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26.4.2022

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Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am
Themenfelder:
Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation
development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution
landmarks of Am

Themenfelder: Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution landmarks of American history: insbesondere Civil Rights Movement, Black Lives Matter recent political and social developments Q1.2 Living in the American society the American way of life: Einstellungen und Haltungen, Mobilität migration and the American Dream values and beliefs: Religion, Puritanismus, Patriotismus Q1.3 Manifestation of individualism the American Dream as a manifestation of individualism concepts of life: Leben in der Stadt oder auf dem Land, Ausstieg aus der Gesellschaft stories of initiation visions and nightmares: individuelle Schicksale (Vietnamkrieg, 11. September 2001 und Irakkriege) Q2.1 Great Britain - past and present: the character of a nation Great Britain - tradition and change: wesentliche Veränderungen auf sozialer, kultureller, politischer oder wirtschaftlicher Ebene (British Empire - insbesondere colonization, Industrialisierung) being British: national identity and national stereotypes Q2.2 Ethnic diversity Great Britain as a multicultural society: Auswirkungen der kolonialen Vergangenheit Prejudice and the one-track mind Integration versus assimilation Q2.3 The English-speaking world country of reference: Ireland past and present (insbesondere: emigration, partition of Ireland, Celtic Tiger) living together: z.B. Sozialstruktur der Gesellschaft, multiculturalism Q3.1 Human dilemmas in fiction and real life extreme situations: der Kampf ums Überleben being different Elizabethan England - an introduction to the Golden Age drama by William Shakespeare: insbesondere Othello Q3.2 Modelling the future science and technology: insbesondere biotechnology, electronic media, artificial intelligence possibilities...

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and responsibilities power and ambition 1 Q3.3 Gender issues culture and gender - now and then: Schönheitsideale im Wandel (Sonette von Shakespeare), Gen- derkonstruktionen in der Werbung Q1-Q3 Literature Q1: Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird; außerdem die Verfilmung von Robert Mulligan (1962) Q2: George Orwell: ,,Shooting an Elephant"; Hanif Kureishi: "My Son the Fanatic"; Zadie Smith: "The Embassy of Cambodia" Q3: William Shakespeare, Othello 2 Operator(en) delineate skizzieren describe beschreiben outline präsentieren/ vorstellen/nennen summarize zusam- menfassen analyze analysieren compare/contrast vergleichen/gegen- überstellen examine untersuchen explain erklären point out/depict dar- stellen put into the context of einordnen/zuord- nen relate in Beziehung setzen Definition Anforderungsbereich I einen Sachverhalt oder Gedankengang in seinen Grundzügen angeben Aussagen, Sachverhalte, Strukturen o.Ä. in ei- genen Worten strukturiert und fachsprachlich verdeutlichen zielgerichtet Informationen zusammentragen, ohne diese zu kommentieren ausgehend von einem Einleitungssatz die we- sentlichen Aussagen eines Textes in strukturier- ter und komprimierter Form in eigenen Worten herausstellen Anforderungsbereich II Merkmale eines Textes, Sachverhaltes oder Zu- sammenhanges kriterienorientiert bzw. aspekt- geleitet erschließen und zusammenhängend verdeutlichen nach vorgegebenen oder selbst gewählten Ge- sichtspunkten Gemeinsamkeiten, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede begründet darlegen Sachverhalte unter bestimmten Aspekten be- trachten und belegen Materialien, Sachverhalte o.Ä. in einen Begrün- dungszusammenhang stellen, z.B. durch Rück- führung auf fachliche Grundprinzipien, Gesetz- mäßigkeiten, Funktionszusammenhänge, Mo- delle oder Regeln Sachverhalte o.Ä. und deren Bezüge sowie Zu- sammenhänge aufzeigen Texte oder Sachverhalte unter Verwendung von Vorwissen begründet in einen genannten Zusammenhang stellen Zusammenhänge unter vorgegebenen oder selbst gewählten Gesichtspunkten begründet herstellen 3 Beispiel(e) Delineate the concept of integra- tion. Describe the living conditions of the family Outline the author's view on love, marriage and divorce. Summarize the text. Analyze the rhetorical devices in Obama's speech Compare X's and Y's views on edu- cation. Contrast the author's con- cept of multiculturalism with con- Icepts you have encountered in class. Examine the author's use of lan- guage. Explain the protagonist's obsession with money. Point out the author's main ideas on multiculturalism. Depict the mean- ing of the cartoon. Put this speech into the context of the Hispanic experience in the U.S. Relate the protagonist's principles to a text read in class AFB |-|| |-|| I |-|| || ||-||| || || 1-11 3 |-|| || write a characteriza- tion charakterisieren assess beurteilen discuss erörtern evaluate/comment (on) bewerten/Stellung nehmen interpret interpretie- ren write gestalten/ entwer- fen/verfassen Vorgänge, Sachverhalte, Personen/Figuren in ihrer jeweiligen Eigenart treffend und anschau- lich kennzeichnen und ggf. unter einem be- stimmten Gesichtspunkt zusammenführen Anforderungsbereich III zu einem Sachverhalt oder einer Aussage unter Verwendung von Fachwissen und Fachmetho- den eine begründete Einschätzung geben eine These oder Problemstellung unter Abwä- gen von Pro- und Kontraargumenten hinterfra- gen und zu einem eigenen Urteil gelangen wie Operator,beurteilen', aber zusätzlich die eigenen Maßstäbe begründet darlegen auf der Grundlage einer Analyse Sinnzusam- menhänge aus Materialien methodisch reflek- tiert erschließen, um zu einer schlüssigen Ge- samtauslegung zu gelangen Aufgabenstellungen kreativ und produktorien- tiert bearbeiten, z.B. auf der Grundlage eines Materials und seiner inhaltlichen oder stilisti- schen Gegebenheiten eine kreative Idee in ein selbstständiges Produkt umsetzen 4 Write a characterization of the hero- || ine. Assess the importance of ethics in scientific research. Discuss the influence of terrorism on civil liberties in the United States. Evaluate the chances of the protag- onist's plan to succeed in life. Com- ment on the thesis ... expressed in the text. Interpret the message the author wants to convey Write a letter to the editor/a per- sonal letter/a dialogue/a speech... ||-||| ||| = |-||| = III rhetorical devices Rhetoric device alliteration allusion anaphora antithesis choice of words euphemism exaggeration/ hyper- bole image irony (Leit)motif manner of speaking metaphor paradox Explanation/ Function the repetition of a sound, usually a conso- nant, at the beginning of neighboring words indirect reference to a famous event, per- son, or piece of literature successive sentences starting with the same word contrast; opposing words, phrases, views, characters etc. the decision to use particular words based on such aspects as style, register, connota- tion, etc. using polite expressions for sth. unpleasant making sth./ sb. sound better, more exciting, dangerous etc. than in reality a word intended to appeal to the reader's imagination and to bring a new perception to an object saying the opposite of what you mean a theme, expression or object which recurs throughout a text, and which refers to a cer- tain person, situation or atmosphere a style that is typical of a particular person, e.g. politician or worker, etc. poetic comparison without using like or as (e.g. an ocean of love) seeming impossible at first glance but recog- nized as true on second thought 5 Example Girl's power leaves lazy lads lagging be- hind "This place is like a Garden of Eden." - This is a biblical allusion to the "garden of God" in the Book of Genesis. "So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heighten- ing Alleghenies of Pennsylvania..." (Martin Luther King) "Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing." - Goethe. "I am one, sir, that comes to tell you your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs." (Othello, Shakespeare) → refers to the act of hav- ing sex "I was walking along when suddenly this enormous dog walked along. It was as big as an elephant" "He whiffed the aroma of brewed coffee." A post on Facebook complaining how use- less Facebook is. "Your eyes are the windows of your soul" "It's weird not to be weird." - John Lennon parallelism personification pun reference register/level of speech repetition rhetorical question simile symbol syntax hypotactical structure paratactical structure tone repeating similar or identical words/phrases in neighboring lines/sentences/paragraphs presenting ideas/objects/animals as persons (e.g. a smiling moon) a play on words a connection to sth. else (→ allusion) The words, style and grammar used, e.g. for- mal/informal English, colloquialisms, slang, non-standard English, etc.; such aspects are typically adjusted according to the address- ees deliberately using a word/phrase more than one question to which the answer is obvious or to which no answer is possible/expected comparison using like or as sth. concrete (object, character, event) standing for sth. abstract (cross = Christian- ity; horseshoe = luck) arrangement of words in a phrase/sen- tence/text rather complicated and long sentences, in- volving sub-clauses a rather simple sentence structure, mostly consisting of main clauses, sometimes con- nected with the conjunctions and, or the manner or mood, e.g. macabre, optimis- tic, etc. 6 "We've seen the unfurling of flags, the lighting of candles, the giving of blood, the saying of prayers." -George W. Bush "The wind is whispering outside." "The tallest building in town is the library - it has thousands of stories!" → stories in books and stories (floors) in a building. "Oh, woeful, oh woeful, woeful, woeful day!" - Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet "...O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?" -Percy Bysshe Shelley "Watching the show was like watching grass grow." They dressed in black to the funeral of their friend. (The color black is associated with death.) airy, comic, condescending, facetious, funny, heavy, intimate, ironic, light, play- ful, sad, serious, sinister, solemn, somber, and threatening Mayflower Compact 1620: first political agreement for self-government in America, signed on 21st November 1620 by the Pilgrim leaders abord the Mayflower colonists create one society and work together to further it loyalty to King James despite their need for self-governance trust in God and own persistence Declaration of Independence 1776: "Birthday of the United States" ► the 13 colonies declared their independence from England (war with England) Written by Thomas Jefferson (third president of the US) on July 4, 1776 Content: all American citizens are created equal with certain unalienable right, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness: ➤ Pursuit of happiness: no limitation in fulfilling your dream, free choice of religion and career, to be- come rich/ to own a house/ farm etc. "All men are created equal": principle of equality which does not include blacks, as slaves they were not regarded as "men" or "human beings" nor were they citizens of the United States opportunity for every American (at first, women were excluded) to lead their life the way they want, everyone can make their personal dreams come true stresses the rights of the individual, while at the same time taking the rights of others into consideration m Q1.1 The USA - the formation of a nation development and principles of American democracy and the Constitution American Constitution: written in 1787, accepted by most states in 1788 contains a preamble and seven articles that describe the way the government is structured and how it oper- ates The first three articles establish the three branches of government and their powers: Legislative (Congress), Executive (office of the President,) and Judicial (Federal court system) balance of powers ("Checks and Balances"): Legislative (makes laws) 3 BRANCHES of U.S. GOVERNMENT Congress -Senate between the national government and state governments between the three branches of government House of Representatives Constitution (provided a separation of powers) Executive (carries out laws) President Vice President Cabinet Judicial (interprets laws) Supreme Court Other Federal Courts The American president: head of state . serves a 4-year-term active leader of government must be at least 35 years old must be born in the USA majority wins ("winner takes it all") → main disadvantage: the candidate who received the largest number of individual votes does not necessarily win The Bill of Rights The first ten amendments became a permanent addition to the Constitution in 1791 and are known as the Bill of Rights. It describes the basic rights of the people and forbids the government from denying these liberties. Amendment Content Group 1: Rights of the individuals / liberties 1st Amendment 2nd Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th Amendment Group 2: Legal rights 5th Amendment 6th Amendment 7th Amendment 8th Amendment Group 3 9th Amendment 10th Amendment year 15th century 16th & 17th century 1620 1765-1783 1773 1775 July 4th 1776 1783 1787 1789 1791 until 1850's freedom of speech/religion / the press / to assembly / petition right to militia/ right to keep and bear arms protection from quartering troops protection of individuals from unreasonable search 1861-1865 1863 1917 1930's due to the progress of law interdicting of double jeopardy; protection of private property rights to speedy and public trial right to a civil trivial by jury prohibition of excessive bail and cruel or unusual punishment other rights may exist alongside the ones explicitly mentioned in the Constitution and even though they are not listed, they can't be violated federalism: divided power between federal and state law landmarks of American history: insbesondere Civil Rights Movement, Black Lives Matter event More than 10 million Native American live in the USA European colonies are founded on the East cost Puritans arrive at Cape Cod → Pilgrim Fathers, founding of Plymouth plantation American Revolution, 13 American colonies reject British government Boston Tea Party: colonists object to the British Tea Act, board the ships of the British East India Company and destroy the tea by throwing it into the harbor; their slogan is: "No taxation with- out representation" because the American colonists do not have a political voice in the British parliament War of Independence (American Revolutionary War) begins Declaration of Independence was passed by the Congress → important holiday: symbolic sig- nificance for Americans Treaty of Paris: Britain officially recognizes its former colonies as an independent nation, the United States of America Philadelphia Conference: organization of two principal powers Implementation of the U.S. Constitution the Bill of Rights is issued; amendments ensure civil rights exploration of the West - the frontier; the idea of "Manifest Destiny", making the US stretch from east to west coast, is born Civil War between the Confederate States of America (South) and the United States (North) Emancipation Proclamation: official abolition of slavery USA enters World War I the Great Depression (at its peak more than 20% of Americans unemployed) and Roosevelt's New Deal policy 8 December 9th 1941 August 6th 1945 1947 - 1991 1950 - 1953 1955 - 1975 September 11th 2001 January 20th 2009 January 20th 2017 March 2020 May 25th 2020 ■ History of slavery and abolition ■ USA enters World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor American B29 bomber drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima Cold War; communist (Warsaw Pact) versus capitalist nations (NATO) Korean War; a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States) I The Vietnam War: conflict between the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The conflict was intensified by the on- going Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. "9/11" → terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon Barack Obama is the first African American President Inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States National emergency declared over the Covid-19 pandemic Nationwide protests break out following the killing of African American George Floyd by Min- neapolis police 1619-1808: Approximately 300,000 people TRIANGULAR TRADE were shipped from Africa to work as slaves in the US. They lived mainly in the southern states and worked on the cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane plantations crops made the plantation owners ex- tremely rich, and were major products for export NORTH AMERICA PACIFIC OCEAN 1865: Slavery was abolished after the American Civil War 13th amendment 13 Colonies CARI Manifest Destiny, a "movement" →was coined by the American journalist John L. O'Sullivan in 1839 → encouraged the Americans to spread over the whole continent ISLAND raw materials 9 ATLANTIC OCEAN SOUTH AMERICA manufact welcome source of cheap labor after 1808: no more slaves were transported to the US, but many were born in the country 1833: the National Anti-Slavery Society, an abolitionist movement, was founded, although most of its support- ers came from the northern states rather than the southern states where most slaves ed goods enslaved Africans 1868: The 14th Amendment of the Constitution gave black Americans the status of citizens 1870: All male American citizens were given the right to vote, regardless of their race 1890: Jim Crow Laws were introduced ➤ slavery is replaced by segregation and racism moral questions about slavery and the treatment of blacks as second-class human beings triggered the American Civil War EUROPE AFRICA → beginning of American expansion stands for the belief that America is the one nation ordered by God to expand across the North American continent The Great Nation of Futurity by John L. O'Sullivan: "(America is) the nation of progress, of individual free- dom, of universal enfranchisement." he gave the movement its name "the right of our manifest destiny to over-spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative development of self-government entrusted to us." ■ ■ I Civil rights movement The peak years of the American civil rights movement where the 1950s and 1960s, when African-Americans kept demonstrating and fighting for human and civil rights, thus forcing the U.S. government to guarantee them certain constitutional rights, e. g. the right to vote and to attend public facilities like schools, buses, or restaurants together with white Americans. However African Americans have been struggling to overcome slavery and racial injustice since the 17th century and famous leaders and activists like Sojourner Truth (1798-1883), Booker T. Washington (1856- 1915), W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) and Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) paved the way for "modern" activists like Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) and Malcolm X (1925-1965) · I According to him the American people have been chosen "... to establish on earth the moral dignity and sal- vation of man - the immutable truth and beneficence God." . America: a country that is superior to all the countries (America took whatever land they wanted; with the belief that Manifest Destiny gave them a right and power to do so ▸ territorial growth, explore new land Promised the American dream: freedom and independence of a limitless land ► attitude that nothing was going to stand in the way of progress of Manifest Destiny Stresses the virtue of American people, as they are the ones to establish moral rules and values across the globe Reflected both the prides that characterized American Nationalism in the mid 19th century, and the idealis- tic vision of social perfection through God and the church American patriotism is deeply rooted in the concept of "Manifest Destiny"; this concept is closely linked to the concept of the frontier 1954: the NAACP won a famous court case, which ruled that it was illegal to have separate schools for different races → "separate but equal" concept was unconstitutional 1955: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to white passengers on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama. As a result, she was arrested and convicted. In protest, black people boycotted the buses for over a year until segregation on public buses was lifted. (Montgomery bus boycott) 1961: Freedom Riders: black and white civil rights activists travel in interstate busses through the segregated South to peacefully protest against racial segregation 1963: March on Washington D.C. for jobs and freedom (peaceful protests): ,,I have a dream "- speech, where Martin Luther King Jr. spoke of his hope that one day all Americans would be equal → 100 years had passed since slavery was abolished, but still blacks did not enjoy the same rights as whites 1964: Civil Rights Act: ensuring voting rights to African Americans 1965: Voting Rights Act → prevents use of literacy tests as a voting requirement 1968: Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated 1970-1976: As a measure to end segregation in schools, white children were taken by bus to schools in black areas, and vice versa. 1972: laws were passed to encourage positive discrimination for ethnic minorities in the field of employment → blacks are still disadvantaged and underprivileged in many areas → affirmative action (positive discrimination, ghetto situation, schooling segregation) → black people's reality: instead of middle class, higher education, well-paid jobs, suburban homes: underclass, urban ghettos, unemployment positive discrimination: if there were equally qualified candidates for a job and one was from an ethnic minority, employers were supposed to give the job to the minority candidate. 10 Jim Crow Laws (1890-1960) laws to enforce segregation → officially to protect the blacks, but in reality, laws were used to maintain the unfair treatment and limita- tion of the rights of the blacks Malcolm X ■ - separate entrance into public buildings, separate restrooms and drinking fountains - blacks had to sit in the back of trains and buses ▪ 1925: birth in Omaha, Nebraska wish: becoming a lawyer → "not a realistic goal for a nigger" (as one of his teachers told him) → becomes criminal ■ separate schools, blacks were not allowed to play in the same sports team - white nurses were not allowed to attend to black, male patients → "separate but equal" Civil Rights Act of 1964: Repeal (Aufhebung) of all remaining Jim Crow laws Martin Luther King now: believed in Allah (joined the organization: Nation of Islam → minister, national spokesman → became famous fast, media magnet because of his charisma, drive, conviction) goal: independent state for Blacks only (goal of Nation of Islam) used violence "let's make war" (against non-violent Martin Luther King) Assassination: February 21, 1965 (while speaking at an engagement in the Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom) born January 15th, 1929 died April 4th, 1968 (was shot by James Earl Ray) Civil Rights leader and activist he led non-violent protests to fight for the rights of all people he hoped that America and the whole world would become a "color-blind society" he led the Montgomery Bus Boycott (= his first Civil Rights action) Ku Klux Klan positions: white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration, they use terrorism (Physical assault, murder) to frighten African Americans costumes (robes, masks, hats): designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities Black Lives matter then: recent political and social development international movement since July 2013 founded by three women of color after a colored te ager was killed 11 T killing of the African American George Floyd in 2020 by the Minneapolis Police caused a series of protests and civil unrest "I can't breathe" battle cry and slogan of the protesters ■ Situation of African Americans racial discrimination still exists even though it is not institutionalized like it was before Blacks in the US still have a higher risk of unemployment, poverty, and imprisonment spirit of slavery/ racism is still part of the police and law system it's harder for blacks to continue their life after being in prison (no support) ■ ■ Demonstrators want to peacefully draw attention to the police violence/ racism against African Americans prevailing in the USA → Accusation of racism ➤ a few protestants abused the movement to loot and raid shops for their own benefit ➤Tweet of Trump: "[...] when the looting starts, the shooting starts." The handling of the USA met with international criticism and the BLM movement also found supporters in many European countries controversial monuments in honor of historical figures associated with slavery and colonialism were knocked down and smeared Problem: many blacks still live in deprived areas high unemployment rate and easy, especially for young people, to become involved in criminal activities "Cycle of poverty" idea 2009: Barack Obama is elected as the first black president in the USA 2020: Kamala Harris is the first black woman to be in an official position in the US (vice president) definition Q1.2 Living in the American society the American way of life: Einstellungen und Haltungen, Mobilität typical lifestyle of the habitants of the United States is characterized by optimism and activity it combines ideals with a pragmatic attitude characteristics: strongly pronounced individualism, love of freedom and the pursuit of earthly happiness (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration of Independence) and prosperity in economics the American way of life corresponds to the belief that a competitive capitalism market fosters talent and growth the political form of government is a liberal democracy everyone can improve their standard of living through determination, hard work and talent (American Dream), ideally following the motto "from rags to riches" criticism excessive consumption, waste of raw materials, exploitation of human labor, environmental pollution attitude and character of US citizens very (foreign) friendly, helpful, open-minded, happy, optimistic ■ optimistic, freedom-loving, sports-loving, linked between generations 12 mobility belief in limitless resources is related to the American tradition of mobility ➤ "going west" (geographical mobility) I → nowadays: low level of public transport usage, driver's license at the age of 16 ► often connected to a chance to succeed (e.g., better job) → social mobility immigration → "the movement of non-native people into a country in order to settle there." → "to come to country to live there" human migration began with the movement of the earliest humans out of Africa into the Middle East → then to Asia, Australia, Europe, Russia, and the Americans "immigrants": people who migrate into a territory "emigrants": people who leave a territory migration and the American Dream "settlers" or "colonists": populations migrating to develop a territory "refugees": populations who are displaced because they face persecution or danger "Asylum migration": people who seek asylum → protection by another state because of immediate danger to their lives or to the basic conditions of life in their home country theories of immigration distinguish between "push" and "pull" factors → push factors: refer to motives for emigration from the country of origin → they push people out of their home country → relate forward to the destination factors/reasons for migration Push 17th and 18th century - starving, hunger, expensive food → flooding's - no money - overpopulation - unemployment - war → bad economic situation - no freedom (e.g., no free choice of religion) 19th century - social, political, religious conflicts - not enough land to raise food (starving) - forced military service - economic & political chaos through civil war (China) 20th century - World War I - unemployment - fascist dictatorships take over (hard economic times) Pull - fertile soil & good climate → good harvest - "welfare" → free space - promised land, Declaration of Independence - known for freedom and equality (work offer to enrich economy) - freedom (e.g., of religion) - chronic labor shortage - cheap, fertile land - importing slaves was no longer legal in the south - gold rush - civil war ends slavery - American Dream - from rags to riches 13 general reasons for migration economic reasons (wage rates, infrastructure, job opportunities, standards of living, unemployment) educational reasons (school system, college, and university facilities) religious reasons (oppression, discrimination, persecution because of religious beliefs) political reasons (oppression, discrimination, persecution because of political conviction, war, ignorance of human rights, non-democratic government, death penalty) personal reasons (marriage, transferred patriotism, evasion of criminal justice, relatives) ■ ■ Ellis Island Asian immigrants migration from Asia to the US increased dramatically after the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act number of Asian immigrants grew from 491.000 in 1960 to 12,8 million in 2014 countries of origin for Asian immigrants (2014): India, China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Korea motivation: employment, family reunification, educational of investment opportunities, humanitarian protec- tion I place where most immigrants set foot on American soil island of hopes but also island of tears for several immigrants some of them were detained there for legal of medical reasons or even sent back to their home coun- tries gateway to a new - better life for the majority of immigrants federal immigration station from 1892 to 1954 Illegal immigration of Hispanics to the US ■ Hispanics: people of Latino-American origin illegal immigrants: non-citizens who enter the country without permission or stay beyond the termination date of their visa many of them cross border from Mexico illegally illegal immigrant population of the Unites States range from 7 to 20 million → 56% from Mexico → 22% from other Latin American countries → primarily from Central America illegal immigrants as a group of people tend to be less educated than other sections of the US populations → nearly half of them do not complete high school → a much larger number than in other ethnic groups in the US illegal immigrants with a Hispanic background find work in many sectors of the US economy → 3% in agriculture14 → 33% jobs in service industries → large numbers in construction, production, installation, repair all over the country they generally come for economic reasons, sometimes because of political oppression illegal immigrants from Mexico and Central America generally come for economic reasons, but also sometimes because of political oppression President Trump wants to restrict immigration especially illegal immigration from Mexico, and wants to send illegal immigrants back to their countries of origin 14 The American Dream - Definition metaphor expressing one's hopes and positive expectations when starting over in America: "The dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement, regardless of the position in society which he may occupy by the accident of birth" (James Truslow Adams, "The American Dream" 1929) National ethos of the US: an equivalent for a set of ideals (democracy, rights, liberty, opportunity, equality) that includes the opportunity for prosperity and success with few barriers; commitment, ambition and hard work allow an upward mobility: from rags to riches Term coined by James Truslow Adams 1931 in times of the Great Depression (severe economic crisis 1929- 1930s after the roaring 20s) to put the people back on track as the strive for material power only leads to humiliation and recklessness History of the American Dream The Land itself as a dream to start over: Counterpart of the old European world order full of social, political, and economic limitations where people are born into fixed societies (no upward mobility) religious persecution, economic hardships, being unfree and paying tributes to a feudal lord A Land of abundance: (John Smith, founder of Jamestown, first British settlement in 1609): free land as an opportunity for everyone Rhetoric of Opportunity: work hard & improve your position in life (coined by John Smith) work hard for the pursuit of life, liberty, happiness as a reward for a virtuous life (1776 Jefferson) = elaborated rhetoric of opportunity in the Declaration of Independence as a fusion of biblical ideas & the French Enlightenment = most potent words in US history: became a moral standard for the rights of people worldwide American Exceptionalism: Definition: Americans taking a special position compared to EU (Frederick Turner 1893) Religious justification: British settlers as Gods chosen people build a model society to the World, a "New Ca- naan" → Justification to impose values on other societies (Manifest Destiny) political, social, cultural justifications: free people start from scratch (bible + enlightenment), build classless society (mobility), reduce states impact on citizens, develop an unexplored continent, value individualism, community spirit, ambition; social perfection through God values and beliefs: Religion, Puritanismus, Patriotismus Although there have been significant shifts in social concepts and traditions, the following ideals, beliefs and values continue to be some of the most important in American culture. 15 Fundamental, inalienable, and God-given rights Liberty: personal and religious freedom Pursuit of happiness: I Patriotism ■ Puritanism/Protestant work ethic the Puritan belief that hard work, thrift, discipline, self-improvement and responsibility lead to worldly suc- cess and prosperity and that this is a sign of God's benevolence and grace I continuous and active participation in society and entrepreneurial endeavors (=unternehmerische Bestrebungen) Believing that one is exceptional, a member of "God's chosen people", following a divine providence (→ Man- ifest Destiny) belief in authority as a means of protecting the personal rights of the people ■ I (personal and material) success and wealth optimism and belief in "anticipated success" individuality/individual ways of pursuing one's dreams and realizing one's goals Equality: equal rights for men and women/equal rights for people from different ethnicities and social back- grounds Life: leading a secure life protected by the law, government, and military The American Dream The phrase "American Dream" was first expressed by the American historian and writer James Truslow Adams in 1931, describing a set of complex beliefs, promises of religious and personal freedom and opportunities for prosperity and success, as well as political and social expectations ■ Importance of national symbols (e.g., the Statue of Liberty, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the U.S. flag, the National Anthem, etc.) strong identification with one's nationality and pride in being American ■ An open and dynamic society I its basic underlying concept has roots in the Declaration of Independence of 1776 which refers to basic human rights such as "Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness" which are "inalienable" and God-given and based on the assumption that "all [people] are created equal" being generally open to new ideas and inventions (→ progress) being generally open to immigrants of any nationality, provided they contribute positively to the country Different immigration concepts: a) the melting pot image: individuals are melted into a new race the various ethnic groups do not retain their cultural heritage but amalgamate into one new nation: first term appeared in an essay by Jean de Crèvecœur entitled "Letters from an American farmer" in 1782 b) the salad bowl image: Irish 16 AMERICAN LEW Irish individuals come together but keep their own shape (e.g., culture) the various ethnicities living in the US adding their own traditions, cultural values, etc. to the American people; the various heritage do not merge into one, but stay in distinct ("unity in diversity") today: politically more correct Russian The American Dream represents the individual society, in which everyone (as lone fighter) can reach his/her own individual dream. If you work hard enough, you will improve your situation in life and achieve your goals ("from rags to riches"). The American Dream is the key concept withing American history, society, and culture. It is essential for the understanding of American society. Q1.3 Manifestation of individualism the American Dream as a manifestation of individualism concepts of life: Leben in der Stadt oder auf dem Land, Ausstieg aus der Gesellschaft country life PRO few people good neighborhood connection calm (easy to relax) little road traffic little noise better and healthier air better for the body (no office work) a lot of space for children CONTRA long distances to important places (schools, hospitals, ...) loneliness/ boredom few workplaces poor public transport few shopping possibilities I city life mobility (public transport) many jobs (easy to build up a career) easy access to shops anonymity many schools it's easy to get to know people concepts of life in "To Kill a Mockingbird" Atticus Finch (lives in the countryside) calm life stands for equality stands for materialistic values interested in raising his children to citizens knowing the val- interested in a good social stand/ role ues of life represents free development open, friendly, wise noise/ environmental pollution stress (everything is fast) overpopulation drugs/ criminality/prostitution expensive life Aunt Alexandra (lives in the city) eccentric life represents rule compliance (Regelkonformität) snooty (hochnäsig), snippy, deterministic (bestimmerisch) 17 stories of initiation The story of initiation is a special type of the American short story deeply confusing incident in the life of a child or adolescent which confronts the protagonist for the first time with an aspect of adult life, e.g., evil, death, old age, a shattering of ideals ■ As a reaction, the young person passes through various stages of coping with the experience: from shock and disillusionment through the struggle for answers, until he or she finally comes to terms with what has hap- pened As a rule, the young person reaches a greater insight into the complexities of grown-up life in the end The story of initiation tends to select a phase of a character's initiation: Often it ends after presenting the shocking effects an experience has on a younger child Or it presents an adolescent's passage into maturity during which the young person can discover his or herself In literature, this process may be presented as a journey of initiation → Bridges, rivers that must be crossed, and journeys constitute the imagery used to represent the initiation process as a rite of passage from inno- cence through experience to maturity. (TKAM) The Concept of Initiation in Literature 1. The recognition of the existence of evil in the world 2. The loss of innocence and the gaining of experience and maturity a) fall from a state of original happiness b) an actual rise to maturity and knowledge 3. The introduction into manners and values of a given society 4. The process of self-discovery and self- realization innocence → experience → maturity Initiating events in TKAM (example of Jem and Scout) Jem and Scout become confronted with reality, nearing the end of their innocent childhood They begin to view members of their community in a different light At the beginning they think that Boo is an evil monster, in the end, they learn to respect him as a human being and discard their prejudice I Scout understands the meaning of the phrase "It's a sin to kill a mockingbird": good and innocent people must be protected stereotypes and prejudice are still alive in Maycomb: Aunt Alexandra and her missionary circle call poor people "trash" because of their low social status Lee tells the readers to look below the surface and judge people by their behavior not by their background the novel is a plea for tolerance and understanding, as Atticus tells Scout: "You never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around them." → most of these lessons are taught to them by their father Atticus (moral education) Jem and Scout receive a lesson in maturity and courage, also confronted with the coexistence of good and evil "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view." (33) "Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit 'em, but remember it's a sin To Kill a Mockingbird." (99) "I do my best to love everybody. [...] it's never an insult to be called what somebody thinks is a bad name." (120) "But this is a truth that applies to the human race and to no particular race of men. There is not a person in this court-room who has never done an immoral thing, and there is no man living who has never looked upon a woman with desire." (226) 18 visions and nightmares: individuelle Schicksale (Vietnamkrieg, 11. September 2001 und Irakkriege) American Dream Nightmare Anyone can achieve anything if they work hard (e.g., house, the negative aspects connotated with the AD, or the inabil- family, good job) ity to achieve the dream "From rags to riches" → self-made millionaires → hard work to success equality → in general → of opportunity Independence: debate on gun control → NRA: 2nd amendment: right to wear arms → right to self-defense: sense of security → gun ownership deters crime Vietnam War I Vision fighting for peace in the world most people will never reach their dream, especially poor people → can quickly lose everything you have built up; homeless overnight, no welfare or health insurance November 1, 1955 - April 30, 1975 communist North Vietnam (supported by China and the Soviet Union) vs government of Southern Vietnam. (supported by the US who fought wars to stop communism) The US lost the Vietnam War winning easy as "God chosen" ones slavery - 1865 - 1980's: segregation/ discrimination/ police brutal- ity (George Floyd) against black Americans - gap between rich and poor gets bigger it lasted for twenty years, something the US expected US lost prestige int the eyes of the world government said they joined the war because of attacks from Vietnam America tries to mediate as peace actor for the world gun control would reduce gun deaths and violence: school shootings (→ mass murder), abuse, less suicide → rarely used in self-defense → background checks, ban on high-capacity magazines Reality killing with chemical weapons nearly lost because of the work ethic of Vietnam soldiers lie killed the civilian population brutally 19 Nightmare against the idea of the American Dream (open minded, friendly) against idea of AD (achieving everything by hard work and being superior to others) against idea of the protecting, loyal, honest government against the idea of the AD (America's role as a global mediator and prophet of freedom and democracy as it is defined in the AD) + against general right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness 9/11 ■ Vision America as peaceful global mediator → unreachable America is open and friendly to other nations/ people fighting against terror (fight for peace) America is safe (because of trustful government, military, law system) Iraq War ■ September 11, 2001: series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks against key targets in the United States committed by 19 members of al-Qaida deadliest terrorist attacks on American soil in the US history I ■ ■ Reality terror attacks, thousands of people died March 20, 2003 - December 18, 2011 Iraq vs United States in the early 2000s Iraq was refusing to allow U.-N. inspectors into the country, then 9/11 happened The US began to worry that the leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, Vision belief in the protective and honest gov- ernment fighting against terror (fight for peace) rising of sentiment against Mus- against American value of being open-minded lims thousands of people died were successfully attacked was helping terrorists and that he was secretly developing weapons of mass destruction (LKW redesigned as chemical weapons) official preparation of the US-citizens by speeches (using fake evidence) America saves the Iraq and brings peace to the people freed Iraq from Saddam Hussein still no peace Nightmare against idea of the American Dream of general right for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi- ness thousands of people died Reality Nightmare deliberately (bewusst) lying to citizens against the belief in America as a nation against AD (right for life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) against the idea of being "God-chosen" they were not able to bring democ- racy and peace to Iraq 20 against AD (right for life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) against the idea of being the global me- diator and prophet of freedom and de- mocracy as it is defined in the AD American Nightmare - the most important things at a glance the American Dream is the reason for many to immigrate to the USA, as they believe in the idealistic image of the AD in reality, however, there are many hurdles that turn the American Dream into the American Nightmare These include: the military actions of the US foreign policy (Vietnam, Iraq, etc.) the poor education and health care system the lack of perspective of many immigrants and poorer people Author I I Q1: Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird (1960) Nelle Harper Lee was born in Monroeville, Alabama, in 1926 her father was a lawyer she doesn't like to wear dresses and likes to play with boys she also starts to study law Content she quit her studies and moved to New York City in 1950 → she wanted to be a writer and began writing short stories and working on "To Kill a Mockingbird" the novel was an immediate success and has since become one of the most read books of modern American literature story is set in the small-town Maycomb, Alabama during the 1930s the narrator is Jean Louise Finch, called Scout, who looks back on her childhood days children are raised by their father Atticus, a widowed lawyer they have a black housekeeper called Calpurnia the town comprises three communities: the white folk, the black community and the "white trash" outwardly there is peace among the tree but beneath the surface a combination of hostility, racial prejudice and friendlessness prevails although slavery has been legally abolished for many years, the inhabitants continue to believe in white su- premacy the novel projects the prejudice attached to the traditional southern values Chapter content Part I (chapters 1-11): The story is set in the small town of Maycomb, Alabama, during the 1930s. The narrator is Jean Louise Finch, called Scout, who looks back on her childhood days. The children are raised by their father Atticus, a widowed lawyer, and Calpurnia, the black housekeeper. One summer seven-year-old Dill Harris comes to Maycomb to spend his holidays with his aunt. Scout, her older brother Jem, and Dill become friends. Together with their new playmate they try to get behind the secret of a haunted house in their neighborhood in which "Boo" (Arthur) Radley lives. He hasn't been seen for years since his father locked him up in the house. Wondering what Boo Radley now looks like the children devise games intended to get him to come out, but without success. The following September Scout starts school, and she hates it. On their last day at school before the vacations, the children discover some chewing gum and a small box in the knothole of a tree on the Radley property. In the holidays, Jem and Dill try to look into the house, but the roar of a shotgun drives them off. In panic, Jem catches his breeches (trousers) in the fence and must abandon them. Later that night, he returns and finds them neatly folded across the fence. More objects begin to appear, including replicas of Scout and Jem carved in soap. When Jem and Scout decide to leave a note for whoever is leaving the objects, they find the tree hole filled with cement. One night in the following winter, a neighbor's house is on fire. In the icy cold the children watch the fire brigade fight the flames. When Scout returns home, she finds herself wearing a woolen blanked around her shoulders, which - as Atticus explains - must have been wrapped around her by Boo Radley. Scout later starts a fight at school in defense of her father who "defended niggers". Atticus tells Scout that he has accepted the defense of black man, Tom Robin- son, because his conscience tells him so. He warns Scout that some people might condemn him for this but asks her to keep her fists down. The children are a bit ashamed of their father because he is so different from other fathers. Although he says he is not interested in guns, Atticus fulfils the children's Christmas wishes and gives them air-rifles. 21 He warns them, though, not to shoot mockingbirds, because they are innocent and do not one thing but to sing and bring people joy. Part II (chapters 12-31): As Atticus' presence is required at the state legislature in Montgomery, the housekeeper Calpurnia takes Jem and Scout to a church service in her community. The children learn that everybody in the black community knows their father well. Reverend Sykes organizes a collection for Helen, Tom Robinson's wife, because Tom cannot find any work now that he has been accused of raping a white woman. At home, to the surprise of the children, their Aunt Alexandra is waiting for them. Scout in particular is not pleased at all that her aunt will stay for the summer holidays. As the trial is about to begin, the defendant Tom Robinson is brought to Maycomb jail. Sitting in front of the jail, Atticus guards the prisoner and together with the children protects Tom against being lynched by a mob. At the first trial Tom Robinson is charged with the rape of a white woman named Mayella Ewell. Atticus knows Tom is innocent, and despite the intimidation from white people, Atticus defends as best he can. Although Atticus has forbid- den the children to attend the trial they sneak into the courthouse. Sheriff Tate and Mayella's father Bob testify first, claiming that the girl was beaten on the right side of her face and raped. Atticus can prove that Mayella was hit by a left-handed man, and that her father is left-handed whereas Tom's left arm is crippled. Mayella testifies and repeats her accusations against Tom, who, in turn, assures he was called into the house by Mayella herself and that she tried to seduce him. Atticus sums up the case saying that the testimony of the witnesses has been contradicted by the defendant and that Tom Robinson's guilt is not proven beyond doubt. Atticus' efforts, however, are in vain: Tom is convicted. Jem finds it very hard to accept the verdict because it is so unfounded. Atticus is confident that an appeal will be successful. The members of the black community bring lots of food to Atticus' house as a sign of appreciation. In contrast, Mayella's father spits at Atticus. Tom Robinson takes the verdict very hard, because he does not believe that he will find justice in a white-dominated legal system. He tries to escape from prison but is shot. At hearing the news of her husband's death, Helen Robinson breaks down. Some of the white population use Tom's attempt to run away as proof of the black man's inferiority. But the editor of the local paper, Mr. Underwood, condemns Tom's death, comparing it to the senseless slaughter of songbirds. On thinking about this editorial, Scout realizes despite all her father's efforts, Tom had not stood a chance from the beginning. Prejudice cannot be overcome in a court. The new school year starts, and Scout is now ashamed of the childish games they used to play with Boo. People in Maycomb still talk about the Robinson case and are critical of Atticus Finch, but they re-elect him for the legislature. Bob Ewell, feeling that Atticus and Judge Taylor had made a fool of him, is given a job, but soon loses it due to his laziness and blames Atticus Finch. He also menaces Tom Robinson's widow and tries to break into the judge's house. On their way home from a Halloween party, Scout and Jem notice that they are being followed. They try to flee but are attacked. They struggle to defend themselves against the assailant, until their attacker is suddenly pulled away in the dark. Scout sees a man lying on the ground, smelling of whiskey, and another one carrying Jem away. She manages to get home. Aunt Alexandra and Atticus call Doctor Reynolds and Sheriff Tate. Jem has been brought home uncon- scious and has a broken arm. Scout sees the man who brought Jem home, but she does not know who he is. Sheriff Tate tells Atticus that Bob Ewell was found dead under a tree with a knife stuck under his ribs. At first Finch thinks that his son Jem stabbed Ewell and will have to face trial and refuses to go along with the Sheriff's explanation that Ewell fell onto his knife, killing himself. Only slowly does Atticus realize that the Sheriff wants to suppress evidence to save shy Boo Radley, because it was, he who had stabbed Ewell and rescued the children. Scout also agrees to the explana- tion of what had happened because not to do so would be like shooting a mockingbird. Atticus thanks Boo, who had all the time been waiting silently in the shadow the veranda, and Scout guides him home. 22 Characters Atticus Finch ■ ■ Jean Louise ("Scout") Finch I Jem's and Scout's father; 50 years old, widowed descendant of one of the oldest families in Maycomb highly respected personality in the community competent lawyer and member of the state legislature understanding father with a lot of common sense and a dry sense of humor one of the few residents of Maycomb committed to racial equality and treats all those around him with respect and consideration renounces violence but stands for his convictions ➤ risking his standing in the community and his personal safety when necessary does not care about public opinion and ignores the animosities of the prejudiced white majority of Maycomb ► sets an example for his children and teaches them moral principles and a strong sense of justice → "Moral compass" ■ narrator and protagonist of the story almost six years old when her story begins (nine years old at the end) intelligent and a real tomboy → refusing to act like a young lady always trying to prove herself equal to her playmates Jem and Dill natural feeling of what is right or wrong Jeremy Atticus ("Jem") Finch ■ quickly responds to insults with her fists → tomboyish behavior outspoken, sincere, innocent, and unprejudiced - in contrast to the hypocritical other white people naive: thinks everyone around her is as honest as she is represents a new generation which will grow up without arrogance and racial prejudice four years older than his sister Scout (ten years old) adventurous boy, keen footballer Jem and Scout → close companions; always spend their free time together he wakes up to the hard facts of life when he must cope with the unfair verdict against Tom Robinson end of the novel → proves his courage as fearless protector of his sister Arthur ("Boo") Radley Reclusive and mysterious neighbor who never leaves his house he was mistreated by his cruel father when he was a kid supposedly sinister character Boo symbolizes one of the mockingbirds in the novel →gentle and shy creature delights the children by leaving little gifts for them; in the end he proves his virtue by saving their lives. 23 Bob Ewell ■ Uncultured and utterly evil; racist Beats his children and has no scruples even in resorting to murder to regain his lost dignity in the community "antagonist" in the story Calpurnia housekeeper in the Finch's family since Jem was born more like a mother-role to the children → part of the family serves as a bridge between the whites and the Blacks and her relationship with Tom makes the case against Tom more personal to Atticus gives the children a better understanding of African American community Tom Robinson black man who is accused of raping Mayella ➤ unlucky to live near the racist Ewells hardworking 25-year-old married man with children honest, good heart with willingness to help Mayella with small tasks ➤ lead to his downfall, as he ends up being killed, just like a mockingbird killed for sport defends Tom in court Tom Robinson (a kind, black man on trial for his life) depends on Atticus for his defense and protection makes him look foolish in court vows revenge on Atticus Atticus Finch (a widowed attorney who is raising his two children, Jem and Scout) Bob Ewell (father of Mayella; a lazy, abusive drunkard) father and role model accuses him of rape attempts to kill Scout Kills Boo Radley (the Finches reclusive neighbor) escorts home after he saves Jem's life 24 | Scout (Jean Louise) Finch (the story's young protagonist) saves from Bob Ewell's attack father and role model father of breaks Jem's arm Mayella Ewell (a 19-year-old considered to be "white trash") younger sister older brother Jem Finch (a young man who looks after his sister) Themes and interpretation Coming of age - from innocence to experience nearing the end of their innocent childhood, Jem and Scout become confronted with reality Jem and Scout begin to view members of their Maycomb community in a new light In the beginning, they see Boo Radley as an evil monster - in the end, they learn to respect him as a human being and discard their prejudice > Scout realizes that Boo needs her help because he is weak and shy Scout comes to fully understand the meaning of the phrase ,,It's a sin to kill a mockingbird": good and innocent people must be protected Stereotypes and prejudice are still very much alive in Maycomb ► Aunt Alexandra and her missionary circle call poor people "trash" because of their low social status Harper Lee tells her readers to look below the surface and judge people by their behavior not by their back- ground ■ ■ The novel is a plea for tolerance and understanding, as Atticus tells Scout: "You never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them" Jem and Scout receive a lesson in maturity and courage As children, they believed courage meant to carry guns or to dare touch the Radley house Through the example of their father, whom they initially thought to be a rather weak person, they eventually learn what real courage is: Atticus stand up for his convictions, risking his standing in the community and his personal safety The children are also confronted with the coexistence of good and evil Good personified by Atticus, Calpurnia, Sheriff Tate ■ Evil personified by Bob Ewell, Boo's Brother Nathan Radley, the prejudiced community They must realize for the first time that good, and evil exist side by side, and that the good does not always win The case of Tom Robinson teaches Scout, Jem and Dill a difficult lesson about the nature of injustice ➤ The fact that the case could not be won has also to do with the era the events take place in Racial segregation and hatred against minorities The novel was published in 1960, around the time when two of the most dramatic events in the American Civil Rights Movement occurred in Alabama > The Montgomery bus boycott (1955), a protest against segregated seating on municipal buses > the attempt of Autherine Lucy, and African-American woman, to be admitted to the University of Al- abama (1956): novel is set in the same state in the 1930's the events in the novel reflect the economic difficulties brought about by the Great Depression a severe economic crisis afflicted the USA following the dramatic collapse of the stock market in Oc- tober 1929 reflection on the disadvantaged situation of the Black population in the Deep South racial segregation had a long tradition in the South Black and White people went to separate schools, separate churches African Americans were largely employed in low-status and manual jobs or those servicing the Black community only As qualification was a basic requirement for voting, many Black people were not registered and there- fore excluded from exercising this civil right Because jury lists were derived from registered voters, African Americans did not serve on juries: in the novel, Tom Robinson is tried by an all-White jury; when Atticus Finch is appointed by the local judge to defend a Black man accused of raping a White woman, most townspeople expect only a token defense 25 Harper Lee drew many legal details from the so-called "Scottsboro Boys" case In 1931, nine Black young people were charged with the rape of two White women This case is important for the American legal system because it was taken to the Supreme Court which ruled that criminal defendants are entitled to effective assistance of counsel and that people may not be excluded from juries due to their race Racial discrimination is still very much alive in Maycomb The White majority regards African Americans as scarcely civilized; an attitude openly expressed by the White ladies' missionary society Because of the presumed inferiority of Black people, a sexual relationship between them and White people is unthinkable Mayella Ewell knew that she had broken a common code of the White community, and to cover her own guilt took advantage of the racist attitudes by claiming an assault -> the hysteria created by her false account led to the death of an innocent man In modern times, Jews were persecuted and extinguished by the Nazis in Germany In TKAM Scout's teacher Miss Gates gives an impressive lecture about Hitler Scout proves that she has matured & she becomes aware of the bigotry and hypocrisy that exists in her hometown; she feels that it cannot be right to judge others (Germany's Nazis) and not realize one's own faults ➤ Harper Lee's novel draws attention to intolerance, racism and ethnic cleansing and calls for fair treatment, equality and mutual understanding Class society Based on money, wealth, and power Aunt Alexandra believes that everyone belongs somewhere in the community She doesn't want Scout to pick up lower classes' behaviors Equality vs. inequality Mr. Gilmer pretends to be a decent person, but speaks differently to Bob Ewell than to Tom Robinson Due to racial differences ➤ Community is blinded concerning racism The Maycomb community is divided into two groups ➤Wealthy and poor ➤ Deep running roots and newcomers Sexes Morality Women are not allowed to serve in the jury Jem teases Scout: he says she is becoming more like a girl Main issue in the novel There are many good people in Maycomb who want the best for every citizen Atticus: he does everything to instill morality in his children's life; he says that everyone is the same and that everyone should be treated equally Children's believe is shattered due to Tom Robinson's trial: the black man is sentenced, although At- ticus has pr his innocence 26 Motifs Gothic detail ■ ■ Quiet small-town life ■ Darkened setting, drama, and atmosphere ➤ Unnatural snowfall Symbols Mockingbirds ■ Destroying fire at Miss Maudie's house ■ Mad dog shot by Atticus Bob Ewell attacking the children → creates tension Snow-paced, good-natured feeling of the life in Maycomb ➤ Contrast Comforting scene of the people in Maycomb banding together during the fire Ewell's coward-less attack on the defenseless children Unredeemable evil Symbolize innocence and vulnerability Characters losing, despite their innocence: ▸ Newspapers compare that to the meaningless killing of a songbird Atticus: killing a mockingbird is a sin (Mockingbirds don't harm anyone, they make music and bring joy) Boo Radley is not arrested Sheriff compares this to "shooting a mockingbird" Scout Finch > Scout as a songbird Her innocence is very important to the plot of the story: Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley is com- parable to "shooting a mockingbird" Boo Radley Children's changing attitude toward Boo Radley is an important measurement of their development from in- nocence towards a grown-up moral perspective Boo Radley as a symbol of good (he saves Jem and Scout) Physical challenges Tom Robinson: mangled left hand Jem Finch: broken hand, damage remains permanent The Knothole Boo Radley: extremely low self-esteem Atticus Finch: poor eyesight ▸ Symbolizes that everyone has a weakness; represents damages brought by situations in life Boo leaves mysterious gifts to Jem and Scout in the knothole A way to connect to the outside world as he has always wished for His way of connecting to people without exposing himself to any danger Nathan Radley wants to keep Boo away from the outside world Fills the knothole with cement after he found about 27 The rapid dog ■ Popular dog in Maycomb (Tim Johnson's) ➤Falls sick; becomes a danger to the community of Maycomb Symbolizes racism in town Book vs. film Award-winning film from 1962 by Robert Mulligan follow the original plot very closely Narrative perspective Sheriff refuses to shoot the dog, encourages Atticus to fight it Sheriff refuses to give justice in Tom Robinson's case, Atticus fought for justice in the court room Characters ■ In the book: first-person story told by Scout ► Readers have a good insight into Scout's inner perspective In the film: Scout as a narrator is only presented to set the mood of a scene It seems to shift more to Jem's experiences Scout is still an important character, but the film expands more on her brother's role Aunt Alexandra does not exist in the film Jem and Scout have a conversation about their deceased mother which brings her alive to the viewers Tom Robinson's children and father show up in the film Important scenes from the novel not included in the film Calpurnia taking the children to her church Scene shows racism from another perspective Jem and Scout finding treasures in the tree hole Mrs. Dubose plays a much more important role in the book The children almost have no contact with her in the film Aunt Alexandra does not exist in the film Implied incest between Mayella Ewell and her father is never discussed in the film ➤ Movies at that time were not allowed to cover such controversial matters Exploration of the aftermath of the trial and the conversations Atticus has with his children to make them understand the situation are missing Added scenes Atticus visits the family of Tom Robinson To show the seriousness of the trial 28 Q2.1 Great Britain - past and present: the character of a nation Great Britain - tradition and change: wesentliche Veränderungen auf sozialer, kultureller, politischer oder wirtschaftlicher Ebene (British Empire - insbesondere colonization, Industrialisierung) I ■ WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN... I { I THE LARGEST ISLAND GREAT BRITAIN + SCOTLAND + ENGLAND + WALES INCLUDING NORTHERN IRELAND UNITED KINGDOM SCOTLAND ENGLAND WALES +N. IRELAND 2 made Britain the world's first industrial nation until WW II it was one of the most powerful nations → Empire that spanned the globe { The United Kingdom comprises England, Scotland, Wales and the 6 north-eastern countries of Ireland (Northern Ireland) state governed under constitutional monarchy by a parliamentary system since 1952: Queen Elizabeth II has been Head of State 29 ALL ISLANDS TOGETHER BRITISH ISLES SCOTLAND ENGLAND WALES From the British Empire to the head of Commonwealth As a group of island nations, the UK has developed separately from the rest of Europe 1750s: the beginning of the Industrial Revolution N-IRELAND +IRELAND still a permanent member of the UN Security Council ➤ 1973: joined the EEC ➤ UK has not joined the European Currency Union within the Commonwealth: UK maintains strong links to its former colonies now all independent 16 of the 54 independent states share the same monarch UK and US still maintain strong bonds in political, cultural and economic matters British Empire was made up of colonies, protectorates, and other territories, which were under the sovereignty of the British crown and administration of the British government largest empire, covered nearly %4 of the world's land area including more than 1% of the total population world's major industrial power, colonies supplied Britain with important raw materials including cotton, tea, runner colonies were established in the Caribbean, India, Australia, Oceania, Africa decolonization began towards the end of the 19th century and continued right through the 20th century ■ How did the British Empire rise? Commerce Conquest ■ ■ the foundations of the Empire were base on global import and export British constituted one corner of a trade triangle The British monarch's only involvement in the expansion at this stage was to grant royal charters, documents that gave private companies exclusive trading rights in certain territories ■ The second half of the 19th century saw the rise of the age of imperialism as more and more territories came under formal British governance and administration When the East India Company underwent a major financial crisis and its stations came under attack in India, the British Crown took over Colonization and civilization Under the protection of the British crown, white settlers farmed so-called ,,empty" lands where before only natives had lived [...] the Malay sultans themselves signed agreements between 1874 and 1914 thus accepting British guidance in all things other than religion ■ Christianity With the revival of Christianity, slavery was regarded as a sin for which Britain had to atone Christian missionaries became active around the world In retrospect, the mission is seen as a more intense form of colonialism The British brought civilization and culture with them [...] the Boers felt that the British were an ungodly people What changes did the Empire bring about? within the colonies: introduction of legal, education and transport systems indigenous people were often enslaved; regarded as barbaric, "children" ► loss of land and culture for Great Britain: solution to the problem of overpopulation; financial benefits When did the Empire fall? The fall was an ongoing, complex process that ended with the independence of the colonies, e.g. India in 1947, Burma in 1948, Malaya in 1957, Nigeria in 1960, Kenya in 1963 and Southern Rhodesia in 1980 The fall or disintegration of the Empire is also called decolonization 30 Why did the Empire fall? National developments Attitudes to the Empire changed gradually from 1900 when writers began to write more critically or even cynically about the Empire When Britain needed the support of the US in World War I, skepticism about her own political power deep- ened Global developments Gradually, imperialism came more and more under attack worldwide After World War I, American Presidents Woodrow Wilson demanded in his speech "Fourteen Points" that the interests of the population and their sovereignty should always be considered. ➤ This led to a critical assessment of colonialism worldwide Following the war (World War II), India gained independence in 1947 and other colonies were soon to follow Colonial developments Nationalist movements grew in the colonies and indigenous traditions and cultures experienced a revival Imperialism paradoxically created its own downfall: the system of local government established in the colonies by the British survived imperial rule and became basis of the new independent nation's government Christianity, initially introduced by white missionaries, helped to establish national self-confidence How did the Empire fall? At the end of the 19th century, Canada, Australia, and South Africa were granted dominion status. · ➤ They were given self-government but still recognized the British monarch as head of state The road of independence was much longer for the non-white colonies of Asia and Africa As Britain was unable to bring about a compromise between Muslim and Hindu leaders, two independent states were created in 1947: India and Pakistan What is the legacy of the Empire for the former colonies? political: many former colonies are parliamentary democracies British cultures as well as political and social structures frequently survived in the former colonies legal system, police, the military, and the civil service are based on the British system English is still the main or at least the secondary language in many countries Spread of the English language to every corner of the globe Schools and universities were modeled on the British education system Christianity survived through the formation of independent African churches What is the legacy of the Empire for the mother country? Early post-war immigration The post-war years in Britain saw the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from the former colonies The main reason why Britain welcomed immigrants from its former colonies was the chronic labor shortage at home after World War II Immigration waves The largest inflow of immigrants into Britain came between 1956 and 1974 and each ethnic group chose a different area to settle and work 31 A deterioration in race relations At the beginning of the post-war era, immigrants were welcomed as a source of labor. Yet as the economic situation in Britain worsened, the tolerance shown by white, native-born British citizens towards the minorities decreased Positive and negative aspects of the British Empire/ of colonial rule Pros ■ ■ ■ I ■ The British Nationality act passed in 1981 only granted the right to settle to those who already had British parents or whose parents had already settled in Britain. ■ free trade/ trade improvement Empire united the people in the colonies the English language: communication lead to the Commonwealth improves living conditions and democracy rule of law good education logistical infrastructure → immigration pro- jects, modern medicine, spread of democracy technical progress brings work and wealth to the people missionary process -> bringing new culture in sport and religion Effects of colonialism Effects for the (former) colonies Positive better infrastructure better healthcare systems Effects for Great Britain (colonialist) Positive Industrial growth possibility to spread for religions (no war) wealth prevention of overpopulation ethnic diversity (multiculturalism) varied diet exchange of ideas, technologies, traditions I used violence and oppression to get power exploitation of colonies loss of cultures and traditions civil wars after Independence ■ Cons 32 only wanted power, money, and to dominate there were a lot of cheap workers (clerkers) & the British were not interested in skilling them exploitation Impoverishment Robbery of self-employment (Selbststän- bad reputation consumption habit Negative digkeit) enslavement & slave labor eradication of natives dependence on the motherland (financial) → own state form = destroyed by western systems (overthrown) Negative Political System of the UK today Political Power ■ the UK is a constitutional monarchy with an official state religion the Church of England; with monarch at its head actual power is in the hands of the government (Prime Minister, Cabinet, parliament) monarch: representative role at ceremonial functions but no real political power Parliament: House of Commons (elected by the people) and House of Lords (seats are inherited or ap- pointed) Recently: general agreement that Upper House should become an elected boy too ■ head of the state is the source of all legislative, executive, and judicial power granted by the Bill of Rights in 1986 monarch has the right to be informed and consulted about: government policies ➤ open sessions of parliament appoint the Prime Minister after his election hold weekly meetings with the Prime Minister the legislative Power (Parliament) makes the laws the executive power (government) administers the laws the judiciary power (Supreme Court) ensures that the executive administers the law correctly the UK has no written constitution but a body of law including statutory and common law Political life in Great Britain Parliament ▪ The House of Commons UK Fusion/Separation of Powers Elected Legislature & The House of Lords The House of Commons Appointed Legislature Primary Role Creates/Designs Laws. Scrutinizes/Approves Laws Represents The Will of the People The House of Lords Primary Role Scrutinizes/Approves Laws Acts as a Safeguard Represents The Unwritten Constitution The Largest Party then forms: 33 The Crown The Monarch HOR The Executive Primary Role Puts forward Laws Runs Government Represents The Will of the Majority HM Government has been the model for the most modern democracies is the most important law-making body of the British people consists of two chambers: The House of Commons and the House of Lords Primary Role Represents the UK Signs Bills into Law Represents Ceremony/Tradition consists of 650 Members of Parliament (MPS) its main functions are to pass laws, to control government policy, and to debate controversial topics Judiciary The UK Courts of Law Primary Role Upholds the Law Represents The Rule of Law ➤ has about 740 members little direct power ► makes amendments to bills coming from the Hose of Commons can delay a bill for a year its former judicial function as the highest court of appeal was transferred to the newly created UK Supreme Court ■ British values Devolution ■ ■ Government I Political Parties ► today, Britain has a two-party system: The Labor Party and the Conservatives is formed by the Prime Minister and his/her Cabinet the Labor Party was traditionally the party of industrial workers and union members, with socialist ideas of state control and the ideal of a welfare state; New Labor (under Blair) has moved more towards the center the Conservatives, traditionally the party of the upper and the middle classes and land- owners, believe in a free market without government interference, limitation of the power of the trade unions, and encouragement of a property-owning democracy there is no such thing as "Britishness" → including all citizens nowadays people prefer to call themselves English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh instead of British traditional British Values are based on six basic ideas: a less important third party, the Liberal Democrats, emphasizes free trade and the ex- pansion of civil liberties Trade Unions ➤ fair play in competitive situations a caring attitude towards the vulnerable, incl. animals34 respect and tolerance for the customs of others dislike of extremism common sense belief in the inviolability of the home started in 1920 ➜ means the transfer of power from the Westminster Parliament to assemblies in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland England did not get its own parliament under devolution → still governed by the national parliament in the 2014 referendum on full independence held in Scotland there was a narrow majority for the country to remain in the UK The Welfare State vs. Individual Responsibility ongoing discussion divides British society as well as politicians with regard to their traditional beliefs classical liberalism after the Brexit decision: might be a new referendum in order to give Scotland a chance to stay in the EU is not the philosophy of the British Liberal Democrat Party likes to see the self-reliant individual who copes with all her/his issues without asking the state for help welfare system is when you move more to the left on the political scale is not only accepted but increasingly promoted support of Labor Party organization made up mainly of workers ■ aim: to protect and advance the interests of its members. activities benefit all workers in a workplace not just those who are members 34 generally considered to be true that a strong union movement benefits all workers in a country activities include: negotiating agreements with employers on pay and conditions discussing major changes to the workplace ➤ providing its members with legal and financial advice collective bargaining: employers who acknowledge the rights of a particular union to present its workforce will negotiate with that union over members' pay and conditions most UK employers accept a trade union voluntarily ■ but if an organization that employs more than 20 people refuse to do so trade unions can try to achiever recognition by legal process The Commonwealth A free association of 53 sovereign independent states ➤ all but three of these states were formerly part of the British Empire Primarily consists of the UK, Northern Ireland and their former colonies Many varying opinions on it Head of the Commonwealth → the Queen community of different countries which were involved by colonization Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, England, ... has developed by decolonization, the effect of two world wars, changing of international relations new goals: fight against Aids terrorism illegal immigration strategies for avoiding economic recession ➤ exchange of ideas on world trade Industrialization (1750-1900)- Economic change children had to do hard and dangerous work because many families were poor and needed money ► average working age: 10 years got paid little to nothing long working hours horrible conditions → work with or near large, heavy and dangerous equipment (often injuries or even death) it wasn't easy to find work → children got away without working most of the time before the Industrial Rev- olution All changed with the industrial revolution → many jobs rose out of nowhere; new factories and mines were built ➤ positive development because poor people were also able to get work now with new mines and factories there also came new complicated jobs which were nearly impossible to do for grown-up people ➤ people for smallest parts of the mine were needed (carrying picks for the miners, picking up coal out of the pit mouth) the treatment of works wasn't good at all rude and safety was neglected Factories used the children for work they didn't want to do verbal or physical penalties changed in 1833 with the Factory Act passed by Parliament ➤ Act limited the number of hours children of different ages were allowed to work 35 ■ dark side of the industrial revolution helped to get to our work conditions today → no more child labor; most of the overall working conditions are better Before the Industrial Revolution, Britain was an agricultural society ➤ 80 per cent of the people lived and worked on small farms in rural areas ► agriculture was the main economic activity in Britain There were other economic activities like manufacturing, mining, and trade-employed only few people in Britain · Towns and villages at the time were small and self-contained The road system of Britain was not of such importance, because most people didn't travel far from the places, where they lived and worked. Before the Industrial Revolution: a working day began at sunrise and ended at sunset The average life expectancy was short Illness was common because of poor hygiene British society was divided into strict social classes according to wealth and position based on birth After Industrial Revolution: improved living standards declining death rates thousands of new factories and mills built across Britain ► growth of factories and textile mills transformed Britain's economy and society more people moved to towns and cities to work at the new factories By 1850 only 20 per cent remained on the land development of steam power and electricity transformed the manufacturing, agricultural transport and communication industries having a major impact on people's life better infrastructure, technology more people earned middle class salaries → could afford decent clothing, furniture, ceramics, and other household items Industrial Revolution had a big influence of people's life at this time, trigger for our life now if the Industri- alization did not exist, we would not have mobile phones, cars, planes etc. The colonial heritage of Great Britain Britain's first colony was Ireland many immigrants came from old colonies the Irish are the largest immigrant group in Great Britain Great Britain's traders sell slaves from Africa to households and to the Spanish settlers slaves are needed for the farm work (cotton and sugar farms) first colony in North America in 17th century Great Britain as leading majority in slave trade (middle 18th century) function of slaves: work and production of more slaves Argumentation to justify the system: Africans/Blacks are not fully human bartering with slaves → Goods for slaves, then sold 36 Monarchy - a controversy Pros ■ ■ ■ presence, history/past popularity in the world steadiness, people can rely on the Queen constantly working old tradition, nobility the Queen has no scandals Britishness What is British identity?: an opinion or a feeling of being part or connected to Great Britain language learning facility (not visible to naked eye) Royal Family recognition centre. nostalgia segment being British is a legal status of citizenship certain qualities that are considered typically British Britishness is about shared values of belief in freedom, democracy, the rule of law and individual liberty "Defining Britishness is like painting wind" It cannot be defined because like all identities it is evolving and reforming with every moment Immigration is not a threat to British culture and identity Parts of British national identity: multiculturalism, tea, loyalty, respect, monarchy, London mistrust of Europe ventricle national pride gland (kely to become inflamed during World Cup) bottled-up anger Cons tea being British: national identity and national stereotypes outdated - self-evidently, non-sensical nowadays, the royals care more about mis- adventures dynamic country steeped in tradition custard (for Scotland, see 'porridge) Britishness on the Brain 37 pastry hat. rain sea traditional breakfast repository of useless facts for pub quiz nights Isle of Wight love of countryside BACKBONE! outside world brim unused section head -hatband Typical British national stereotypes Drinking lots of tea proud of their country love traditons ■ covers a big background (colonialization and immigrants) Always going to the pub and bars Being fanatic about the Queen and the royal family, monarchy Being prude Always bad weather & always talking about the weather Being too polite or very polite ▪ Always excusing Terrible food, but also fish and chips A football loving country with an historical background (Liverpool, Manchester) To be British is to be multicultural Social structure Class-ridden society the four countries that make up Britain each with their own culture have contributed to a multi-cul- tural culture & multi-lingual language confusing with different terms for GB (UK, Great Britain, ...) British / English ("people need to be taught the difference") not open-minded towards others countries ■ class distinction through: class distinction and consciousness were important upper class - middle class (biggest one) - working class language ("upper class accent", working class English (colloquial language)) education (private schools, Oxford, or Cambridge) hereditary titles ("Lord") house and job Migration to Great Britain in the 1950's and 1960's, there was an urgent need for workers in the UK and foreigners (especially from the Caribbean, India, and Pakistan) were encouraged to come to fill the gap Immigration Q2.2 Ethnic diversity Great Britain as a multicultural society: Auswirkungen der kolonialen Vergangenheit citizens of Commonwealth countries are given residence permit to live in the UK this group suffered during the economic downturn of the early 1970's, when there was a lot of un- employment reasons for migration: work, study, seeking asylum, joining members of one's family Britain's booming economy and the open-door policy of recent governments has resulted in the largest in- flux of immigrants since WW II immigrants from new entrants to the European Union → Poland, Slovakia, the Baltic States most of the immigrants from countries of the Commonwealth → particularly the Indian subcontinent 38 I British Muslims have made a big contribution to British culture and everyday life ➤ Asian restaurants + "corner shops" are part of every British townscape → especially Indian and Paki- stani I ➤ popular movies + TV series have made Indian lifestyle and habits known and appreciated among the British Indian entrepreneurs have created thousands of jobs and made a big contribution to the UK econ- omy no integration of a growing number of British Muslims 1980s: process of isolation when young Muslims began to adopt fundamentalist religious ideas no speaking English at homes of British Muslim families → don't join the social life of the wider com- munity Approaches to Multiculturalism BBC poll established that 2/3 of all respondents agreed that multiculturalism made Britain a better place to live I ➤ unemployment among young British Muslims higher some British employers find it difficult to employ British Muslims different religious festivals different days of worship and fasting among women: the wearing of the hijab "Parallel societies" parts of the British Muslim community seem to be in danger of growing up in that workers from Easter Europe who adapt more easily and who often work in the social services find themselves being accused of stealing jobs and living off benefits Several threats ➤ danger for traditional Britishness from large-scale immigration they perceived excessive claims made by ethnic minorities on the welfare state ► they sensed a rise in moral pluralism and political correctness Why is Great Britain a multicultural society? home to 37 ethnic groups multifaced societies, prejudices, and stereotypes, have always played a role in Britain: ► stereotypes: generalized ideas about someone, often based on experience; can be positive or nega- tive ➤ prejudices: fixed ideas or convictions; do not rest on empirical knowledge and are always negate more than 300 languages are spoken British history history of continuous foreign influences Language = mixture of domestic and foreign accents Reasons for immigration: ➤ India: able to move freely (saw Britain as motherland) Caribbean's: came to work in low-paid jobs (poverty to "wealth") Irish: hunger (e.g., Potato crisis) > Poverty, persecution, hunger War Religion Being British is a legal status of citizenship 39 Ethnic minorities ■ Pros and cons of a multicultural society Pros Ethnic diversity enriches a society → introduces a wide variety of food, music, and fashion Ethnic food becomes part of their national culture → Chicken Tikka Masala, Curry 14% (8 million people) of the UK population are from ethnic minorities biggest ethnic minorities: Indian, Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Chinese can be traced back to the time of colonialism and mainly come from Commonwealth nations over the next few decades, the proportion will increase → since they now account for 80% of population growth ➤ white population remains constant Ethnic Minority communities predominantly live in 3 main cities: London, Manchester, Birmingham ► they are 7 times more likely to live in an urban area than someone who is white ➤ predictions say: over time, ethnic minorities will move out of rundown inner-city areas into the sub- urbs and surrounding towns Interacting with people from a variety of backgrounds makes people more open-minded and tolerant ethnicities are increasingly mixing: 1 in 8 multi-person households contain people from more than one eth- nic group for businesses, foreign workers bring a new perspective into the workplace → can lead to greater creativity and productivity through different approaches found in different cultures multiculturalism can lead to a more peaceful society → people are more accepting of differences, unlike isola- tionist countries that are unused to foreigners and there- fore more suspicious and intolerant ■ Negative attitude towards immigrants I ■ Where does this negative attitude come from? Cons A country's national identity and traditions will be lost if they become too diluted with those of other cultures when cultures are quite different, they cannot integrate, only exist side by side many migrants do not want to integrate into British society → they create division people from different cultures do not always share the same values as the rest of the society → can lead to conflict and racial tension (religion/ tradi- tions/ gender concepts) People fear new cultures (they don't want any changes) Scared of "terrorists" They fear immigrants may steal their jobs Racism Attack in Brussels (12th January 2016) ➤ Terrorists were members of Islamic state Over 35 people died people who do not identify with their host country can be- come isolated → they live within their communities and are not inte- grated in society Terrorist attack in France (13th November 2015) ➤ Terrorists were migrants from the Islamic state ➤ They killed over 138 people Terrorist attack in the USA (11th September 2001) ➤ Terrorist was an Islamism person from Saudi-Arabia 3 airplanes flew into the Twin Towers of NY World Trade center 40 Prejudice = preconceived opinion that is not based on factual knowledge or actual experience One-track-mind = term that describes a person whose thoughts are preoccupied with one subject or interest Typical prejudices Black people - Criminal and dangerous - Having Ebola - Dirty - Always happy and singing - Poor/ living in slums Integration White people - Brutal - Cold-hearted - Always using weapons - Egoistic Always in time or over time - Stingy (geizig) / unfriendly Prejudice and the one-track mind I Asian people - Always in groups - Always taking photos - Do not tolerate al- cohol (vertragen) Eating cats and dogs - Stealing ideas/ technologies - Pollute the envi- ronment (industrial nation) Integration - Pros and cons Pro Integration versus assimilation two-way process → mutual compromise Integration = the action or process of successfully joining or mixing with a different group of people Assimilation = adopting the ways of another culture and becoming part of a different society Jews - Shifty (hinterlis- tig) - Rich - Wearing Kip- pas - Are circum- cised Christians - Not able to laugh - Strict always following the rules ethnic variability preservation of cultural diversity (art, food, tech- nology) preservation of one's own identity social justice for immigrants help for immigrants improvement of the labor market (more workers) - Burgeois - Boring - Perfectionist requires mutual respect from all parties influences from both cultures → both must change a bit ► accepting the minority culture into the majority culture requires acceptance of the laws and ways of the host country ➤ minority does not have to give up on their laws and ways → pre-condition: host country is willing to accept foreign culture as equal → process of making a salad where individual ingredients, with their different colors and sizes contribute to the beauty of the dish (salad bowl theory) 41 Muslims - Aggressive - Trying to convert all others - Oppress women (headscarves) - Spreading every- where - Stupid - Religious war Con possible overpopulation ■ if integration fails, crime increases formation of cultural ghettos cultural conflicts possible stereotyping ■ highlights differences → can cause hate Assimilation one way direction (minority) ➤ "they" will integrate into "our" society as if "our" ways are somehow "better" or superior → process of making a soup, where the ingredients lose their identity as they are melted together (melting-pot theory) I minority adapts culture of host country to become a full part of the society ► giving up or modifying the minority culture to become acceptable to the majority culture minorities sometimes critical about assimilation Assimilation - Pros and cons Pro possibility to have a new start in life no conflicts (based on religious differences, etc.) help for immigrants as homogenous mass stronger against outward in- fluences equality I Integration, not assimilation Immigrants are expected to have shared identities Assimilation Muslims in Great Britain Con just an illusion costs (language courses, school, etc.) . less jobs loss of values, traditions, cultures people are expected to give up their own identities (possible?) → can increase hate against the gov- ernment or people ■ but they are expected to learn the language and practical knowledge about the UK and the British way of life atmosphere of mutual tolerance tolerance is limited by basic laws and more principals western "Sharia Law": men have overwhelming power; women have a permanent status of inferior- ity (-> unacceptable) 42 since 9/11, spotlight on British Muslims more critical ■ growing number of Britain's believe that British Muslims need to integrate themselves more in mainstream culture most Muslims feel to be seen separated and different from the rest of the population; complain about high level of Islamophobia the majority of moderate Muslims sees themselves as British Muslims (not only Muslims) younger generation of British Muslims are less willing to integrate minority even thinks their community is too integrated > turn to religion to give their life meaning ► do not feel like they belong to either the British, or the Muslim British culture they are living parallel lives in a separate community they reject Western culture and values as inferior and idealize Islamic culture, "Sharia Law" and "Ji- had" Author ▪ Q2: Hanif Kureishi, My Son the Fanatic (1994) Hanif Kureishi was born in 1954 in London he is the son of a Pakistani and an English woman during his youth in Southeast London he experienced racist attacks by White youths against Pakistanis (so-called "Paki-bashing"), a common phenomenon in the 1960s after studying philosophy at King's College in London he began writing scripts and TV screenplays his breakthrough came in 1985 with his screenplay "My Beautiful Laundrette" on the relationship of a homosexual Pakistani and a White punk other works of Hanif Kureishi include his semi-biographical novel "The Buddha of Suburbia (1990)", the novels "The Black Album (1995)" and "Intimacy (1998)" as well as the non-fiction work "My Ear at His Heart (2004)" and several short stories The short story "My Son the Fanatic" was first published in the magazine The New Yorker in 1994 Summary Parvez, an immigrant from Lahore, Pakistan, has been working as a taxi driver in London for twenty years. He prefers working at night because then he can earn more money which he needs to pay for the expensive education of his son Ali, who is studying accounting. One day Parvez notices significant changes in Ali's behavior: He is clearing his room of all electronic gadgets and fashionable clothes. What worries Parvez even more is the fact that Ali also breaks up with his English girlfriend. Parvez is afraid that Ali might be taking drugs and confides in Bettina, a prostitute, who he has known for three years. She advises him to watch out carefully for any changes in Ali's appearance, but the drug theory cannot be proved. Parvez' confusion and worries increase when he discovers that Ali is praying five times a day and has given up sports. To find out what is happening Parvez decides to have a talk with his son in a restaurant. Ali only reluctantly agrees to the meeting. But the get-together becomes the worst experience of Parvez' life: Instead of finding out why Ali has changed so dramatically, Parvez is confronted with harsh accusations by his son. Ali criticizes his father for having adopted the decadent Western lifestyle - in Ali's opinion the lifestyle of the oppressors. Parvez tries hard to suppress his anger in view of the insolence and ingratitude of his son, for whom he has been working hard all his life. To make things worse for Parvez, Ali starts preaching about the law of Islam, the necessity of jihad (= the struggle of religious Muslims against the infidels or holy war) and the merciless punishment of anybody who does not live a life in accord- ance with the Koran. Parvez is at a loss and wants Ali to give a reason for his drastic change: Ali blames living in England. He wants to give up his studies to work in prisons supporting incarcerated Muslims. After this experience, Parvez fears that he will be constantly criticized by his fundamentalist son. He thinks about making Ali leave the house, but Bettina encourages him to stick to Ali, as he might just be going through a phase. During the following two weeks Parvez' attempts to persuade his son to accept his philosophy of life are met with contempt. A few evenings later Parvez, who is accompanied by Bettina, offers Ali a lift in his taxi when he sees his son coming out of a mosque. As they are driving along, Bettina tries to mediate between father and son by starting a friendly conver- sation with Ali. But when Ali insults her, she jumps out of the car and runs away. Parvez just about manages to suppress his fury. When they get home, however, he cannot hold his anger back any longer: He enters Ali's room, drags the praying boy up by his shirt and hits him. Ali does not retaliate but asks Parvez calmly which of them is a fanatic. 43 Characters Parvez Ali I Bettina he grew up in Lahore (Pakistan) and immigrated to England where he has been working as a taxi driver for twenty years a typical first-generation immigrant, who works hard to succeed In contrast to his son Ali, Parvez does not feel an outsider as he has assimilated to the British lifestyle and adopted its values He likes English breakfast, pork pies and drinking whisky His main aim in life is to help his son get a good education and climb the social ladder Out of frustration, Parvez turns to violence when he realizes that Ali rejects everything he has worked for a good student and sportsman, who goes to college to study accountancy changes his life drastically under the influence of fundamentalist Muslim leaders goes to the mosque regularly and prays five times a day gets rid of everything that symbolizes the decadent Western lifestyle and materialism to him criticizes his father for adhering to Western principles and lectures him on immoral behavior a second-generation immigrant, has turned into a fanatic: He is ready for the jihad, thus prepared to fight the unbelievers, in his native country England and abroad a prostitute Parvez has known for three years While Parvez treats his wife in a rather harsh and unfriendly way, he turns to Bettina to talk about his problems She tries to help Parvez cope with the increasingly difficult relationship with his son To Ali, Bettina symbolizes the immorality of Western lifestyle, which is why he despises her openly Themes and Interpretation Father-son conflict central theme of Hanif Kureishi's short story is the conflict between Parvez and his son Ali the confrontation differs from traditional father-son conflicts in which the father plays the dominant role and criticizes the son's behaviour the traditional roles are reversed: Ali gradually develops contempt and hostility against his father because he hates Parvez' adherence to Western lifestyle Parvez' aim in life is to integrate into the society of his new homeland, whereas Ali is no longer interested in following the path his father has laid out for him. Climbing socially and achieving success has become irrelevant to him. Ali has begun to deliberately reject the opportunities life offers in Britain since he believes in the teachings of fundamentalist Muslims. Fundamentalism Hanif Kureishi was among the first who observed the emergence of young radical Muslims in Britain's Asian community following the publication of Salman Rushdie's allegedly blasphemous book "The Satanic Verses" in 1988 The worldwide protests of the followers of Islam tually led to a fatwa imposed by Iran's spiritual and political leader Ayatollah Khomeini ➤ The fatwa means that it was a devout Muslim's duty to kill the infidel author on sight In Kureishi's story, Ali is the representative of this new generation of young Muslims Many children of first-generation immigrants, born and bred in Britain, lacked the cultural heritage of their parents, and felt they were not really wanted in the country their parents had brought them to. 44 ■ In contrast to their parents, they were no longer willing to adapt and put up with humiliation and discrimination. To Ali and many young Muslims of his generation, the uncompromising adherence to the Koran is a way of establishing an identity. Influenced and led by extremely conservative Muslim leaders, they repudiate capi- talist ideals as well as the striving for material success and condemn Western immoral and decadent behav- ior. they distance themselves from the rest of society. Kureishi wrote his story as early as 1994, and a couple of years later Britain and the world experienced the eruption of Islamic extremism into violence ➤ The most horrific of these attacks against Western capitalism carried out in the name of religion oc- curred on September 11, 2001 (referred to as 9/11) with the destruction of the World Trade Centre in New York which caused the death of 3,000 people. ► London became a target on July 7, 2005, when fundamentalist young men with an Islamic background carried out suicide bombings in London's Underground, killing 52 people and mutilating dozens. In videotaped statements they explained their religious motivation, saying their action was a protest against military intervention of the West in Afghanistan. The actions of "homegrown terrorists" shocked people in England and led to second thoughts about the blessings of a multicultural society Extremists like the "7/T" bombers represent only a tiny fraction of Britain's Muslim community, but in his story Kureishi issued a warning of the consequences of failed integration in an increasingly ethnically and racially diverse society. 45 Author ■ ■ Q2: George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant (1936) George Orwell, whose real name was Eric Blair, was born on 25 June 1903 in Motihari, Bengal, a province of India under British rule, where his father worked in the Indian Civil Service In 1904, his mother returned to England with Eric and his older sister In 1922 Orwell went to Burma to serve for five years as a policeman, which he processed in his first novel, "Burmese Days" Disgusted by his first-hand experience of imperialism, Orwell left the service and lived in Paris and London, where he started to write and publish his writings After living in England for another seven years, he went to Spain as a war correspondent in 1936 to support the antifascist "Popular Front' government in the Civil War Disillusioned by the behavior of Communist groups, he returned to England. Because of his continued failing health, he struggled to earn a living as a journalist and author. In 1950, George Orwell died in London of tuberculosis His works include "Down and Out in Paris and London (1933)", "The Road to Wigan Pier (1937)" and his mas- terpieces "Animal Farm (1945)" and "Nineteen Eighty-four (1949)". Contents The main character and first-person narrator of the story is a young British officer serving in the Indian Imperial Police in a Burmese village. One day, the locals inform him that a tame elephant has gone "must' (the "must' is a period during which male adolescent elephants are more sexually active but also more aggressive, similar to female animals in "heat"). The beast has gone mad and is now at large, ravaging the bazaar. The Burmese ask for the police officer's help because the keeper of the elephant is twelve hours away, having taken the wrong direction in his search for the animal. As the villagers have no weapons to defend themselves against the animal, the officer's protection is needed. Unsure how to act, the policeman eventually takes his old Winchester rifle and rides on his pony to the area - a poor quarter - where the elephant has last been seen. He finds a dead man lying in the mud who, the locals tell him, was killed by the elephant. The young officer now realizes the danger of the situation, sends his pony back and gives the order to be brought a proper elephant rifle. When the news comes that the elephant has been spotted in the paddy fields nearby, the young officer sets out, armed with the new weapon. More and more locals follow him with rising excitement, expecting a spectacular shoot- ing of the elephant, and hoping to secure themselves a piece of the animal's meat. The narrator feels increasingly un- comfortable as he has no intention of killing the animal. He only took the rifle with him to defend himself. Arriving at the field, he sees the elephant grazing peacefully which makes him think that the "must' attack has passed. With its "grandmotherly" appearance, the creature is no longer a danger so there is no need to shoot it. However, at the same time he feels the pressure from the huge crowd, which now comprises more than two thousand people, who expect him to do just that. He feels trapped, realizing that he has to play the role of the White man, the "sahib", in order to not be laughed at by the Burmese. For the sake of appearances, and not out of free will, the young officer pulls the trigger and shoots at the animal. As he is not an experienced big-game hunter he aims at the wrong spot, and, instead of killing the animal instantly, merely wounds it severely. He shoots several times, using up all five car- tridges that he has brought with him. As the elephant is still not dead, the narrator sends back for his small rifle. He fires shot after shot at close range into the elephant's heart and down his throat. Unable to watch the terrible death 46 throes of the tortured creature the young officer escapes from the scene. He later learns that the elephant suffered great pain for half an hour until it eventually died. Villagers brought baskets to collect the meat. After the incident, the furious protests of the Burmese owner of the elephant against the shooting of his animal are brushed aside by the authorities. Opinions among Europeans are divided. Older men say the officer acted correctly because the beast had killed a man. On the other hand, the younger British people argue that the elephant should not have been shot since it was worth more than any "Coringhee coolie" (racist and outdated term for a low-wage laborer, typically of Asian descent). Characters First-person narrator The main character of the essay (sometimes classed as a story or short story) is a young British police officer who serves in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma (today Myanmar). The higher ranks of this organisation were always occupied by Europeans, the lower posts by locals. The young man is still rather inexperienced and only holds this responsible position because he is a White European. ■ ■ His relationship to the Burmese villagers is ambivalent and rather strained. He hates them for being hostile and for harassing Europeans whenever safely possible, but he also feels pity for them because of the brutal oppression they have to suffer as a colony of the British Empire which he represents. In his job he is aware of his deficiencies ("I was ill-educated") and when the villagers demand help to deal with a mad elephant he is rather unprepared. Because of his professional inadequacy and insecurity, he is never in control of the events which begin to evolve. The rising pressure from the locals puts him in a moral dilemma. He shoots the elephant for the sake of ap- pearances and against what he believes to be right. The crowd of locals The crowd of Burmese villagers who follow the narrator on his search for the elephant play an important role in the story. They keep a close watch on the young officer's movements and act as a catalyst, changing his initially peaceful intention to spare the animal into needless and brutal aggression. Lusting after sensation and greedy for the elephant's meat, they force the policeman to act against his con- science. Themes and interpretation The evils of colonialism In "Shooting an Elephant" (1936), George Orwell drew on his personal experience while serving in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. The country had become part of the British Empire in 1886 and administrated as a British colony. Orwell uses the essay to express and illustrate his anti-imperialist opinion in general and his condemnation of the British Empire in particular. From the start, the narrator makes it clear "hat imperialism was an evil thing" Although he even defends the Empire at one point in the essay, comparing it favorably to its possible successors ("it is a great deal better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it*), he de- plores the cruel treatment of the colonized. At the same time, the narrator despises the Burmese for the hostile behavior they show towards the British As the representative of the colonial power, he becomes the target of their contempt and malicious enjoyment. He is forced to play a role which he would naturally refuse. 47 ■ This awkward and hostile relationship generated a typical kind of behavior among British officials in the colo- nies. They generally had no personal contact with the Burmese population, but kept themselves to themselves, preserving their English way of life and developing a special expatriate lifestyle. Seeing themselves as the undisputed lords of the world, many of the British looked down on Native popula- tions and demonstrated outspokenly racist tendencies - as can be seen from the reactions of the Europeans to the shooting of the elephant, particularly the reaction of the younger men. ➤ It was important to the British "to play the White man" and always to keep a safe distance from the 'uncivilized' locals In the story, the oppressed Burmese people compel the young policeman to shoot the elephant against his own inner convictions He acts like a puppet to satisfy the hostile crowd's lust for sensation. According to the story, therefore, the Empire - and imperialism in general - degrades and corrupts both the governors and the governed. Symbolic meaning The police officer I While Eric Blair was stationed with the Indian Imperial Police in 1922, we should not read "Shooting an Ele- phant" simply as an autobiographical story. It is more likely to be read as a genre that blurs the line between fiction and autobiography In the story, Orwell processes his own experiences as a policeman in Burma and describes his contempt for the colonial system. Yet, his biographers do not believe that Eric Blair himself actually killed an elephant during his time in Burma. The narrator rejects the British Empire despite being a part of it. He condemns "the dirty work of Empire" he sees up close but is too "young and ill-educated' to put it into context, feeling "an intolerable sense of guilt". The story is told from a retrospective point of view, when the narrator has found out that "the British Empire is dying [and] that it is a great deal better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it". When Eric Blair was stationed in Burma, a nationalist movement partly led by Buddhist monks had been chal- lenging imperial rule for years. In the time between 1922 and 1936, when the story was published, further attempts at rebellion had weak- ened British rule and could only be suppressed with large troops and promises of further political reform. It is possible to see the characters in the story and the elephant as symbols hinting at more general ideas and concepts. The policeman is a symbol of the moral decline and the loss of free decision-making on the part of the British rulers. He does not want to shoot the elephant, but he fears that the large crowd of Burmese people who follow him will think him weak and ridiculous if he does not. He does not shoot the elephant to protect the people as he no longer considers it a threat. He shoots it because "it is the condition of his rule that he shall spend his life in trying to impress the 'natives"" and this makes him "grasp] the hollowness, the futility of the White man's dominion in the East' The shooting of the elephant The narrator does not shoot the elephant because it is the right or logical thing to do, but because the crowd expects him to. To uphold his appearance of superiority as a White man he tries to avoid being ridiculed at all costs. He tries to demonstrate his power and the power of the Empire by ooting the animal, but he fails, even after he has used all his ammunition, the elephant does not die immediately. As he can no longer stand the "tortured gasps" of the wounded animal, he leaves long before the elephant is dead and stripped to the bone by the surrounding crowd. ■ The narrator has to understand "that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys". 48 Author Q2: Zadie Smith, The Embassy of Cambodia (2013) Zadie Smith was born in October 1975 in North London daughter of a Black Jamaican mother and a White English father Zadie Smith studied English literature at King's College, Cambridge Her debut novel "White Teeth" was published in 2000 and became an immediate bestseller Her other novels include "On Beauty (2005)", "NW" (2012, NW = postcode area in Northwest London), "Swing Time (2016)" and "Feel Free (2018)" The novella "The Embassy of Cambodia" first appeared in the magazine The New Yorker in 2013. Contents Zadie Smith's story (novella, prose text) comprises 21 short paragraphs or chapters. The story is set in London and begins in August 2012 at the time of the London Olympics, and recounts events in the life of the young African woman Fatou, who works in the household of the Derawals, a well-to-do Pakistani family. Zadie Smith switches back and forth between events related by an omniscient narrator, comments of a Willesden woman and reminiscences of the main character Fatou. The Embassy of Cambodia is a villa in the North London district of Willesden. It was built at some point in the thirties and is surrounded by a red brick wall. When the Embassy was first opened in Willesden, the locals associated the country of Cambodia with the genocide committed by the Khmer Rouge. On Mondays, when her employers, the De- rawal family, are out of the house, Fatou goes swimming in the pool at the health center next to the Embassy. She gets into the club for free using one of the Derawals' guest passes without the family knowing. Fatou taught herself to swim while she was working as a chambermaid at the Carib Beach Resort in Accra (Ghana). When she is walking past the Embassy, she often sees a shuttlecock passing back and forth between two unseen players behind the red brick wall. This always fascinates her. One day, Fatou reads a story about a Sudanese "slave" kept by a rich man in his house in London. Comparing her situation with that of the girl in the article, she doesn't think of herself as a slave because she was not beaten - only slapped twice by Mrs Derawal. On Sundays, she meets her church friend Andrew Okonkwo to worship at the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Afterwards, Andrew regularly invites Fatou to go to a Tunisian coffee shop. One day, after watching a mysterious woman leaving the Embassy, Fatou engages Andrew in a conversation about suffering and pain. They talk about the Holocaust. the killings in Rwanda and the corruption of the Nigerian government. Fatou sometimes thinks <<we [the Africans] were born to suffer more than all the rest'. When she returns home, Fatou saves Asma, the youngest of the Derawals, from choking. Mr Derawal tells Asma off and thanks Fatou briefly, but Mrs Derawal scolds her for not having prepared the dinner in time. The Derawals show no gratitude towards Fatou for saving their daughter's life, but instead they seem to feel guilty or awkward in front of her. During one of her visits to the swimming pool, Fatou's thoughts go back to the seedy Carib Beach Resort where she was raped by a Russian tourist. She also remembers seeing nine children drowned on the beach, a tragedy which people seem to quietly accept as fate, whereas one year later in Italy the accident of a boy on his bike made big headlines. In Rome, where she works cleaning toilets at a Catholic girls' school, she initially envies Bengali boys who earn their money performing as living statues until she realizes that she is better off. In the café, Fatou and Andrew talk about the policies of the "Big Men", as Andrew calls them, the strategies of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia and the rulers in Nigeria. They tell people what to think and what to do and crush them. Although Fatou is not attracted to Andrew, she thinks he is a good man and that his good qualities outweigh his bad ones. Fatou asks Andrew to go swimming with her. She manages to get Andrew and herself into the health centre for free and they enjoy the time together. That same evening Fatou loses her job. She does not understand why. Mrs 49 Derawal says they have no need for a nanny anymore, although Fatou never worked as a nanny in the house. Fatou asks for her passport, which the Derawals had confiscated when they employed her. Mrs Derawal is offended and pretends not to know where the passport is. Fatou phones Andrew, who offers to let her sleep in his room while he is at work (he works during the night) and to help her find a job as a cleaner in the offices where he works. Fatou goes swimming to pass the time until she is to meet Andrew. Outline 0-1: Description of the setting: embassy and neighboring buildings 0-2: Fatou passes the Embassy for the first time on her way to the swimming pool where she regularly swims 0-3: Woman on the balcony claims that inhabitants of Willesden associate Cambodia with genocide 0-4: Fatou watches people at the Embassy; information about her employers: the Derawal family 0-5: A basketball hoop appears in the garden of the Embassy 0-6: Woman on the balcony describes the diverse neighborhood of the Embassy 0-7: Fatou compares her own life with the story of a 'slave' girl in London 0-8: Fatou observes a mysterious Cambodian woman leaving the Embassy 0-9: Comment from the woman on the balcony: We cannot follow the history of every "Little" country 0-10: Fatou and her friend Andrew talk about the suffering and the pain in the world 0-11: After a conversation in a café Fatou and Andrew part in the rain 0-12: Fatou saves the youngest daughter of the Derawals from choking 0-13: The ideology of the Khmer Rouge 0-14: Fatou thinks back to her work at the seedy hotel in Accra where she was raped by a Russian tourist 0-15: First meeting with Andrew; Fatou remembers the tragedy of drowned children 0-16: Fatou recalls her time in Rome, envy of Bengali boys; Fatou becomes a Catholic 0-17: Mrs Derawal brusque and ungrateful towards Fatou 0-18: Conversation with Andrew about politics; Fatou invites Andrew to go swimming with her 0-19: Fatou and Andrew meet at the health care centre 0-20: Andrew and Fatou in the pool together 0-21: Fatou is fired by the Derawals; cannot understand why; she phones Andrew for help Fatou's migration route - from Africa to London Ivory Coast → Ghana (Accra) → Libya → Italy (Rome) → UK (London) Characters Fatou Fatou is a refugee - not an undocumented immigrant, as she holds a passport from the Ivory Coast (West Africa) working as a live-in nanny for a Pakistani middle-class family, the Derawals, in Willesden (North London) Although she is exploited, Fatou does not get paid, her wages are retained by the Derawals to be used for her upkeep in the house - and treated with disrespect, she does not feel like a slave In Africa, she is raped by a Russian tourist. Fatou does not despair or rebel. She puts up with humiliation, discrimination (excluded from swim- ming pool in Accra hotel, disrespectful treatment in the Derawal household) and loneliness. To survive she accepts menial jobs (chambermaid, toilet cleaner) for which she is overqualified. she speaks and reads English, speaks a little Italian and knows a little about world history and politics, which she can discuss with her friend Andrew Andrew is the one who persuades her to get baptised. At the end of the story, despite her disappointment about the ingratitude of the Derawal family and her dis- missal, Fatou braces herself for whatever difficulties life might have in store for her. 50 Andrew Okonkwo I I Fatou's church friend three years older than Fatou comes from Nigeria He is a devoted Christian and an educated person studying for a part-time business degree at the College of Northwest London To support himself, he works as a night guard in the city He knows more about the world (Hiroshima) and politics than Fatou, who is very impressed by his superior knowledge Andrew cares for Fatou and he is generous and full of sympathy for the young woman He listens patiently to her complaints and tries to console her so that she does not despair The relationship between Fatou and Andrew ■ Andrew and Fatou have known each other for one year Andrew started their acquaintance by addressing Fatou, who was sitting on a bench in Kilburn Park, advising her not to lose heart. Since then, they have met regularly on Sundays for church and tea afterwards in a café Andrew is a man Fatou can trust and to whom she can unburden her worries Sometimes she even flirts with Andrew but cannot imagine him as a husband Fatou thinks Andrew is a dreamer Andrew, on the other hand, does not notice when Fatou flirts with him. Andrew feels uneasy about showing himself with his bulging stomach in his swimming trunks. When they talk politics in the café, he likes to embark on a lecture. The Derawal family The Derawals, Fatou's employers, are a middle-class Pakistani family who reside in a house in the London suburb of Willesden and own two corner shops (in Eltham and Kensal Rise) They treat Fatou like a slave Mr. Deraval is oblivious to her and more or less ignores her Mrs. Deraval is strict and sharp, and slapped Fatou twice The children - Julie, the eldest child, whom Fatou likes the least, Faizul, and Asma, the youngest - are very rude to Fatou Instead of appreciating Fatou's timely intervention to save Asma's life, the Derawals dismiss her - perhaps Mrs. Derawal is jealous of Fatou Woman on the balcony Every now and then a Willesden resident comments on the events in first-person plural - "we, the people of Willesden" She is a woman standing in her dressing gown on the balcony of a house overlooking the Embassy of Cambodia She acts like a speaker of the Willesden community, expressing the attitude of the native population towards newcomers and world events generally There is so much trouble and misery, but people do not want to be involved or held responsible. They prefer to concentrate on their own lives. 51 Themes and interpretation Pain, evil and lack of solidarity Fatou's and Andrew's conversations revolve around pain, suffering, solidarity, and the evil in the world The young woman's personal experiences - discrimination, rape, flight, hard menial work, exploitation, and maltreatment - are proof of the vulnerability of the powerless poor and underprivileged people in the world today Fatou is helpless in the face of the evil and turns to Christianity in order to protect herself. ➤ After her baptism she feels happy for a short time, but she soon realizes that happiness is hard to hold on to ■ ■ She recognizes the evil in the Russian tourist and in Mrs. Derawal - but cannot defend herself against the "stupid" Devil as she calls it. Thinking about the Devil makes her angry. ➤ Andrew advises Fatou not to give in to this feeling: "Don't give the Devil your anger, it is his food'. People's indifference to personal tragedy and suffering and the lack of solidarity add to Fatou's frustration. The fact that everybody only cares about themselves seems to her to be a global trend. The Willesden woman expresses this self-centered attitude, and Andrew tells Fatou that Africans do just the same, "We cry for Africa, because we are Africans" Slavery and exploitation Another important theme in Zadie Smith's story is the economic and sexual exploitation of people Refugees, immigrants, and asylum-seekers are often compelled to do work that is very demeaning, much like that of slaves Fatou and her father, who lost his job when the Chinese took over the mine in his village, have to emigrate to Ghana, where they find employment as a servant and chambermaid respectively At the resort ("not a holy place"), local staff are forced to supplement their low wages by having paid sex with guests Human traffickers who organize the transport of Africans to Europe take advantage of the desperate situation of Fatou and her father, demanding high sums of money for their passage. In Italy and England, Fatou is again exposed to exploitation in her jobs. The pinnacle of her unfair, merciless treatment is her dismissal by Mrs. Derawal The ruthless action, this disrespect towards an individual, proves that the motto of the Cambodian Khmer Rouge "To keep you is no benefit, to destroy you is no loss" still applies today. Racial conflict and racism Zadie Smith's story is set in the London suburb of Willesden, a multiracial community with a large immigrant population. The continuing influx of newcomers, mainly from the former colonies of the British Empire, has transformed the United Kingdom into a country of unparalleled diversity ➤ As a result of this demographic change, tensions have increased - not only between the local popula- tion and immigrants, but also between ethnic groups > Fatou's treatment in the Derawal household illustrates the hate relationship between Pakistanis and Africans in the United Kingdom. The Derawals are immigrants themselves and have succeeded in society as house and shop owners. Because of their achievements, they feel superior to the Black immigrant Fatou and treat her like a second-class citizen. They withhold her assport, pay minimal wages, make her work hard and insult her The final demonstration of their power is the unjustified dismissal of the African woman Zadie Smith shows that racism and discrimination continue to be part of daily life for powerless people in Britain 52 I The game of badminton which is played behind the high walls of the Embassy of Cambodia may symbolize the continuous up and down, the persistent pattern of achievement (acceptance, employment, peaceful life) and defeat (displacement, insecurity, fear) in Fatou's life She is a victim who is dependent on the kindness of strangers. The events narrated in "The Embassy of Cambodia" take place around the time of the London Summer Olympic Games of 2012, when numerous race-related incidents erupted in London and around the country The organizers had chosen the borough of Newham, one of London's poorest and most diverse districts, to host the Games The predominantly Black minority in Newham were promised economic regeneration of the impoverished area. ➤ it was clear from the start that in the end only developers and rich investors would profit The poor people who lived in Newham were "the least well-equipped to effectively resist exploitation, through their exclusion and marginalization from political power and decision making", one commen- tator wrote. 53 Q2.3 The English-speaking world country of reference: Ireland - past and present (insbesondere: emigration, partition of Ireland, Celtic Tiger) Historical and political developments Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic Politics ■ Ireland is often referred to as the "Emerald Isle" because of its beautiful green countryside second largest island of the British Isles separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and St Georges Channel the island of Ireland is divided into four large provinces (former kingdoms): Leinster, Munster, Connacht, and Ulster The first three provinces occupy about five sixths of the island and make up the Irish Republic its capital Dublin. ➤ The northern province Ulster, known as Northern Ireland, takes up the remaining one sixth and is part of the United Kingdom. Its capital is Belfast. The patron saint of all Ireland is St Patrick. Patrick ("Paddy") is also a popular Irish first name > St Patrick's day is March 17 when Irishmen wear the shamrock (=Kleeblatt) The Irish symbol of the shamrock was adopted because St Patrick used this plant as an illustration of the Trinity (= Dreieinigkeit) - three leaves forming one leaf. Almost 2 million people live in Northern Ireland around 45% Catholics and 48% Protestants (2020) almost 5 million reside in the Republic 78% Catholics, 3% Protestant (2020) Ireland Provinces first official language: Irish second official language: English (REPUBLIC OF) IRELAND Connacht NORTHERN IRELAND (UK) BELFAST Munster DUBLIN The Irish Republic has a president as official head of state & a prime minister as head of the government The legislative is vested in the Irish Parliament (consists of the President of Ireland & two Houses) ➤ The Lower House (House of Representatives); 166 members ► the Upper House (the Senate); serves mainly as an advisory body; 60 members. The prime minister is usually the leader of the party with a majority in the House of Representatives main political parties: Fine Gael (centre-right), Fianna Fáil (Republican Party), Labour Party, Sinn Féin (Irish republican party), Green Party and the Social Democrats Ulster late 8th century: Ireland was divided into five kingdoms inhabited by Celtic and pre-Celtic tribe 54 Leinster Invasions of Ireland Most of the Irish people are descended from peoples who invaded Ireland and settled there during more than 7,000 years These peoples included Celts, Vikings, Danes, Normans, and the British Each group influenced Irish civilization and helped shape the character of the Irish people 600 BC: the Celts arrived from central Europe in Britain and Ireland, spreading their culture across the entire island ■ ■ ■ The next invaders were the Norsemen, Danes and Vikings, two groups from modern-day Denmark and Nor- way The Vikings began to raid various places in Ireland and Britain. They attacked and ransacked monasteries along the coast. . among them the great monastery at Lindisfarne in Northumberland, which was founded by an Irish monk in the 7th century to bring Christianity 793: The Norsemen landed, burnt the settlement and killed many monks After fifty years of sporadic plundering the Vikings eventually picked a convenient place for their raids on the Irish Sea at the mouth of the River Liffey Their naval base of wooden houses later developed into the city of Dublin 849 AD: The Danish Vikings came to Ireland and fought the Norse Vikings 1014: Brian Boru defeated the Danes at Clontarf ➤ for the next 150 years Ireland was free from invasion but subject to clan warfare 1169: the Anglo-Normans invaded the country and made Dublin the centre of their conquest 1172: Henry II of England held court in Dublin, established English control, and became Lord of Ireland Henry VII (1457-1509) was the first monarch to send English settlers to the island to secure control of the conquered territory ➤ This measure became known as Plantations of Ireland and was intensified by King Henry VIII (1491- 1547), his daughter Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) and James I (1566-1625) It was applied on a larger scale in the provinces of Munster and Ulster after a rebellion of Irish tribal chiefs Over half a million acres of the northern county were taken from the Irish earls and given to English and Scot- tish settlers The Irish, in their majority Catholics, saw these Protestant newcomers as invaders and occupiers This colonization marks the beginning of the Ulster conflict - three hundred years of bloody and bitter hostility between the Irish and the British Struggle for independence Oliver Cromwell thwarted the Irish rebellion of 1641 against the English administration in Ireland During the Glorious Revolution (1688/89), Irish Catholics supported James II, while Ulster Protestants backed William of Orange, who became William III After James' defeat at the "Battle of the Boyne", the English-controlled Irish Parliament passed a series of laws against Catholics The period of independent legislation ended with the Act of Union in 1800, passed by the government of William Pitt abolished the Irish Assembly created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1829: the Roman Catholic Relief Act was passed secured Irish representation in the British Parliament in Westminster ► self-government (Home Rule) within the British Empire intensified 1905: As Ulster Protestants (Unionists) opposed the Irish Home Rule movement, a new political party, Sinn Féin (Irish for "purselves" or "we ourselves") policy involved: passive resistance to the British, withholding of taxes, establishing an Irish ruling coun- cil 1914: Home Rule was agreed, but with the "temporary" exclusion of the six counties of Ulster that would become Northern Ireland ➤ implementation of Home Rule was suspended during World War I 1916: In the Easter Rising Irish nationalists announced the creation of the Republic of Ireland 55 After five days of fighting, British troops put down the rebellion, and 15 of its leaders were tried and executed Though the uprising itself had been unpopular with most of the Irish, the executions caused revulsion against the British authorities landslide victory for Sinn Féin in the Irish elections of 1918 In this way, the Easter Rising heralded the end of British power in Ireland 1919-1921: the Irish Republican Army (IRA), founded by Michael Collins, fought a guerrilla war against British forces 1920: a new Home Rule Bill established separate parliaments for Ulster and Catholic Ireland 1921: an agreement, the Anglo-Irish Treaty, was signed by the British government and the provisional Irish Republican government Ireland was divided into two parts: the Irish Free State in the south, which became a dominion within the Commonwealth, and the province of Ulster in the north, which remained part of the United King- dom ■ Diverging opinions among the IRA about the treaty led to the Irish Civil War (1922/23) between a faction led by Michael Collins which supported the treaty and a group under Eamon de Valera opposing it After heavy fighting pro-treaty government forces gained the upper hand ► May 1923: the war ended (no surrender was called and no formal end to the war was ever negotiated) The Civil War exposed the rifts among Irish nationalists and left bitter memories, which have influenced Irish party politics until today 1937: under the presidency of de Valera, the Irish Free State established a new constitution which created the sovereign state of "Eire" still kept some ties to Britain 1949: the country left the Commonwealth and became fully independent as the Republic of Ireland Since 1973: Ireland has been a member of the European Union Social and economic developments reasons for the island's geographical marginalisation: ▸ Ireland's outlying position in the far north-western corner of Europe ► separation from Great Britain by the Irish Sea St George's Channel Long under English or British rule, nearly all Irish people made their living from farming, and many who could not find employment were forced to leave their homes to make a new start in England, the USA or other parts of the world Following the Great Famine of the 1840s Ireland lost half its population and fell further into neglect 1920s: turning point - Ireland gained independence 1970s: joining of the European Community the exodus of Irish people come to a halt ➤ migrants from other European and 'non-European countries arrived in great numbers, transforming the island's demographic and cultural landscape ➤ Ireland, which for centuries had been an exporter of labor, now became a receiver and was thus no longer regarded as the "poor man on the outskirts of Europe" 56 Economy and waves of emigration The waves of emigration and immigration are a reflection of the country's economic struggles People in Ireland were never rich, least of all the small farmers who grew just about enough to feed their families beginning of the 19th century: Ireland's rural population began to grow rapidly as a result of the Industrial Revolution ■ ■ living standards and health care improved mechanisation generated jobs and made goods cheaper ➤ People earned more and were younger when they could afford to marry and start a family Ireland's population increased from 3 million people in 1700 to 8.2 million in 1841 mid-1840s: a catastrophe brought about a dramatic demographic shift ➤ For several years running the entire potato crop failed due to a fungus with disastrous consequences One million Irish people died of starvation during the Great Famine over one million fled across the Atlantic late 1840s: prevailing ideologies among the British ruling classes prevented the government in London from helping the Irish in their desperate situation and supplying food ➤ The political élite and the middle classes were still deeply prejudiced against the Catholic Irish many also believed the famine was a divine judgment on the inefficient Irish agricultural system By the end of the decade, half of all immigration to the United States was from Ireland The descendants of Irish immigrants made their marks in politics in America (Kennedy, Nixon, Reagan) and Canada (Claude Ryan, Brian Mulroney) Many Irish emigrated to Britain where they found work on the railways or in the construction industry The exodus of Irish people continued because the social conditions in Ireland did not improve ➤ Working class people in Dublin' slums lived in dreadful poverty many died of hunger, fever, typhoid, whooping cough (=Keuchhusten), pneumonia (=Lungenentzündung) and consumption (-Schwindsucht) Millions turned their backs on their homeland to escape from a cold and pitiless world where unem- ployment, alcoholism, crime and violence thrived As a result of this mass emigration the Irish population fell to 4.5 million in 1900 continued to fall until the mid-20th century 1961: it reached its lowest point in modern history, 2.8 million people, less than half its pre-famine tally of 6 million turning point for Ireland's economy came under the guidance of the Secretary of the Department of Finance, T. K. Whitaker he replaced the Irish economic policy of protectionism with a liberal, wide-open economy ► took decades for Ireland to change from a closed and rural society to an urban, tourist-centred land ➤ eventually the country came out of its depression, economic growth accelerated and unemployment figures fell 1973: a great boost came when Ireland joined what was then the European Economic Community (EEC), later European Union (EU) Irish citizens stopped flooding out of the country reducing emigration to an all-time low a reverse trend began many people started coming home as there were now job opportunities for all from 1995 to 2000 a quarter of a million people immigrated to Ireland, only half of them were return- ing Irish ➤ population rose to 3.7 million, transforming Ireland into a "country of net immigration" for the first time, Ireland experienced a significant inflow of migrants - both workers and asylum seek- ers - from outside the European Union 57 ➤ The population has continued growing and reached almost 5 million in 2021 late 1990s: boom years ='Celtic Tiger' average growth rate of the Irish economy in those years was between 6 and 9.5 per cent due to foreign investors (e.g., tech firms such as Microsoft or Siemens) who set up production plants because of Ireland's favorable tax rates The rise in the Gross Domestic Product per head illustrates Ireland's enormous progress: In 1973 the GDP amounted to $ 2,351 and shot up to $ 25,680 in 1999 The boom ended with the bursting of the internet bubble in 2001 Internet sites which had risen and attracted bankers and shareholders, went out of business, causing substantial losses for many investors 2004: second boom for the Irish economy began ▸ the EU was enlarged, and Ireland (like Britain and Sweden) allowed residents from ten new EU mem- ber nations (among them the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland) to move in and work right away In hardly more than a year, 85,000 Eastern Europeans arrived to work, fueling a new "Celtic Tiger II" boom 2008: financial crisis hit the world economy and the tides turned again ► triggered an economic crisis in Ireland ➤ a recession set in and the problem which Ireland had thought to have got rid of returned November 2010: to deal with the country's enormous fiscal deficit and the instability of the banking sector the Irish government applied for help from the EU, the euro area Member States and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) ➤ Credits of 85 billion euros were granted to cover the costs of the most expensive banking crisis in an advanced economy since the 1970s Following the demands of the European money lenders the Irish government introduced an austerity pro- gramme, raising taxes and cutting benefits and services > Many young people were forced to leave the country to escape from rising living costs, unaffordable house prices and bleak job opportunities The COVID-19 pandemic greatly affected the labor market in Ireland with unemployment rising from about 5% in 2019 to almost 8% in 2021 Employment opportunities today are primarily in the production (pharmaceuticals, food, computer and elec- tronics) and service industries (education, health care, insurance, real estate, operation of restaurants and hotels) ► Agriculture, once Ireland's most important sector, plays a minor role, although Irish farmers benefited greatly from the country's membership of the European Union, which provided grants for the mod- ernization of farming Irish tourism has increased in importance in recent years because the main drivers of growth since 2002 - construction, financial services and the retail sector - have slowed dramatically > late 1980s: 2.7 million tourists visited the country annually 2019: almost 11 million tourists Despite the positive development, the Irish tourism industry is going through a difficult phase Ireland's tourism sector was badly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 Restrictions such as widespread lockdowns, quarantines and travel bans reduced the number of over- seas tourists from the United Kingdom, the USA, France and Germany drastically 2020: the revenue of the Irish tourism sector declined drastically ► approximately 150,000 jobs were lost 58 Society I Wealth has never been evenly distributed in Ireland and the disparity has often resulted in social conflict during the years of the economic boom ("Celtic Tiger") the gap between rich and poor in Ireland was consid- erably reduced Whereas income inequality has risen in most nations, Ireland is one of the few developed countries that has seen high income growth and a fall in inequality wealth in Ireland is still highly concentrated ➤ About 75 per cent of the wealth is held by the top 20%, which is higher than the euro area average of 68% (Ireland is a country with the world's fifth-highest concentration of ultra-wealthy residents) Inequality in Ireland has a long tradition In the days of the Plantations of Ireland in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English monarchs seized the most fertile stretches of land from the Irish and gave them to English and Scottish settlers ➤ The fact that the new masters from Britain were Protestants and the dispossessed Irish were Catholics added a religious dimension to the hostility between these two groups and became the root of a reli- gious and economic struggle that was to last for more than four centuries Ireland's northern province of Ulster in particular became the stage on which the sectarian conflict was fought. Conflict in Northern Ireland Constant revolts in all Ireland against the often brutal British rule ignited in the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin caused a chain of events that led to Ireland's independence from Britain in 1921 Since the Protestants in Ulster did not want to be part of a Catholic-dominated Ireland, the country was divided The 26 counties in the south formed a separate state, the free Republic of Ireland the six counties in the north maintained the union with Great Britain Tensions in Northern Ireland between the Protestant majority, referred to as "Unionists" or "Loyalists", and the Catholic minority, known as "Nationalists" or "Republicans" intensified both groups fight for different political aims they are bitterly opposed in everyday life, because the Catholics felt discriminated over housing and jobs, which fueled bitter resentment and led to violent protests 1969: to avoid a civil war, the British government decided to deploy troops in Northern Ireland and handle Northern Irish affairs from Westminster (Direct Rule) ► marks the beginning of a period of bombings and killings which came to be known as "The Troubles" The month of July was always a month of extreme violence, because the Protestant Unionists traditionally marched through predominantly Catholic areas in Belfast and Londonderry ➤ in commemoration of the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 Then the forces of King James II and the Irish Catholics were defeated by William of Orange and the Ulster Protestants Catholic protestors usually attempted to stop the marching Protestant Orangemen and as a precau- tion the police and army were called in to keep the opposing groups apart But the same sad scene repeated itself year after year: Masked men throwing stones, bottles, petrol and paint bombs, setting cars on fire and attacking police officers with cudgels Sunday, January 30, 1972: British soldiers shot into a crowd of unarmed civil-rights protesters in Derry in Northern Ireland, killing 13 people > "Bloody Sunday" is often referred to as an example of the absurdity and futility of war ➤ In 2010, the British government released a report calling the British Army's actions on Bloody Sunday "unjustified". 59 Over the years numerous attempts to overcome the conflicts were made by governments of Britain and Ire- land or independent mediators to come to a peaceful agreement between the Green (Catholics) and the Or- ange (Protestants) More than 3,500 people lost their lives as a result of political violence in Northern Ireland After many ups and downs, the two governments and the Northern Ireland political parties began peace talks April 10, 1998: signing of the Good Friday Agreement ➤ called for the transfer of power from London back to Belfast (the return of Home Rule) establishment of a Northern Ireland Assembly and Executive Committee in which unionist and nation- alist patties would share power hopes that the agreement would bring an end to 30 years of bitter civil and sectarian conflict were not fulfilled the IRA refused to hand in arms ("decommissioning") and committed repeated terrorist acts in protest against the agreement ► October 2002: the devolved government was suspended again - for almost five years 2007: Home Rule returned to Northern Ireland, elections were held and former enemies joined forces: the leader of the Democrat Unionist Party (DUP), lan Paisley, was elected First Minister (2007/08) his yearlong opponent of Sinn Féin, Martin McGuinness, took office as Deputy First Minister (2007- 2011) The success of the Northern Ireland peace process also made the first visit of a reigning British monarch to the Irish Republic possible ► May 2011: Queen Elizabeth paid a state visit, the first by a British monarch since independence Her grandfather King George V was the last to visit the country in 1911 when it was then part of the United Kingdom Brexit has destabilized the situation again 1603-1660: Plantation of Ulster 1690 1801: Act of Union 1916: Easter Rising 1921: Partition of Ireland 14/08/1969: Deployment of British troops 1972: Bloody Sunday 1985: Anglo-Irish Accord During the 1990s 1998: Good Friday Agreement Dec 1999 Feb 2000 Timeline Northern Ireland Conflict Scottish and English farmers, mainly Protestants, are sent to Ireland by James I. They settle in Ulster. Confessional division and discrimination of the Catholics Battle of Boyne "Home Rule" = limited self-government; autonomy under British sovereignty In Dublin Irish Republicans rebel; rebellion crushed by British Forces As a result of the Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921) Ireland is divided into Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Ulster) The British government sends troops to Ulster to avoid a civil war. The IRA heightens its campaign of terrorist acts. 13 Catholics are killed by British troops during a protest march. End of "Home Rule": The British government rules over Ulster from London. The Irish government in Dublin is given a consultative role as far as the interests of the Catholics in Northern Ireland as concerned. Repeated efforts to solve the problem in Northern Ireland in peace talks. Sinn Féin (Irish = wir selbst), the political wing of the IRA is included Agreement between Britain, Ireland and the conflicting parties in Northern Ireland; elections are held to form a new Northern Irish Assembly. Creation of Northern Ireland Assembly Row over weapons decommissioning results in a four-month suspension of the As- sembly 60 Sep 2001 2005 2007 2010 June/July 2011 2012 2016 1 January 2021 2021 Cultural developments ■ ■ After the terrorist attacks on America, the IRA promises to decommission its weap- ons; the Ulster Unionists return to the Assembly. Decommissioning completed: an independent commission confirms that the IRA has decommissioned its weapons. Home Rule restored British government apologizes for army's actions on Bloody Sunday. Riots in Belfast, spreading to other parts of Northern Ireland Queen Elizabeth II shakes hands with former IRA commander Martin McGuinness. Majority in Northern Ireland vote to remain in the EU (Remain: 55.8%, Leave 44.2&) UK's official departure from the EU Agreement between UK and EU: Northern Ireland, although part of the UK, remains in the single market and customs union; border in the Irish Sea to avert a hard bor- der on the island ■ Ireland's cultural roots lie in the traditions of the native Gaelic population and the diverse ethnic groups that settled in the country over centuries ➤ Celts, Vikings, Anglo-Normans (English and French) have left their marks and created a rich cultural heritage After the decline and collapse of the Roman Empire Ireland was the centre of Christian civilization in Northern Europe The Irish monasteries with those in Clonmacnoise and Clonard among the most famous - became notable centres of learning From the 6th century to the Middle Ages, Irish bishops, monks and missionaries (St Patrick, St Columba) played a prominent role ► spreading Christianity ➤ establishing monasteries in Great Britain (Lindisfarne in Northumberland) and continental Europe (Luxeuil Abbey in France and Bobbio Abbey in Italy) ➤ St Patrick's Day (17 March) and other Irish festivals such as Halloween (31 October) are observed and celebrated all over the world Ireland's contributions to the world of music and literature are recognized worldwide Irish authors have influenced modern writers in all countries Catholic religion - importance today The Roman Catholic Church has long played a major role in Irish social life still, the number of believers attending mass has been declining in both parts of the island in the Republic of Ireland, 78% of the population regard themselves as Catholic in Northern Ireland, 44% of the population regard themselves as Catholic the "Troubles" (1960-1998): a period of political conflict & religious strife Protestants and Catholics fought for different political aims and religious convictions as bitter enemies The Roman Catholic Church has always held strong opinions on ethical issues such as abortion and divorce ➤ Several referendums on these moral questions revealed the diminishing influence of the Catholic Church and the country's transformation from a bastion of religious conservatism to one of Europe's most tolerant democracies 1995: a slight majority (Yes: 50.2 % - No: 49.72 %) voted for the removal of the constitutional ban on divorce ► 2019: Divorce was further facilitated, when the requirement for parties to be living apart before a divorce was abolished 2015: an overwhelming majority voted to legalize same-sex marriages 61 Music 2018: an extraordinary victory for women's rights was won, when Ireland voted by a landslide to legalize abor- tion " ➤ The new law allows abortion on request up to 12 weeks of pregnancy and beyond 12 weeks under a few, very limited circumstances The results of these referendums can be seen in connection with the declining influence of the Catholic Church After partition and the foundation of an independent Irish state in 1921, well over 90 per cent of the popula- tion belonged to this faith the Church controlled most schools and hospitals Literature Several scandals have tarnished the reputation and shaken the foundations of the institution ➤ Investigations have revealed widespread abuse of children as well as illicit sexual relationships (homo- sexuality and priests breaking their celibacy vows) among the clergy ➤ It was disclosed that in the 1950s and 60s thousands of young women who had become pregnant outside marriage were taken away from their homes and families and sent to convents with baby homes or orphanages run by the Church They were forced to work as slaves in infamous "laundries" where they were treated more severely than if they had been in prison The Catholic Church regarded unwed mothers as moral degenerates who could not be allowed to keep their children Many babies died and disappeared Their young children were often sold to American families On his visit to Ireland in 2018, Pope Francis described the "repellent crimes" and the Church's inability to deal with them as "a source of pain and shame for the Catholic community" ➤ The earliest Irish literature was preserved orally by the Gaelic poets and was later written down by Irish monks When the English conquered Ireland, Gaelic literature became forgotten, and was only revived to- wards the end of the 19th century by William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), who wrote in English, but showed a deep love for Gaelic tradition and folklore Yeats was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1923. Irish artists have always found a way of combining tradition and modernity ► not only true for Irish bands and musicians like Bono of U2 or Enya, but also writers who took up topical issues such as violence and alcoholism or modern man's insecurity, his search for identity and his place in the world Irish traditional music and Irish folk songs are heard all over the world Tourists flock to the "singing pubs" in Ireland to enjoy an evening out, listening to Irish tunes performed by artists on instruments such as harp (one of the Irish national symbols), bagpipes, banjo, bodhran (a wooden percussion instrument with goat skin), guitar, Irish Bouzouki, tin Whistle and, of course, fiddle and accordion Most folk songs have been written in English and Irish and are less than two hundred years old Food and Drink One of the most frequently used ingredients is the potato, which came to Ireland in the second half of the 16th century and has heavily influenced Ireland's cuisine Representative Irish dishes are Irish mutton stew, bacon and cabbage, boxty (a type of bread made using grated raw potatoes and flour), coddle (consisting of layers of roughly sliced pork sausages and bacon with sliced potatoes and onions) and colcannon (cabbage and potatoes boiled and mashed together) 62 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Characteristics of a multicultural society ■ As to drinks, Irish coffee consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, sugar and topped with thick cream and Irish beer are known in all bars and restaurants of the world ■ Brewing in Ireland has a long history, and one of the traditional breweries is Guinness in Dublin The types of beer that Guinness make are called stout (very dark brown and bitter) and porter (a sweeter stout). ■ Living together: z. B. Sozialstruktur der Gesellschaft, multiculturalism multiculturalism describes a society that deals with cultural diversity, meaning that people from different cultures come together due to immigration and live together as one society the society is respecting and encouraging cultural diversity Multiculturalism can take place on a nationwide scale or within a nation's community it can happen through immigration or when different cultures get combined due to legislative decree like in the case of French and Canada Advocates of multiculturalism think that people should keep at least some features of their traditional cul- tures people who are against multiculturalism say that it threatens the identity of the predominant culture The UK is multicultural, and it has always been It's made up of four different nations: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland ► they are all different countries with different dialects, customs, music, and language Why multiculturalism/ diversity is important it helps to achieve cultural diversity this diversity occurs when people of different races, nationalities, religions, ethnicities, and philoso- phies come together to form a community it creates a society that values and respects cultural differences in it's people people learn tolerance it makes humanity stronger people of different nationalities living together in the same community in multicultural communities, people celebrate and respect their different way of life the characteristics of multiculturalism are often spread into the community's public schools, where curricula are crafted to introduce young people to the qualities and benefits of cultural diversity e.g.: the British royal family is very multicultural ➤ Many of the former Kings and Queens have come from European families 63 Definition Examples emotional extreme situations 1. Extreme anger: can make one blind and irrational; almost always has negative outcomes when it is taken on another person 2. Extreme happiness: being very happy about something, combined with an adrenaline rush over a period of time General examples · Special / unconventional situation Psychological and/or physically challenging Conflict between different emotions Very individual Violent or non-violent Othello natural disasters tsunamis ■ ➤ earthquakes diseases risk actions Q3.1 Human dilemmas in fiction and real life extreme situations: der Kampf ums Überleben ► skydiving Examples out of literature To Kill a Mockingbird war death racism flying to the moon Lord of the flies Being between education/moral understanding, drive (Triebe) and the will to survive Boys start to get brutal although they just want to be rescued Between wanting to be powerful and the shock of having killed a boy Being between law and conviction (Überzeugung) →Trial of Tom Robinson Scout: between wanting to be a "Scout" and the ideal Aunt Alexandra and the society wants her to be My son the fanatic Parvez: between his own belief and values of being western orientated, the love to his son and the will to understand him and the lack of understanding Alis new believes being contrasting to his own Othello: between love and jealousy Desdemona & Othello: between manipulation and betrayal 64 Examples of today's society Clash of cultures (racism) Arranged marriages Married girl/boy = between wish to please the will of her parents and the wish to be able to choose freely out of love Being between the solidary to own society and the conviction to be open and polite Between hate for the few criminals also coming as immigrants and the knowledge that most of the immigrants are good-hearted ■ Parents between pity for the married ones and the need to fit the traditions and to make sure to have enough money to live (getting from the marriage) Death ■ Between thankfulness for the death, one being without pain and the mourning (Trauer) for the lost person Fight for survival ■ Poorness, War, accidents, diseases (e.g., covid-19) Othello being physically different having a different skin color (Othello) having a specific outward appearance (being thicker (body shape), always wearing black, goth, etc.) having different eyes (Asian people) Examples Atticus Finch being different has a different skin color being psychological different having a different sexual orientation feeling as a different sex/gender having a different culture/ traditions having a different religion/ believe thinking different (own opinion) aversions against people (racism) has his own idea of how to raise his children gets really appreciated for it has a different moral mindset than Maycomb's community gets hate from the Whites but supported by the Blacks gets appreciated for his actions but seen with suspicion caused by his skin color 65 →named after Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) reigned 45 years Politics and economics Culture ▪ ■ Elizabethan England - an introduction to the Golden Age England emerged as a world power International trade rise of capitalism Strongest naval force (Marine) Internal problems Firm establishment of a Protestant Church with Elizabeth as head of the Church of England new explorations theater World view Constant clash between Catholics and Protestants → Reformation The Golden Age → term used for the Renaissance in Britain at the time of Elizabeth I Freedom of spirit → imagination Domestic study of the Bible widely read and heard music ► traveling musicians - churches, country houses, local festivals o for everybody - singing and dancing together story telling songs sun, not the earth is center of the solar system earth is round, not flat exploration of the New World ➤ popular and affordable for everyone non-polite atmosphere →loud conversations, expressions of disagreements with the play in forms of throwing food on the stage no women; neither on stage, nor during the production of the play Belief that everything and everyone was arranged in a certain order - a hierarchy the Great Chain of Being ➤ God was the head of all things the king, his representative on earth, was the head of state → The Divine Right of Kings As God's representative on Earth, the King was the supreme upholder of order on Earth Any violent act against the King was a mortal sin against God ► the Pope the head of the Church Place in the Universe Earth is the center of the Universe Being 66 Realm of BEING Realm of BECOMING Non-Being new discoveries proofed that the sun was the center of the solar system God Angels Demons Actuality Man Animals Plants Potentiality Minerals Elizabethan theatre (1558-1603) Wandering Singers ■ Paying in Inn-yards The travelling actors played to their audiences in the courtyards of taverns - called inn-yards Temporary stages had to be erected and the actors moved around from one venue to the next (no fixed the- atres) First theatres for specific purpose ■ ■ ■ First wandering singers and actors (moving from castle to castle) Strangers were treated with suspicion (due to epidemics) travelling required a license because the era was restricted To get licenses - Elizabethan Acting Troupes were formed Banning of stage plays From 1596 to 1597 London's authorities banned the public presentation of plays within the city limits of Lon- don The Globe Theatre is opened on Bankside in 1599 ■ The Black death/Fire The Bubonic Plague (The Black Death) again ravages London killing 33,000 people all Elizabethan theatres close again in 1603 Fire broke out at the Globe Theatre - destroying the theatre in 1613. It was re-built the following year on its original foundations and this time the roof was tiled, not thatched Staging 1576 Richard Burbage built the first ("The Theatre" in Shoreditch, London) The Lord Chamberlain's Men use it from 1594 to 1596 ■ Another open-air amphitheater called The Curtain opens in 1577 at Finsbury Fields, Shoreditch, London The Lord Chamberlain's Company (formally known as 'Lord Strange Men') was formed in 1594 English Civil War The English Civil War breaks out in 1642 between the Parliamentarians (Puritans) and the Royalists (Puritans forbid all stage plays) In 1644 the Globe Theatre was demolished by the Puritans themes No stage lighting (daylight) Only limited props and costumes No female actors (Young boys played the female roles) "Active" audience (eating, drinking, laughing etc.) Mostly outside (difficult with the weather conditions) Costumes bright-colored costumes often worn only main characters had authentic ones (too expensive) gender, social class, marriage history 67 Upper gallery Middle gallery The yard where the groundlings (the ordinary people) stood Gallery above the stage sometimes used by musicians or spectators Dressing rooms - Backstage area Trapdoor in stage The stage Q3: William Shakespeare, Othello (approximately 1603) Author William Shakespeare was baptised on April 26, 1956 in Stratford-upon-Avon ■ son of a wealthy glove-maker and town councilor and a farmer's daughter went to a local grammar school and probably became teacher himself together with his wife Anne Hathaway he worked as an actor and a playwright in London in the middle of his career, he wrote the tragedies for which he is most famous for: Hamlet, Machet and King Lear writing several more poems, including a collection of over 100 sonnets, Shakespeare died in Stratford in 1616 Contents Act I: The play opens with lago, Othello's Ancient (=Fähnrich), and Roderigo, a rich Venetian gentleman meeting in a street in Venice. Roderigo has given lago money and jewels to win Desdemona, the daughter of Venetian senator Brabantio, over for him. lago complains that Othello has not promoted him, but chosen a less qualified man, Michael Cassio, as his lieutenant. Although lago feels offended, he has decided to stay in Othello's service, but only to finally get what he wants. lago and Roderigo wake Brabantio to tell him that his daughter Desdemona has secretly left the house and married Othello. lago leaves. Brabantio calls on Roderigo to help him find and confront Othello. Messengers led by Michael Cassio meanwhile inform Othello that he is wanted by the Duke of Venice because of an imminent Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Roderigo, Brabantio and his men appear on the scene. Brabantio is furious and accuses Othello of having used magic to steal his daughter. When Othello informs him that he has been called to meet the Duke on state manners, Brabantio joins him to put his wrong before the Duke. In the Council Chamber various messages warn of a Turkish fleet heading towards Cyprus. Othello and Brabantio arrive, the latter repeats his accusations against the Moor. Othello, however, claims that he won Desdemona's love not by magic, but by telling her the story of his life. Desdemona confirms this and professes her love and allegiance to her husband. The Duke sees the case settled and sends Othello on a military mission to defend Cyprus. Desdemona asks permission to accompany her husband. Roderigo is dejected about the outcome and wants to drown himself. lago consoles him, saying that he would under- mine the couple's loving relationship by convincing Othello that Desdemona betrays him with Cassio. Act II: A terrible storm rages, delaying the arrival of the Venetians on Cyprus. Othello eventually makes it to the island with news that the Turkish fleet has been wrecked in the wild sea. lago tells Roderigo that Desdemona will soon be- come tired of Othello and is already showing an interest in Cassio. He wants Roderigo to provoke Cassio into a fight, which will disgrace and eventually eliminate the newly appointed lieutenant. To celebrate the destruction of the Turkish fleet in the storm, the Venetians gather in a hall in the castle. lago gets Cassio drunk, who, under the influence of alcohol, insults Roderigo and injures Montano, Othello's predecessor in the government of Cyprus. The brawl arouses Othello, who is disgusted by Cassio's behavior and removes him from his position: "Cassio, I love thee, but never more be officer of mine." (II, 3). lago advises the desperate Cassio to ask Desdemona for help to regain Othello's favor. lago's plan is to use Desdemona's pleading for Cassio to make Othello jealous. 68 Act III: With the help of lago's wife Email, Cassio gets access to Desdemona. Iago makes sure Othello is away inspecting the fortifications of the city so that Cassio can talk to Desdemona, who promises him to speak with her husband on his behalf. Cassio leaves quickly when Othello returns because he does not want to meet the general right now. Des- demona speaks to Othello asking him to take Cassio back, but Othello hesitates. lago uses Cassio's hasty exit and Desdemona's pleading for Cassio to rouse Othello's suspicion, insinuating that Desdemona is having an affair with the deposed lieutenant. Othello begins to doubt his wife's loyalty, but keeps it secret from her and develops a headache. Trying to soothe Othello's pain, Desdemona accidentally drops a handkerchief she has received as a gift from her husband. lago gets hold of it through his wife Emilia and puts it in Cassio's room. He kindles Othello's jealousy by telling him that he heard Cassio fantasize in his dream about his love for Desdemona and that he has seen Cassio in possession of Desdemona's handkerchief. Othello vows revenge and makes lago his lieutenant. When Othello asks Desdemona for her handkerchief, she is unable to present it. He is upset and becomes angry and unkind. Jealousy has taken hold of him. In the meantime, Cassio asks his mistress Bianca to copy the embroidery on the handkerchief he found in his chamber. He does not know that it is Desdemona's. Act IV: Othello suspects that Desdemona gave the missing handkerchief to her new lover. lago torments Othello fur- ther. When he tells Othello that Cassio said he spent a night with Desdemona, Othello briefly loses consciousness. Cassio enters and lago asks him to come back later for a conversation. When Othello recovers, lago instructs him to hide nearby and listen to Cassio's report about his affair with Desdemona. Cassio describes his relationship with the prostitute Bianca in a light-hearted and joking manner. Othello, believing he is talking about Desdemona, is totally enraged: "How shall I murder him, lago?" (IV, 1). Bianca, who enters to give Cassio the handkerchief back whose em- broidery he had asked her to copy, only gives Othello further proof of his wife's infidelity. lago offers the furious Othello to kill Cassio for him and suggests that he should strangle his wife in the bed where she allegedly committed adultery with Cassio. Desdemona enters with Lodovico, a messenger from Venice, who announces that Othello is commanded home and Cassio should take his place on Cyprus. As Desdemona expresses her joy about this develop- ment, assuming that it will end the hostility between her husband and Cassio, Othello strikes her in front of everyone. Later when the couple are alone, Othello, convicted of his wife's disloyalty, calls Desdemona "whore", "public com- moner" and "strumpet" (IV, 2). He tells his wife to wait for him in bed and send Emilia away. In the meantime, lago has persuaded Roderigo that he has to kill Cassio, if he still wants to have a chance of winning Desdemona over as only Cassio's death will prevent Othello's and Desdemona's departure from the island. Act V: lago instructs Roderigo to ambush Cassio. As Cassio is seriously injured, lago pretends to take revenge for him and stabs Roderigo, because the Venetian's death will hide the fact that lago has kept the gold and the jewels Roderigo had given him for Desdemona. Othello has decided to kill Desdemona to bring about justice. Although Desdemona professes her innocence, asserting she only loved Othello and did not give her handkerchief to Cassio, Othello stifles her. Emilia comes in to report on Roderigo's death and discovers the dying Desdemona. Othello claims he killed Desdemona because he had proof of her infidelity from lago, Emilia's husband. Emilia tells him Desdemona never loved anybody but Othello, who did not deserve her love, and raises alarm. When Emilia discloses that her husband was behind this evil plot, lago kills her. Othello, overcome with grief, tries to kill lago, who manages to escape, but is recaptured. The wounded Cassio is carried on the scene and explains how the handkerchief came into his possession. Othello realizes his terrible mistake and, kissing the dead Desdemona, stabs himself. is to be tried and executed. 69 Characters Othello · ■ lago Othello's speeches ■ Christian Moor, protagonist and hero gentle, eloquent, and physically powerful, open nature married to Desdemona (without Brabantio's permission) stranger in the Italian town, but highly respected and honored by the Duke, his officers and the people of Venice ■ brave and reliable general of the venetian army urgently needed in his military function for the defense of Cyprus darker skin: not socially accepted as a person outsider: easy prey to lago sensitive about his age (way older than Desdemona), his life as a soldier and his status as a cultural and racial outsider, reputation and honor are very important to him his trust and jealousy are lethal for him, since lago can manipulate him with simple tricks Othello's behavior is influenced and changed by lago at the beginning: noble & gentle, charismatic, confident, calm (even stressful situation with Brabantio, with swords drawn at him and facing arrest, Othello keeps his composure and con- trol of the situation), trustworthy (is given full material and political command of Cyprus), moral (punishes Cassio because of fight), honorable, rational, successful, reasonable, chival- rous, responsible-minded, reliable, loving, trusting through lago's influence: violent, insecure (age, race, Desdemona), emotional, jealous & en- vious, gullible & naive, self-destructive, bad-tempted, revengeful, malicious, frustrated & des- perate, emotionally vulnerable, disrespectful, distrusting at the beginning long and flowing uses complex sentences & courteous language to convey intelligence a lot of commas and semicolons → suggests that he is talking slowly, calmly, and carefully (carefully spoken words) poetically Othello's ensign, villain of the play personification of evil at the end language is more metaphorical loses control over words as he does over himself ► ruthless cynic with a low opinion of human nature > uses the weaknesses of people around him (e. g. Roderigo's lust for Desdemona, Cassio's concerns about his reputation, Othello's jealousy) to deceive and manipulate them hates Othello because he promoted Cassio instead of him takes revenge by contriving a plan to alienate Othello and Desdemona turns Othello's love for his wife into blind jealousy, using lies and insinuations thinks that Othello slept with his wife Emilia → "wife for wife" general hatred for women 70 Desdemona I Emilia Michael Cassio highly educated young man from Florence, whom Othello has promoted to his lieutenant, very loyal well-versed in statistics, but inexperienced in combat object of lago's contrivances daughter of the Venetian senator Brabantio secretly married to Othello; knows that her marriage will not meet with the approval of her father and the Venetian aristocratic society stands firm in her allegiance to Othello when Brabantio confronts her loves Othello because of the many adventures he survived, his honor and his bravery pure, pretty, gentle, independent, empathetic, authority but submissive, curious, naïve adultery is unimaginable, surprised of Othello's suspicions and his violent behavior professes her innocence till the very last moment, but falls victim to Othello, who is eaten up by jealousy caused by lago Desdemona is the most innocent of all of Shakespeare's heroines Roderigo ■ ■ lago spreads the word that Cassio has an affair with Desdemona ► destroys Cassio's reputation by involving him into a drunken brawl and thus causing his dismissal as lieutenant lago's wife and Desdemona's loyal lady-in-waiting knows about her husband's malign nature, but without realizing she assists lago in contriving his plot after Desdemona's death she reveals lago's deceitful maneuver and boldly confronts her husband: "Thou hast not half the power to do me harm [...] I care not for thy sword, I'll make thee known" (V, 2) jealous suitor of Desdemona young, rich, naïve/foolish ➤ fooled by lago, thinking he would help him getting Desdemona frustrated as Desdemona married Othello Relationship: Othello x Desdemona lago makes him think Cassio is another potential rival for him ► desperate enough to help lago kill Cassio Desdemona faces criticism for her bold choice of marrying a black man I she fell in love with the stories he told active character; chose to love him Desdemona remains loyal to him even after their misunderstandings young relationship → do not know each other very well, otherwise Othello would not have been so open to lago's intrigue extremely passionate and overwhelming love; true feelings Othello does not trust her in the end; does not want to hear the truth after killing her and being taught by Emilia that Desdemona really loved him, Othello kills himself out of a broken heart Desdemona behaves like she is his property; he is her "lord" very obedient 71 Themes and Interpretation character tragedy ■ I in Shakespeare's early tragedies, the catastrophe which destroys the protagonist results from an inescapable and unavoidable fate in Shakespeare's later plays, the tragedy is not brought about by some higher force or destiny downfall of the protagonist is due to a fault, a flaw, in his character "Othello": character tragedy Jealousy Othello: Moor's gullibility and excessive jealousy cause the tragic development and outcome ➤ Othello is a tragic character gentle and noble man, but fails to see through lago's intricate net of lies naïve and therefore susceptible to lago's ploys convicted that lago is an honest man: his trust in lago increases, whereas the trust in his de- voted wife decreases lago ► jealous of Cassio's promotion → job related jealousy ► jealous because he thinks that Othello slept with his wife sexual jealousy Racial prejudice completely convicted of his wife's guilt (sexual jealousy) and believes killing Desdemona is his duty and to bring about justice and restore order Roderigo ► jealous of Othello because he is married to Desdemona ► jealous of Cassio because he thinks Cassio is having an affair with Des. → sexual jealousy Imagery of jealousy ► green eyed monster: parasite that destroys his host from the inside of something monstrous and dangerous poisonousness racial prejudice is alive in the Venetian establishment ■ Othello's background and the color of his skin make him an outsider Roderigo and lago refer to him disparagingly (=abwertend) ➤ "Barbary horse" (1, 1), "thicklips" (1, 1), "old black ram" Honor and reputation Brabantio: the match of the Venetian noble girl to the "lascivious Moor" (1, 1) is a disgrace, a "trea- son of the blood" (1, 1), and thus totally unacceptable Only Desdemona is free of prejudice and accepts Othello as equal she trusts and loves him deeply so devoted to her husband that she places him even before her parents reputation is "the immortal part" (II, 3) which distinguishes man from animal a life without reputation is not worth living honor and reputation play an essential part for various characters in the play: Othello: kills Desdemona to maintain his reputation and honor ►lago: begins his intrigue when he feels discriminated and insufficiently honored Cassio: after his involvement in the nightly brawl, while he was drunk, he feels ashamed and humili- ated and implores (=anflehen) lago to help him restore his reputation modern point of view: Othello's, lago's and Cassio's actions are hard to understand, but in the light of the ancient concept of honor and reputation, their train of thought might be easier to reconstruct 72 Motifs and Symbols Handkerchief Animals symbolizes love of Othello & Desdemona sign of faithfulness, also of purity & virginity for Desdemona: love, Othello as her husband, marriage for Othello: proof for Desdemona's faithfulness/unfairness for lago: perfect evidence for Desdemona's unfaith in his manipulation The song "Willow" used regarding Othello = racism "The old black ram" (1.1) Characteristics of a tragic hero ■ suggest that both women and men are unfaithful to one another to Desdemona it represents melancholy & acceptance ■ ■ a person of (royal blood) importance his fortune changes from good to bad the change of fortune results from some frailty (weakness) = tragic flow, not from viciousness (=Boshaftigkeit) consequently, a tragic hero is a person who is good overall, but has one minor weakness that causes his down- Theatre back then - connection to Othello Jokes in scene I not many female characters educational because it deals with current topics fall many metaphors ➤ powerful monologues and dialogues Possible connection: "Othello" and "To Kill a Mockingbird" Differences (Othello & Tom Robinson) ■ action starts with fencing stage directions to tell the time of the day or how people should act many emotions bad character ■ Othello has a stronger position I Othello is treated with respect Tom R. is not treated well Othello is more confident (talks to Brabantio) Tom R. is confronted with "fake" racism Tom R. has no chance to explain Tom R. is accused due to his skin color Othello accused due envy and secret marriage relevance of Othello today I translated into modern language played all over the world. 73 ■ ▪ Similarities accused by father because of daughter reduced to outer appearance (race) by people similar characters: proud, honest reader sympathizes with them timeless topics one of the best-known authors 3.2 Modelling the future science and technology: insbesondere biotechnology, electronic media, artificial intelligence science = tries to describe and explain phenomena of the natural world to make predictions for the development of the future technology = tries to improve life by inventions of efficient/ productive character DNA = all genetic information; the instructions for constructing and operating an organism is carried by a molecule called DNA Chromosome = genes that are arranged linearly along large cellular structures; the core is the DNA; copies on which genetic information is saved Stem cells = a cellular blank slate that can replicate; can develop into every body cell; embryonic/adult stem cells; used in scientific research; embryonic stem cells are easier to find and versatile; you can cure disease by transplanting stem cells Biotechnology → use of science and technology for living objects Examples stem cell studies health care studies/products genetic modified food cloning Genetic engineering → manipulation of life; changing DNA; direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology How does it work? 1) extract DNA (get genome) 2) enlarge genome 3) insert into bacterium → transcription ■ Used for: Medical gene therapy Research tracking experiments Agriculture Making food (modified) Improve growth rate 74 GM-Food: genetically engineered food in favor: disease- and drought resistant → greater crop yield → feeding starving people can heal diseases environmentally friendlier: no chemical use (pesticides) we need to feed the world important steps of genetic engineering ■ I I ▪ 1973: production of human protein insulin 1981: blend of species 1980s: work with human genes Applications of genetically modified organisms biological and medical research production of pharmaceutical drugs experimental medicine. ■ 1953: discovery of double helix by Watson and Crick 1973: blend of unrelated organisms ■ agriculture widest application: for crops resistant herbicides Transgenic microbes 1886: open-air experimentation with plants 1996: commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants 1996: cloning of mammals (Dolly) 2003: sequencing of the human genome 2009: first transgenic primates Transgenic animals consumer safety: long-term consequences are unclean → immunity against antibiotics crops are in the hands of a minority of rich people preserving the environmental biodiversity Transgenic plants playing God; ethical questions farmers are losing their jobs Bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory Genetically modified bacteria are used to produce insulin to treat diabetes to produce clotting factors to treat haemophilia to produce human growth hormones to treat various forms of dwarfism to facilitate crop growth in some soils or eliminate crop pests Have been engineered to: are used as experimental models to test genes whose function is unknown . used to produce human hormones such as insulin against: resist pest, herbicides, or harsh environmental improve products shelf life increase their nutritional value ➤ produce bigger yields thus making farmland more efficient 75 ons Designer babies . Cloning refers to a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected to ensure the presence or absence of certain characteristics, especially regarding the sex of the child Creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another ► every single bit of DNA is the same for both ➤ using cells to create an embryo or organs; a cell is marched with a donor egg of which the nucleus is removed Reproductive cloning: embryo is grown and then implanted not allowed with humans Dolly the sheep aim: create identical beings ■ The cloning process Female Pig 1 Female Pig 2 Artificial intelligence Remove DNA from unfertilised egg Fuse cells Donor DNA removed from Pig 2 born for a purpose: families love savior children even more: make a con- scious decision of having a child will keep a sick sibling alive → increased lifespan, possibility of getting healthy Early embryo with donor DNA Implant in surrogate Savior siblings → child who has been specifically created for the purpose of curing a sick sibling. Controversy: Cloned embryo Clone of Pig 2 children are reduced to commodities →not humans → may suffer from giving away organs back-up or designer children it depends on the reason: the savior children should be loved and cherished for them as people not just medication, otherwise it would be very unethical Programmable machine that can carry out a complex series of actions Receive information from the outside, able to do physical things (e.g. move/ manipulate an object) 1960s development microelectronics: advances in robotics, more intelligent, cheaper to produce, move and "think" more efficiently, used in many different jobs ➤ Manufacturing: industrial robots, factories, especially automobile industry, do repetitive jobs > Exploration: explore places that human cannot reach (e.g. used in space, see exploration 76 ➤ Microsurgery: help surgeons perform intricate operations (reduce the surgeon's movement) Dangerous jobs: assess and clean up polluted environment, chemicals spills or radioactive "hot zones" ➤ Military: guided remotely to defuse bombs, mine sweepers, surveillance photographs Robots will become more important in the future, help care e.g. for ageing society Worries: if robots at some point learn how to feel and think→ where to draw line between human and ma- chine, take over control What is intelligence? Ability to learn, to acquire knowledge and skills connecting things you perceive abstracting from them and improvise Ability to speak for yourself Sense of good and bad (concept of moral) React according on different situations Sense of time (past, present, future) Ability to make decisions, sense of logic How is intelligence created? Creating a neural network the more neurons there are the better is the network the more connectives there are the better is the network Reinforcement learning reward for wanted achievement punishment for unwanted results Learning by feeding information (algorithms) Pros and Cons of Al Pro new inventions that can help us in daily life could make traffic safer jobs that humans don't want to do could be done it's a big economic asset the Al industry created jobs the original idea is to help humanity solutions could be developed quicker Example: self-driving cars Pro takes stress out of driving less accidents (no drunk drivers) → less costs for the health system mobility for older people less traffic jam more space in enormous cities save fuel Con big risks of wrong programming people's minds could be influenced (e.g., by selecting information) wrong use of Al (e.g., the voice clone app) they might destroy jobs for humans who is responsible if something goes wrong? legal questions might arise (do robots own themselves?) mistakes of technology ethical questions (whose fault) saved data terrorists could hack cars eventually more cars Con 77 Genetics → field of study dealing with the way living organisms inherit features from their ancestors. These features are called traits. Traits are e.g., the color of a person's eye Genetic information is carried by a molecule called DNA which is copied and inherited across generations DNA is widely known as the "double helix" and looks like a twisted ladder ► made up of nucleotides which are the rungs of ladder four types: T, A, G, C the order of the nucleotides determines the genetic code Genes are segments of DNA which provide information that an organism needs so that it can build/do some- thing The complete set of genes in a particular organism is known as genome Genes are copied each time a cell divides into two new cells Electronic Media → electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical audience to access the content digital media (DCD, television, internet, radio, fax, smartphones, ...) timeline ■ ■ ■ Development of computers was one of the most important technological advances in the 20th century ➤ computers have changed our lives beyond recognition 1834: first programmable mechanical computer designed by mathematician Charles Babbage too complex for technology of the times 1946: first large-scale electronic computer ENIAC was built in the US 1990s: Revolution in the field of home computing ■ ➤ introduction of multimedia computers with mix of graphics, sound and later streaming video Internet = new hype Growth of e-commerce = need for save payment systems, safeguards against attacks by hackers Recent years: emphasis on mobility: development of laptops, notebooks, wireless communication, digital de- vices, compatibility of different components Today: problem of monitoring (surveillance) Digital presence Data of individuals and their lives is publicly available For many, their digital presence is almost as important as their physical one Privacy? Digital footprint Trail one leaves in the cyberspace Impossibility to eliminate the digital trail / "digital footprint" Technology corporations routinely collect, store and share data & security agencies use the information Growing concern about lack of privacy Explanation of freedom and surveillance freedom & dange privacy (data secrets) loneliness nonexternal influences not being observed security & surveillance monitoring innocent people are persecuted no privacy always under pressure 78 Possibilities ■ Responsibilities ■ ■ Connecting to people all around the world Fast exchange over long distances (Rapid networking in case of emergency - quick help) Always all information Locating Orientation (GPS) Less costs (paper) - Entertainment Efficient work ■ genetics in agriculture possibilities and responsibilities Securing privacy Securing direct communication (face to face) Prevention of bullying Securing humanity Help against stress-related illnesses (always being reachable) Prevent health risks (Radiation (Stahlung) from technical devices) Secure the right and dangers on the internet Protection of people (jobs) power and ambition Danger: only a few large multinational corporations ► they are interested in gaining control over the world's food production farmers will be dependent danger of the "superhuman" Their goal: to make profit and not to reduce the hunger in the world Those large biotech firms acquire the patent rights for large number of common plants too much power for multinational companies → monopoly (= Monopol) if we create a race of "super humans", they might feel superior there could be serious discrimination against disabled people the procedure will be expensive only wealthy people will be able to afford a "perfect" baby; in addition to this, babies become products that can be bought 79 Q3.3 Gender issues culture and gender - now and then: Schönheitsideale im Wandel (Sonette von Shakespeare), Genderkon- struktionen in der Werbung Definitions Sex = person's identity based on their physical characteristics (e.g., having a penis, vagina, beard, or breasts, etc.), genes and hormones I ■ possible sexes: Female, Male, Intersex (biological sex isn't clearly male or female) Gender = Sense of who you are and feel as a guy, girl, or something else, as opposed (= unabhängig) to what your physical characteristics, genes and hormones indicate ■ ➤ being a girl → feeling like a girl being a boy feeling like a boy and a girl Sexuality = who you are attracted to sexually and romantically ➤ Heterosexual (straight): attracted to the other sex > Homosexual (gay / lesbian): attracted to the same sex Bisexual: attracted to both girls and boys Queer: sees sexual attraction as fluid Three dimensions of genders (separated from sexual orientation) 1. Body → biological gender = sex 2. Identity → how you want to be seen / as what you feel yourself 3. Expression → how you express your gender Feminine = qualities that are generally considered to be womanly, e.g., prettiness Masculine = qualities that are typical/suitable for men, e.g., muscles and strength Gender issue = gap between the own identity and the social understanding (leads to bullying → depression) Gender issues today: Gaps in education, paying, political positions, appreciation beauty ideals through the ages Women (feminine, beautiful, a little bit shy) 1290-1060 before Chr. a slender figure, narrow (hohe) shoulders and a high waist - Cleopatra 500-300 before Chr. Abundance (Fülle) is a sign of prosperity, fair skin 206 to 220 before Chr. "looking Chinese" slim waist, fair skin, big eyes, small feet 1400-1700 (Italian Renaissance) big breasts, round belly, wide hips and fair skin 1840-1900 female curves, but the waist should be as narrow as possible (time of corsets) 1920 (the wild 20s) flat-chested women with little waist and a boyish figure 1870s 1930s 1960s 1980s 1990s 80 I Men (strong, being able to protect women) Broad, full-> prosperity Slim, broad shoulders very thin (narrow /(= schmal)) athletic, enormously muscular, (Schwarzenegger) average man (thin, toned / six pack) 1930s to 1950s 1960s 1980s 1990s Today ■ ■ Men Gender ideals in movies and literature through the ages women ■ ■ hourglass figure best: big breasts, narrow waist, round bottom - Marylin Monroe I Extremely skinny (seeing bones) Sporty, skinny but healthy I Extremely skinny, pale skin (heroin dependent) Skinny (size zero) and Plus-size (mixed) Gender in Othello & To Kill a Mockingbird from the shy, obedient women, dependent from the men (Desdemona) through the boyish and independent women (Scout) to the rebellious and strong independent women (Katniss Everdeen) always tall, having muscles, being strong change in their behavior towards women from being the commanding behavior to an acknowledging one women are seen as property (unmarried → of father, married → of husband) in men's view, only power of women is sexual power considered to be the evil which must be resisted by men men seem free to be able to refer to women as 'whores' and get away with it lago → sees women as sexual objects who shall fulfill their functions as housewife & mother Cassio → believes women are either whores, who deserve no respect but to get teased, or virgins, who are deserved to be treated with respect & like a lady Othello → positive view toward women, loves Desdemona "for her mind" instead of her body, respects women Desdemona is aware of her (powerless) position in society Emilia more feminist, wants to be treated equally & sees women as stronger than men women get reduced by their reputation & their (social, relationship, occupational) status women at that time & in drama are expected to be silent, chaste & obedient to men are thought to be physiologically and psychologically inferior to men in Great Chain of Being, they are inferior/ on a lower rank all woman truly loves their husbands/lovers, but the men only use them for their benefits lago & Othello kill their wife's as punishment for honesty stereotypes women housewife has a man kids stays at home dresses female ■ cooking, cleaning keeps everything together I loyal, emotional, empathetic part time work, private 81 men ■ ■ makes money good father has a wife works physical/ CEO, company makes decisions no weakness/ feelings Gender identity I I I Nature or Nurture & why do differences still exist? ■ Central component of an individual's identities in his or her gender Unlike the biological determined sex, gender and gender role are often perceived as being social structures Society holds a set of stereotypical ideas about how "real" men and women should behave; what they should look like; what they are capable of Traditionally men are thought of masculine, strong, rational, and powerful Women are considerable to be feminine, weak emotional and submissive ■ These characteristics have been used as a "justification" for men's dominant role With the Feminist Movement in 1960s the validity of conventional gender roles was called into question The media especially still presents images of "typical" men and women keeping these concepts alive If they don't behave like they are expected they are not universally accepted in society ■ Differences from birth (treatment boys & girls → toys) Handed down from one generation to the next with no escape Difference seems to be rooted in cultural rather biological reasons: ➤study: 15 y.o. from different countries took 2 tests: reading and math's→ countries with gender equal- ity equal abilities in math's BUT boys do better in geometry AND girls did better in reading Fewer women on TV Represented in traditional roles (mother, sister, nurse) Good women// rebellious, independent Glass ceiling in women's heads The older women get, the less important they get because they are losing their looks Certain way of showing the different gender: men facial shots, women full body shots ➤ Women objectified Cartoons/fairy tales educate children in traditional roles Different sexualities not fully portrayed (reduction to problems) Men seem more credible Different viewing habits: men watch documentaries, women soaps Different level of education Combining work and motherhood → common fear >Fear of promotion Most won't risk "climbing another notch", turning down job offers men would go crazy for Fearing any deviation will send their households veering out of control Answers why women act like that (women without children also not happy in leading positions) → mainly biological Women wired in womb to want different things Boys exposed to testosterone, driving them daring and aggressive Girls doused in estrogen which helps to empathize → women nature resistant to investing all their energies, single minded, in one thing makes them less "extreme" Women seek inherent meaning // men tend to seek domination Many high-powered women happy for having left their jobs ➤ "Society impelled them towards the male model, but that didn't quite fit" Suffragettes → a woman seeking the right to vote through organized protest. 82 Gender on TV ■ fewer women represented in traditional roles (mothers, nurses, housewives) ■ good women: submissive, sensitive bad women: rebellious, independent the older the women get, the less important they get because they are losing their looks certain way of showing the different genders: men with facial shots, women with full body shots ► through the full body shots the women is objectified different sexualities are not portrayed in full ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ man seems to be more credible different viewing habits: men watch documentaries, women watch soaps different level of education Shakespeare's sonnet 130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. 83