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Narrative Perspective, modes of presentation

31.1.2022

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Englischklausur
narrative persepctive and mode(s) of presentation:
in general (narrative perspective):
innerhalb
The narrative perspective (
Englischklausur
narrative persepctive and mode(s) of presentation:
in general (narrative perspective):
innerhalb
The narrative perspective (

Englischklausur narrative persepctive and mode(s) of presentation: in general (narrative perspective): innerhalb The narrative perspective (or point of view) describes the position that the narrator takes within a story. The narrative perspective determines how much the narrator - and thus the reader - knows about the characters and the plot. He can take different positions, so tell the story from different perspectives. This has an impact on how the reader perceives the story. wahrnehmen the author: -a real-life person -makes use of a third-person point of view -the author is not identical with the narrator the narrator: -speaker of the story through whom the author presents the [development of the] story →is the voice or character who tells the story -tells the story in the first or third person -can have a limited or unlimited perspective first-person narrator: -is identical with the character -a character narrates the story from his/her own perspective -it's usually the main character or sometimes (a minor) character who takes part in the action and/ or observes/witnesses it -speaks as ,,I" and uses,,me" -is limited to what he knows/experiences/ learns from somebody else →the reader gets only to know what that character knows -the events are viewed from a subjective (individual/personalized) angel [Blickwinkel] →information may not always reliable -brings the reader close to the feelings and thoughts of one character →reader can easily identify/ empathize...

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with the narrator -tells the story (from) inside the action → visible) Function: The reader follows the course of events though the eyes of the central character who tells his/her story in the first person. In this way the reader experiences the story with a great deal of immediacy and it constantly informed about the protagonist's thoughts and feelings. Not surprisingly, the reader is emotionally strongly involved and very likely to identify with the narrator (identification figure). The perspective is clearly limited; the description may be one-sided and to some extent subjective. third-person narrator: -is not a character in the story → not part of the story -refers to the characters in the story with personal pronouns (as "she", "he" or "they") or by their names Englischklausur third-person omniscient narrator: unlimited point of view -knows everything about the characters thoughts and feelings as well as the backgrounds story -can enter the minds of characters at will [nach Belieben] →can look inside their minds -can comment on the events/on the action or character's behavior -knows how the plot will develop → can switch between places and times (refer to past events through flashbacks or foreshadow future developments/actions) -tells the story (from) outside the action → not visible Function: The advantage of this point of view is the reader's access to the characters' feelings and thoughts. The reader gets comprehensive characterisations and interpretations. If the narrator is overly intrusive with his/her comments and evaluation, the reader might be made a passive "consumer" of the narration without any room left for interpretation. third-person limited narrator: limited point of view -makes the reader see everything through the eyes of one character -only has insight into one character's thoughts and feelings -is not identical with the character eingeschränkt restricted to one of the character's thoughts and feelings -tells the story (from) outside the action → not visible Function: With this point of view, the narrator has decided to only inform the reader about what is going on in the mind of one or two characters. This means limited, and possibly biased/unreliable, information about the events and other characters. On the other hand, it may create sus- pense through gap-filling and encourage interpretation. in general (modes of presentation): The way the narrator narrates events is known as mode of presentation An author can use a variety of techniques to convey the narrative (attitude) [Erzählhandlung]. telling_(panoramic mode): -the narrator tells the reader what happens over a longer period of time (summarizing) -does not go into detail → without going into detail räumlich zeitlich -the author gives the impression of a spatial and temporal distance to the action (compression of time and ellipsis) → the reader feels a certain distance to the events and characters -provides an overview (of an event) showing_(scenic mode): -the narrator describes in detail what happens in a scene -dialogue is used often -the characters' (words and) action(s) are shown in dramatic scenes -conveys an intense moment vividly [vermittelt anschaulich einen intensiven Moment] -characters' feelings may also be related -depicts thoughts and emotions →(this makes) the reader feel close to the action and allows him or her to empathize with the characters in the scene -effect on immediacy [Unmittelbarkeit] direkt, persönlich stream of consciousness [Bewusstseinsstrom]: -the reader is introduced directly into a character's interior life -as the character's experiences in a situation are mixed with ideas from both the past and present that come to the character's mind as well as random associations -innerer Monolog (mit sich selber reden) →conversation with oneself