit trade options for the UK 30 January Withdrawal Agreement ratified London as international safe haven for investors →→→independence + global appeal →less risk (e. g. if euro fails) no free movement = less immigration → security + protection from terrorism Revert to World Trade Organisation rules smaller British companies don't trade with the EU → aren't affected could be beneficial, more British people could buy their goods now GB would be able to cultivate the relationship to the US and other important non-EU world nations EU-rules hurt British interests → MP can't do anything about rules made in Brussels EU membership fees are expensive No deal with the European Union May take years to complete Excludes financial services Requires border controls between Ireland (EU) and N. Ireland (UK) Free trade deal with the EU 2017 eg: Germany No Brexit Member of: ● EU 29 March Withdrawal notification from UK government eg: South Korea Prioritises sovereignty and immigration control over close economic ties 1 February UK no longer an EU Member State ● Single market Withdrawal Agreement enters into force Customs union Remain in the EU after all 19 June Start of EU/UK negotiations on withdrawal eg: Turkey Common external tariff on imports No tariff on goods circulating inside the customs union 2018 23 March 2 March Transition period until Start of 31 December 2020: negotiations Access to single on new market and participation in customs union, but no voting rights in Commencement of EU institutions transition period partnership between EU and UK Publication of guidelines for future relationship between EU/UK by the European Council Single market with the EU 14 November Draft withdrawal agreement between EU and UK 24 December Draft EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement Must accept immigrants from single market countries Must pay into EU budget. and abide by European Court of Justice rulings No Irish border controls eg: Norway, Iceland ● Free movement of goods, services, investments and people Customs union with the EU UK cannot make bilateral free trade deals with 3rd countries Excludes financial services No Irish border controls 2019 30 March Expiry of (original) two-year period to negotiate withdrawal agreement 31 December End of transition period (during which UK was still part of single market and customs union) ⒸAFP May European Parliament 1 January Customs border between UK and EU Provisional entry into force of Trade and Cooperation Agreement con - 2021 Free trade in EU →no trade barriers when trading with EU member States → Europe is Britain's main trading partner Financial advantages outweigh membership fees → could loose influence both economically and politically → new trade agreements with EU partners are almost impossible, don't want other states to leave too bad for London's reputation as Europe's biggest financial center Elena K. J2 → international banks might leave London, due to unpredictable consequences of Brexit Membership in the EU allows EU-citizens to move freely to GB and work there, and vice versa → Hundreds of British expats living in Spain and France might not have easy access to health services there anymore. jobs in international companies might be moved and millions of British workers could lose their jobs The US prefer the UK to remain a strong member of Europe economically, politically and militarily GB would lose influence and be an outsider in Europe → fewer friends and very little chance of rejoining the EU. In a globalized world isolationism is simply not possible 17 October Revised draft withdrawal agreement between EU and UK →Global challenges such as climate change affect all countries, and as an EU member, Britain has much more influence than as a middle-ranking country on the fringes → there are plenty of international treaties and laws GB is already subject to → In this age of globalization, economies and societies are becoming so interconnected and interdependent that the idea that GB could be completely autonomous and regain the "splendid isolation" it enjoyed when it still had its Empire, sounds phony 1 May Entry into force of the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement 2 Englisch LK GLOBALIZATION general information: Globalization is the word used to describe the growing interdependence of the world's economies, cultures, and populations, brought about by cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information → "global village" (Marshall McLuhan) 3 historical periods of globalization 1. Exploration (until 1500) Founding and forming villages, cities and infrastructure (Spain, Columbus...) 2. Colonization (1500-1900) Development of writing and printing technologies (Gutenberg printing press etc.) Industrial Revolution (1750-1830) Advances in communications (telephone, telegraph) 3. Internationalization (1900-present) International trade and organizations (WTO, IMF, World Bank, UN) Technology and global media (satellite, computers, Internet, WWW) - Information revolution (personalization of communications = social media...) - pro - Views on Globalization have changed → more "reverse globalization" not as much profit anymore, bad for environment → more support locally (country + people) outsourcing: a situation in which a company employs another organization to do some of its work, rather than using its own employees to do it (e. g. in India or other developing countries → cheaper) makes trade easier worldwide → cooperation through partnerships and trade agreements →new potential markets and costumers → better access to products diffusion of new ideas, technologies, products, services + lifestyles → ability to get to know new/ other cultures, broaden horizons (e.g. food) increase of communication → people (social media etc.) → countries (global information network and exchange) international standards (increase of coherence) → politics, economy, society + employment → better working conditions, human rights... (countries can help each other) rising competition → can lead to new inventions etc. →no monopoly, regulated prices Future tasks and requirements/conclusion(?): thinking locally and globally developing intercultural competencies - future-orientation → sustainability con Elena K. J2 rising competition → conflicts between countries etc. increasing (inter-)dependance → countries can't support the population on their own (leverage in internat. conflicts) → ("Ever Given" Suez Canal, Russian gas, stock market) loss of culture, western society could take over → people now depend on "new" work because their traditional income was destroyed widening social gap/ growing inequality → buyers vs. producers → exploitation of developing countries (Bangladesh, Africa) → power imbalances (political) → concentration of international companies bad for the environment → shipment of goods (plane, ship, trucks) → deforestation of rainforests 3 CHINA SWEATSHOP #673924 Englisch LK Fast Fashion general information: 1980s: 12 Items per year, nowadays: 68 new pieces a year Success of fast fashion due to production of cheap "designer clothes" → luxury without paying the price Fast fashion industry is growing Quick response manufacturing →very fast way to get trendy clothes. - - pro Very affordable clothing →low production costs → everyone can buy their clothes →quick and large profits → higher sales in the industry. Customer satisfaction → catering to current trends → mimicking runway/ trendy clothing very fast Ability to have trendy clothes without the price Good for students etc. that can't afford the more expensive brands if everyone bought one used item instead of a new one (half a million cars a year less) BATHROOM HOBBY LOBBY OPERATES BY CHRISTIAN VALUES EXIT -5 Conclusion: We should be more sustainable! What can we do to be more sustainable? wearing our clothes longer by wearing clothes 9 months longer →30% reduction of carbon footprint for that item would reduce emissions by 6 pounds PS OPERUES STIAN NICK ANDERSON HOT CHRONICLE THOSE COLORS! THEY'RE JUST TO DIE FOR!! con MWUERKER Copyright by Matt Wuerker bad working conditions → child labor (can get poisoned by dye) low wages → exploitation of workers, → dangerous workplaces (Bangladesh) buildings collapse bad for the environment → produces greenhouse gases →fabrics need a lot of water → oil is used for artificial fabrics. toxic chemicals are dumped in rivers →wasteful production (viscose 70% of wood wasted) donating clothes doesn't really work → too many clothes are donated → many clothes can't be worn anymore. → clothes end up in landfills in developing countries → 87% are burnt or dumped in landfills Greenwashing → products are made more sustainable/ "greener" than they really are → just small parts are made from sustainable material (false advertising) Elena K. J2 BANGLADESH GARMENTE UNLIMITERY SCHOOL AVOID BURDENSOME GOVERNMENT REGULATION!! MOVE YOUR COMPANY TO... Nicho BANGLADESH THIS WEEK'S FACTORY DEATH TOLL 433 AND COUNTING 4 Englisch LK MODERN MEDIA general information: Social media is a collective of online communication channels where communities interact, share content and collaborate. Websites and apps dedicated to social networking, microblogging, forums, social bookmarking, wikis and social curation are examples of some types of social media. pro Social media spreads information faster than any other media → reaches parts of society that e.g. news outlets can't reach Law enforcement uses social media to catch and prosecute criminals → promotes security. → criminals can be caught before the actual crime o Social media allows people to improve their relationships and make new friends → ability to find people with the same interests (easier than in real life) →good option for shy people, no face-to-face conversations Being a part of a social media site can increase a person's quality of life and reduce the risk of health problems → people can express themselves fully (LGBTQ+ Community etc.) → new ideas, other perspectives, acceptance(?) Social media sites empower individuals to make social change and do social good on a community level →war in Ukraine: a lot of social media fundraisers/ donations/ attention + protest →US elections NEWSI AGREE BLM movement (profile pics) → Fridays for future WITH... Osigne Wilkinson. All rights reserved. I JUST DON'T UNDERSTAND YOU!!! con NEWS T AGREE WITH OB 8884 WIKINSON Social media enables the spread of unreliable and false information. → fake news and deep fakes → fake news spread way faster than real news → the algorithm "supports" extremist views → people don't read newspapers anymore (social media is easier + free) Social media lacks privacy and exposes users to government and corporate intrusions → browser history, Alexa, Siri, etc. Social media can lead to stress and offline relationship problems The use of social media is correlated with personality and brain disorders → eating disorders (edited pictures and filters) →likes followers (comparability) →loss of self-worth Elena K. J2 Social media facilitates cyberbullying → people aren't afraid of consequences when they are anonymous (fake ID's/ names) → discrimination facebook HATE MISINFORMATION CONSPIRACY THEORIES CNick Anderson. All rights reserved. VIOLENCE POLARIZATION Nick ANDERSON 10.5.21 TRIBUNE CONTENT AGENCY 5 Englisch LK IMMIGRATION history: 1. Colonial period (1607-1776) Settlers were looking for adventure and hoped to become rich (pull) 1620: Puritans → Plymouth Settlers wanted to worship without interference by society or government (push) 2. Old immigration (1790-1890) Immigrants from: Northern and Western Europe (Britain, Ireland, Germany + Scandinavia) - - Up to 1830s → small numbers of immigrants (rising) Peak: 18805 400.000/year Push factors: Bad economic conditions in Europe + very limited social mobility there Pull factors: The USA offered, even advertised, cheap land + jobs in prospering industries Introduction of steam powered ships in 18705 → cheaper + faster voyage the more immigrants settled in certain areas, the easier it was for relatives + friends to immigrate 3. new immigration (1890-1930) more immigrants from Southern + Eastern Europe 4. Immigration during the great depression + WWII Very few people 5. Immigration after 1965 - Immigrants from Asia + Latin America Pull factor: Hart-Celler Act → removed discrimination against non-Northwestern European ethnic groups 800.000 immigrants annually → mostly Asian + Latin American (1980s) Metaphors: Melting pot: full assimilation → forming a new society consisting of people from various backgrounds (must give up traditions culture of native country, have American way of life + American identity) official motto of the US: e pluribus unum (out of many, one) → older view criticized for not considering the three major groups of Americans (Afro-Americans, Native Americans, Immigrants from Southern + Eastern Europe) →→ however, it can be applied to immigrants from Norther and Western Europe salad bowl: homogenous culture, but keep own distinct identities → Keep traditions etc. (like multiculturalism in Europe) E PLURIBUS UNUM Out of many, one. German Black or African American Mexican MELTING POT THEORY (Assimilation) The immigrants allow themselves to fully integrate into the American culture and way of life. They give up their own cultural identity and adopt the new culture. They melt together into one american Nation. Irish English Native American SALAD BOWL THEORY (Pluralism) Italian The immigrants keep the unique aspects of their own cultures, such as language, beliefs and ways of life. They only adopt general characteristics of their new American culture. Till 1956 E Pluribus Unum" was the de facto motto of the United States. It decorates all U.S. coins, the banknote of an US-Dollar, as well as the Great Seal. Originally the sentence was associated with the Thirteen Colonies which united to one single american Nation. Today it is related to the different cultures that form the American population. 15,7 12,3 German Black or African American 10,9 10,6 7,8 Mexican Irish English 5,5 11,9 Native Italian All Others American Elena K. J2 June, 2018. There are many different ethnic groups in the United States. Most people have ancestors who came from multiple places. The above diagram shows the percenta. ge of the main different ethnic groups living in the States. Isn't it curious that most of the people living in the U.S. are German, and there are only 7,2 percent Native Americans? 6 Englisch LK pro A lot of people profit from illegal immigration → immigrants work for the rich → farmers/construction companies have cheap workers/labor - → the economy/federal government have more tax income → consumers profit from local food and lower prices CM Wanker A richer and more diverse culture →food etc. (salad bowl metaphor) OMG! THEY'RE → In today's globalized economy, living among diverse ethnic, cultural, and religious groups benefits individuals and society as a whole Helps to reduce any labor shortages →work jobs that Americans don't want → Migrants are more prepared to take on low paid, low skilled jobs A lot of illegal immigrants still pay taxes The US is a country of immigrants (e pluribus unum) →Key part of the country's identity. Children of illegal immigrants get better education Illegal immigrants have better job opportunities ACME ASSAULT WEAPONS POURING IN!!! MWUERKER BORDER NE GUNS UNLIMITED E SOMETHING MUST BE DONE! POLITICO Andrew McMeel con - - Steal Americans jobs increasing cost of services such as health care and education →not all illegal immigrants pay taxes and still use those services Overcrowding → more students at schools etc. Disagreements between different religions and cultures 'Brain drain' if many skilled workers leave a country (Mexico) Elena K. J2 Criminals could come to the US → drug trafficking through cartels in Mexico → there could be more drugs in the US and that would lead to even worse problems Families get split up at border → traumatic experience Very hard immigration process Illegal immigrants have to pay taxes without the benefit of the US-citizen status Sometimes immigrants are exploited through very low wages A lot of money is spent on border protection and the immigration process Copyright by Signe Wkhson Welcome America! COM 2-2-18 (Parla, inquiera GRILY NEWS SIGNE 7 Englisch LK AMERICAN DREAM general information: The ladder of fortune: There are many ways that will lead to prosperity + success, however most are based on luck. The "AD-way" (ladder) will guarantee success through hard work → "guaranteed fortune" Declaration of independence: "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" as unalienable rights Virtues as key to AD (punctuality, courage, perseverance etc.) Dream of the "good society" vs. "good life": liberty, equality, democratic participation vs. economic opportunities + good secure hob/education Rags to Riches/ Dishwasher to Millionaire The Epic of America (James Truslow Adams 1931): "the dream of a land in which lifer should be better, richer and fuller" The Homestead Act (1862): anyone aged 21+ was able to acquire land west of Mississippi River + East of the Rockies (160 acres), if they lived on it for 5 years and made improvements to it, they could keep it - - - - Manifest Destiny: People believed that they were chosen by God to bring new territories under their control → right, destiny + duty to populate + possess the entire continent Challenges in the past: "Wild West" was a difficult + inhospitable place to live (lawless) →were only told about it by paintings → were promised idealized world/land pro People can still achieve their aims if they work hard There are many examples of people who "made it" with seemingly crazy ideas → Success stories: Bill Gates, Whoopie Goldberg or Oprah Winfrey, Jeff Bezos etc. It's about equality of opportunities, not equality of rich and poor → free movement between the social strata. There are many examples of people who have moved up the social scale. Social background does not decide on where you end up US society is a classless society in which everybody I can move up and succeed. Self-reliance, the role of the state is minimal → Because of this, there is hardly any other country which offers chances like the US. Individualism is an important aim vs. influence of the State → In European welfare states, the notion of "community" seems to rank higher than individualism Communism or socialism have never had a chance to spread in the US The American Dream is what you want it to be →not necessarily material goods. There are many examples of people who "made it" with seemingly crazy ideas, e.g. Bill Gates, Whoopi Goldberg, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg.... President Obama, the first black president, is a case in point There is free education for everyone con Elena K. J2 - Those people who made their dream come true, make headlines. The thousands who don't succeed go unnoticed. Statistics show that compared to other countries social mobility in the US is rather limited. → Mobility lower than in Europe The US has an aristocracy of sorts. It's the families with new money, hereditary dynasties all the same. If you are not able to work hard (e.g. handicapped) you will not receive as much financial help as you would in Europe → There is a welfare system for the handicapped and elderly which is called social security and Medicaid However, if you are poor, it is seen as your own fault. "Just get another job!" Emphasis on individual responsibility can lead to isolation and insecurity or indifference from other people Recent developments the → The rich become richer, the poor stay poor, middle class decreases in size. (cf. "Occupy Wall Street" protests) It's not possible to do every job you want →no job, no money. Examples are not the rule and real success is rare High quality schools or universities are very expensive. → Many people rack up high debts for tuition and find it virtually impossible to pay them off and Imake ends meet at the same time. 8 Englisch LK →Most colleges and universities also offer scholarships for gifted students and the state offers grants. SPEENBERG The American Dream is an ideal to encourage people to give their best. → The ideal never dies. → Everybody has the same opportunities to achieve their goals. This doesn't mean that everybody will succeed. The American Dream means that children will do better than their parents 37% of Americans still believe in the American Dream → Actually, the American Dream seems to have its staunchest supporters among recent immigrants and second-generation immigrants. The AD means different things to different people, social mobility, money, material success etc. AMERICA LAND OF PPORTUNITY CARTOONSTOCK ACARTOON COLLECTIONS PANY AMERICAN DREAM CS423250 AMERI LAND - TUNITY Elena K. J2 The ideal has changed from something tangible to a vague idea that seems to become increasingly harder to reach these days limited chances to climb the career ladder → There are not enough well-paid jobs (e.g. due to outsourcing) to get ahead. Many Americans must work two or even more jobs to make ends meet Parents today are less optimistic because of the economic crisis, too many temporary jobs, the cost of education etc. many ethnic minorities fare less well → African Americans have a lower median income than e.g. Asians. Not everybody has the same opportunities even though this is what the Constitution guarantees American Dream: for (rich) whites only? Pursuit of material things leads to disaster, climate change, and pollution in the US and in the developing world THE KAL AMERICAN MERK MIDDLE CLASS DREAM 9 Englisch LK FREEDOM + SECURITY general information: - The USA PATRIOT ACT: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 Department of Homeland Security: The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for public security. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. National Security Agency (NSA): The NSA is primarily responsible for signals intelligence (SIGINT) and cryptology Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI): The FBI conducts investigations and gathers intelligence related to domestic security, counterterrorism, and criminal organizations Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): The CIA was established in 1947 following World War II. It conducts clandestine operations and gathers intelligence in foreign countries PRISM (exposed through Snowden leak) is a tool used by the US National Security Agency (NSA) to collect private electronic data belonging to users of major internet services like Gmail, Facebook, Outlook, and others. It's the latest evolution of the US government's post-9/11 electronic surveillance efforts, which began under President Bush with the Patriot Act, and expanded to include the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) pro Edward Snowden (Whistleblower) is an American former computer intelligence consultant who leaked highly classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013, when he was an employee and subcontractor. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments, and prompted a cultural discussion about national security and individual privacy Government must secure the general welfare of its citizens. Security outweighs personal concerns about privacy Suspects must be under surveillance, intelligence agencies have to track terrorists' actions to prevent them from planning attacks After 9/11 tighter security measures at airports and borders are essential to prevent attackS Terrorists can be prevented from entering the US when airlines have to show lists of passengers to the authorities before they can take off for America Elena K. J2 Rights have to be balanced against other rights, they are not absolute Congress has authorized the Patriot ACT and found that concerns about its impact on civil liberties are unfounded. → The act is vital to safeguard the security of US citizens and the very liberties guaranteed in the Constitution. o Hysterical criticism has proven unfounded. Section 102 of the USA PATRIOT Act specifically condemns acts of violence or discrimination against all Americans, including Arab Americans and Muslim Americans Maslow pyramid shows the importance of security/safety con The 4th Amendment of the Constitution bans "unreasonable search and seizure" Any idea which increases the power of government agencies must be rejected because it can be abused Tighter security controls can lead to profiling on ethnic or religious grounds Measures aimed at travelers to the US affect all people → innocent as well as guilty people. National security has often been used as an excuse and led to the infringement of basic human rights → For example during WWII Japanese-Americans were sent to internment camps In the US, the PATRIOT ACT gives the government unnecessary and permanent new powers to violate civil liberties The goal to fight terrorism is justified, but the PATRIOT ACT goes far beyond that →The act was passed in haste. Members of Congress had not read the act in detail Roving wiretaps are unlawful Suspects use disposable "burner" cell phones to evade police eavesdropping → Investigators can quickly listen in on a new device without having to go back to a judge for a new warrant every time 10 Englisch LK Need categories Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Make Keefe The DONNER POST 10.710 EXPANDED SURVEILLANCE POWERS Ma GITMO Dal Dett We the People 0 www.caglecartoons.com I JUST DON'T KNOW YOU ANY MORE... mire OOOOC PATRIOT Аст TSA SEARCHES USA There is no proof that the act has really succeeded in protecting Americans Intelligence agencies have targeted minority and immigrant communities → FBI and INS have rounded up over a thousand immigrants holding them for months without charges After 9/11 there was an increase of racial and ethnic profiling Z Z Z 7 WHEN THE PROSIDONT PROMISED MORE TRANSPARENCY, I THOUGHT HE WAS REFERRING TO GOVERNMENT NCTO Need examples voTe SUPPRESSION Self-fulfillment; Growth; Unity Understanding; Beauty; Morality; Transcendence; Exploration; Play Positive self-evaluation; Dignity; Achievement; Mastery; Competence; Independence; Reputation; Prestige Giving and receiving affection; Intimacy; Friendship; Tenderness; Affiliation; Love; Belongingness Security; Stability; Predictability; Protection; Freedom from fear; Structure; Order; Law; Limits 2/12 EXINGTON DORAIP LEADER Nutrition; Water; Air; Sleep; Shelter; Clothing (temperature control); Reproduction JOEL PETT Elena K. J2 DOMESTIC SNOOPING $Peech BUILD YOUR OWN SPY DRONE 11 Englisch LK GUN CULTURE/CRIME general information: Lapierre (VP NRA): "The only way to stop a bad guy with a gun is a good guy with a gun" The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is a gun rights advocacy group based in the United States founded in 1871 to advance rifle marksmanship, the modern NRA has become a prominent gun rights lobbying organization while continuing to teach firearm safety and competency neighborhood watch: organized group of civilians devoted to crime and vandalism prevention within a neighborhood On the night of February 26, 2012, in Sanford, Florida, United States, George Zimmerman fatally shot Trayvon Martin, a 17-year-old African-American high school student. Zimmerman, a 28-year-old man of mixed race, was the neighborhood watch coordinator for his gated community where Martin was visiting his relatives at the time of the shooting. Zimmerman shot Martin, who was unarmed, during a physical altercation between the two. Zimmerman, injured during the encounter, claimed self-defense at his trial "Gun control" refers to any legal measure intended to prevent or restrict the possession or use of guns, particularly firearms. pro The Second Amendment grants: "A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed." → Right to bear Arms Americans have the right to protect themselves, their families, and their property. The idea of having a militia of armed citizens was seen as a necessity due to the threat of a British invasion after the US gained their independence from GB. In the US, gun ownership has always been a cultural aspect deeply entrenched in society, not just in the Constitution. → The right to defend your family and your property has always been considered an extremely important part of American liberties Many people need guns for other reasons, hunting is also an important element of rural life Unlike European countries with their feudal heritage, the US has always granted hunting and fishing rights to all people, not just the nobility Farmers need guns to protect their livestock and crops from various pests → e.g. rabbits, foxes, stray dogs People who live in remote areas need guns to protect themselves from the wildlife → e.g. polar bears in Alaska Guns don't kill people people kill people Guns must be kept in secure places. There will always be irresponsible people, and laws cannot change this fact Elena K. J2 con Alistair Cooke: "One prejudice the New England settlers brought to America was a fear of standing armies. Kings could seize control of an army overnight and enslave the people. So this nation, when it was created, absolutely rejected the idea of a standing army. [...] Of course the militia is long gone. We do have, you may have heard, a standing army, navy, air force, marine corps, and they take care of all the shooting that may be necessary for the security of the state." from Alistair Cooke, Letter from America, May 9, 1999 hunting weapons aren't the real problem. There are enough states that allow semi-automatic rifles like the AR-15 and/or high-capacity magazines → These weapons are useless for hunting but have become riot Killers' favorites for one reason only. - they are made and designed to kill people. Weapons of this type are weapons of war the sheer profusion of guns makes it much easier for people to kill other people → One argument against guns is always: "How many people would a riot Killer be able to stab with a knife?" The more guns there are in a society the more likely it is they will be used → In the US death by gunshot is a leading cause of death among some social groups. This is particularly true for young African American men aged from 12-19 Even legally owned weapons can lead to tragic deaths, they can be stolen and end up in the hands of criminals →Guns in families all too often end up being accidentally and lethally used by children. 12 Englisch LK Most states have already limited gun ownership in some ways → e.g. background checks, ban of certain types of weapons etc. Bans on guns won't Keep criminals from committing crimes →Criminals will always find access to weapons, legal or illegal. Banning guns might give criminals new business models (gun trafficking etc.) Armed citizens will be able to stop a crime in its tracks before it becomes worse → (e.g. stop a riot killer). As they emphasize individualism, they rely less on the government or the police to protect them (self- reliance) → If citizens are denied the right to have guns, they will be helpless against armed criminals THIS IS AGAINST THE LAW! OLICE AMMO - - It is still fairly easy to obtain a firearm, even for mentally unstable persons → Most riot Killers in the past found it easy to acquire firearms (Columbine, Sandy Hook...) Gun laws still have enough loopholes → e.g. gun shows, legal conversion Kits or bump stocks, although the latter have recently been banned Elena K. J2 While it is certainly true that banning guns will not turn the US into a gun-free country, having fewer guns around will definitely mean fewer gun-related deaths →Gun ownership might lead to tragic deaths like the one of the German exchange student Diren Dede, who was shot because he had broken into someone's garage The potential benefits of a crime stopped have to be weighed against the risks involved → misinterpretations, involving innocent bystanders, risk of injury etc. It's up to the judiciary to bring criminals to justice, not to individuals → Actually, other countries with strict gun laws I have a much lower rate of citizens being killed or wounded in crime-related incidents. The prospect of meeting an armed citizen might actually make a criminal use their gun first! →gun laws are outdated HE SHOULD BE WEARING A SEAT BELT. USA 13 Englisch LK USA: RACE AND ETHNICITY ◇ HISTORY OF SLAVERY/CIVIL WAR (KEY DATES) 1526: first African slaves on US territory (Georgia) by spanish colonizers managed to escape ( more than 20 enslaved Africans came to Jamestown, Virginia 1619 a Virginia law passed in 1662 stated that the status of the mother determined if a black child would be enslaved 1662 1641 Massachusetts became the first North American colony to recognize slavery as a legal institution Black Codes rules in the South that "restored all of slavery but it's name" (start of Jim Crow Laws) + foundation Klu Klux Klan 1865/66 CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (KEY DATES) 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson decision that lead to "separate but equal" treatment of people of color in the United States Declaration of Independence "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights" did not apply to African slaves 1705 The Virginia Slave Code codified the status of slaves, further limited their freedom, and defined some rights of slave owners The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) is founded goal: equal rights + to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination 1910 MAP OF THE US (1863) Union States Union territories (no slavery) Broder Union States (permit slavery) Union territories (permit slavery) Confederate States 1776 1880s lynchings 1920s 1954 The justices in Brown vs. Board of Education ruled that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional 1793 Invention of the cotton gin → switch from tobacco to cotton; made the production of cotton more efficient Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat for a white person →→ caused Montgomery Bus Boycott, protest campaign against racial segregation on the public transit system 1955/56 Laws banning the African slave trade went into effect in the United States and in all British colonies. 1960s 1808 1831 1961 John F. Kennedy is elected as President → proposed the need for a Civil Rights Act 1830 Underground Railroad Start of the Civil War due to conflicts about the status of slavery, and the wish of "The South" to continue the expansion of slavery into new terrirories 1861 1860 Abraham Lincoln wins the elections on an anti-slavery platform secession of the southern states (Confederates) During The March on Washington about 250,000 individuals gathered peacefully on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. famous "I have a dream" speech (MLK) 1963 sit-ins, freedom riders 1863 Civil Rights Act → prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. 1964 1963 John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. CST in Dallas, Texas The Abolitionists 1862 Emancipation Proclamation "slaves within any State, or designated part of a State...in rebellion,...shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free." Kommunikationsprüfung Englisch LK Abitur 2022 The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, outlawing slavery + end of the Civil War →four million slaves were freed 1865 Elena K. J2 Reconstruction 1965 Voting Rights Act → prohibits racial discrimination in voting 1957: The Little Rock Nine were group of nine Black students who enrolled at a formerly all-white High School→ the President sent federal troops to escort them into school after protest about their enrollment Martin Luther King Jr. was fatally shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at 6:01 p.m. CST. 1968 1870 14 Englisch LK ETHNIC NEIGHBORHOODS historically the USA is a racially and ethnically diverse country/nation Immigrants from the same country tend to live in the same neighborhoods (→ e. g. quarters in big cities) relied on friends and families from their original countries a lot (job search, finding a place to live,..) By 1900: Polish, Irish, Italian, German, Jewish and Asian quarters in almost every city in the US ghetto: other word for “ethnic neighborhood", however it has a very negative perception It was very difficult for black families to find a place to live in a good/desirable neighborhood (nobody wants to rent to them, the bank won't give them a credit) White population had fear of blacks in their neighborhood influencing property value in a bad way Civil Rights Act (1968) → prohibited discrimination in housing and therefore improfed the situation of African Americans STEREOTYPES/PREJUDICE (DOLL EXPERIMENT) The doll experiment In the early 1940s, American psychologists Mamie Clark and Kenneth Clark conducted an experiment with 253 Afro-American children to determine their attitude towards race. The children were aged between three and seven and came from different regions of the United States. The doll experiment involved a child being presented with two dolls. Both of these dolls were completely identical except for the skin and hair color. One doll was white with yellow hair, while the other doll was brown with black hair. The child was then given eight different instructions. The following table shows the results for requests 1-4. choice Colored doll White doll Don't know or no response request 1 (Give me the doll that you like to play with) 32 % 67 % 1% request 2 (Give me the doll that is a nice doll) 38 % 59 % Pros 3% request 3 (Give me the doll that looks bad) 59 % 17% 24% request 4 (Give me the doll that is a nice color) 38 % 60% This experiment has often been repeated up to this day. The results were always similar showing deeply rooted prejudices. 2% ensures diversity it offers a boost to disadvantaged students/people it promotes equality for all races The experiment shows that stereotypes/ prejudice are/is deeply embedded/rooted in american society It also revealed how badly these prejudices influence the self-esteem of African American children, they think very badly of themselves because of the stereotypes they face daily One African American child pointed at a black doll and said: "That's a nigger. I'm a nigger." The experiment and the Clarks also influenced the decision in Brown vs. Board of Education: "To separate [African-American children] from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone." → This can also be seen, when looking at the treatment of African Americans living in the US and people of color travelling there. Foreigners are often privileged and sometimes even face "helpful" racism, in comparison to that African Americans that live in the US often face brutality and violent racism AFFIRMATIVE ACTION JFK issued an Executive Order in 1961 which requires government contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and employees are treated [fairly] during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin" → applies in public institutions: universities, schools, hospitals and police forces + companies that produce goods or services for the government Quotas for minority groups → want to encourage them to for example apply for a job Some institutions have point systems → applicants are given points for a certain quality (where the are from/ race,...) !However nowadays these advantages for underrepresented minorities are very controversial Cons Elena K. J2 danger of reverse discrimination it can be condescending to minorities it can still reinforce stereotypes and racism (jealousy because of advantages) 15 Englisch LK BLACK LIVES MATTER The movement is "an ideological and political intervention in a world where Black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise. It is an affirmation of Black folks' humanity, our contributions to this society, and our resilience in the face of deadly oppression.; BLM's "goal is to build the kind of society where black people can live with dignity and respect. 2013: The death of Trayvon Martin Trayvon Martin, an African-American teenager was shot by a white man (George Zimmerman) while walking through his neighborhood → beginning of the BLM movement Founded by three black women (Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, Opal Tometi) as a reaction to Zimmerman being found not guilty The Hashtag #BlackLivesMatter gained popularity quickly 2020: The death of George Floyd A police officer (Derek Chauvin) kneeled on Floyd's neck →"I can't breathe" There were protests against police brutality and racism all over the world following Floyds death (Defund the police/ George Floyd) Derek Chauvin was found guilty (second- and third degree murder and manslaughter) Joe Biden after the conviction of Chauvin: "a moment of significant change", but added: "It's not enough. We can't stop here. We're going to deliver real change and reform." ist in POWER! BUCK RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The New York Times: The 1619 Project/Podcast (https://nyti.ms/37JLWKZ) Crash Course auf YouTube → Simple Club der USA (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ajn9g5Gsv98) The Black Lives Matter website MATTERS Elena K. J2 FUCK the #BLACK LIVES MATTER (https://blacklivesmatter.com/) (Southern Poverty Law Center: Whose Heritage Report (2016)→ Monuments/ Confederacy) (https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/com_whose_heritage.pdf) 16