Englisch /

summary, comment, mediation, speech, letter, article, discussion, blog entry, outline, contrast, comparison, email, analysis

summary, comment, mediation, speech, letter, article, discussion, blog entry, outline, contrast, comparison, email, analysis

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Lena

47 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/10

Lernzettel

summary, comment, mediation, speech, letter, article, discussion, blog entry, outline, contrast, comparison, email, analysis

 CRITERIA FOR DIFFERENT GENRES
WRITING A SUMMARY:
> If you have to sum up/summarize an article, a short story, a novel or an excerpt from an

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In diesem Know findest du eine Übersicht zu vielerlei Texten, die dir in dem Fach Englisch begegnen werden.

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CRITERIA FOR DIFFERENT GENRES WRITING A SUMMARY: > If you have to sum up/summarize an article, a short story, a novel or an excerpt from any of these genres, present the main information from the original text in a condensed form. introduction: - introductory sentence: the genre, headline/title of the text, author, name of the newspaper/magazine (if given), the year/date of publication, the overall idea/topic of the text > e.g., The article ... [title] ... written by ... [ author's name] ..., published in ... [newspaper/magazine]... on ...[date/year]... deals with ... [topic]... main part: - the essential aspects of the text in a logical order > e.g., the author shows/explains ... - don't interpret the text - use present tense WRITING AN OUTLINE: - use your own words - no personal opinion > If you are asked to outline or sum up certain aspects of a text, only focus on the information relevant to the task. Don't sum up the complete text, as you are expected to do when writing a summary. introduction: - introductory sentence: relating to the issue(s) the task requires you to focus on; the genre, title/headline of the text, author, name of the newspaper/magazine (if given), the year/date of publication, the overall idea/topic of the text - use indirect speech, no direct - shorten the sentences > e.g., The excerpt from the...

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article ...[title]... by ...[author's name]..., published in ...[newspaper]... on ... [date/year]... deals with the situation of migrant workers in California. It contains information concerning ... [topic]... main part: - all the essential information concerning the task - don't interpret the text - use present tense - use your own words - no personal opinion - use indirect speech, no direct - shorten the sentences ANALYZING WRITTEN TEXTS > In an analysis, you´re expected to show your understanding of the underlying meaning of a text and how it is conveyed. In an examination, you may be asked to look at a particular aspect of a text in detail and to reveal the means employed by the author to achieve a certain effect on the reader. Your task might be to show how the central idea of a text/the author's attitude towards a certain issue/the prevailing atmosphere/etc. is conveyed. In order to perform, examine the following aspects: - central idea/message -style/register (objective, subjective...) - tone/language (formal, informal, colloquial...) - stylistic devices (metaphor, contrast, imagery...) With regard to literary texts also consider: - narrative technique(s) (e.g., point of view, mode of presentation...) With regard to non-literary texts also consider: - structure of the text (e.g., order of paragraphs, subheadings, topic sentences, graphics...) > For your analysis, it is important to distinguish between fictional and non-fictional texts and to decide which features are typical of the text you have to deal with. Remember, your main goal is to explain how and why the author uses all kinds of means to make his/her point and to explain the effect this has on the reader. introduction: - begin with a central assertion/statement: e.g., The author takes a critical viewpoint on ...; In this excerpt, character X seems completely distraught ... - introductory sentence: the genre, headline/title of the text, author, name of the newspaper/magazine (if given), the year/date of publication, the overall idea/topic - short summary of the text - hypothesis, that gets analyzed in the main part and answered in the conclusion main part: - analyze linguistic/stylistic/structural devices, give examples and evidence and analyze the effect on the reader (use quotes to argue) > always focus on how those devices help to convey the meaning of a text conclusion: - sum up main points, answer the hypothesis, state your opinion When analyzing literary (fictional) texts: - genre (poem, story...) - theme (love, conflict...) - characterization (direct, indirect...) - rhetorical/stylistic devices - setting (time, place, atmosphere...) - action/plot (internal, external...) - point of view - formal aspects (stanza, refrain, rhyme...) With regard to non-literary (non-fictional) texts: -genre (newspaper, article...) - purpose/intention (argumentation, persuasion...) - structure/layout ANALYZING PICTURES (CARTOONS, PHOTOGRAPHS, PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS) > Like written texts, pictures, such as photographs, paintings and drawings or cartoons, use certain elements to convey information. In your analysis of visual material/texts you are expected to identify those elements, describe them systematically and explain their use and function, Furthermore, you need to evaluate their effect on the reader. introduction: - state the central idea of the cartoon/photograph/painting/drawing, i.e., say what the picture is about - give the artist´s name, mention when and where the picture was published main part: - a detailed description: Name the different parts the picture consists of (e.g., visual elements, foreground, background, captions, speech or thought bubbles) - describe the depicted objects or people (e.g., features, clothing, positioning and size of objects/figures, colors, facial expressions, body language), the action and the setting (i.e., where and when the action takes place) ANALYZING GRAPHS, CHARTS AND TABLES ● - explanation: analyze the different elements (e.g., captions, bubbles...) - analyze techniques bused to convey the message (e.g., symbols, exaggeration...) - say which element are striking and why, say which of the objects and characters carry a meaning that goes beyond the obvious explain what they represent - say how the elements interact and what effect the element has on the reader - explain the message of the picture using your knowledge about the issue conclusion: - conclude the main parts, state your opinion > Data and statistics are usually presented in the form of graphs, charts or tables. Writing about graphs, charts and tables does not only require a thorough analysis and understanding of the material at hand, but also involves specific vocabulary. In an analytical task having to do with statistics, you might have to compare the contents of a written text and a graph. Moreover, writing about statistics is often necessary so that you can underline an argument, for example, in a comment or an article you are working on. ● introduction: - state the topic and briefly say what the graph, chart or table shows. Give the source if relevant, the year of publication. main part: - describe, then compare, explain and finally interpret the information Conclusion: - summarize and evaluate your findings. COMPARING AND CONTRASTING TEXTS > Texts are often published with visual material such as statistics, cartoons, photos, etc. introduction: - begin by explaining what is relevant in the text and the visual material. Show how the text and the visual material relate to each other. ● ● ● main part: - consider and write about: the focus/main aspects of the text and the visual material, similarities and differences, aspects only the text or only the visual material focuses on, means used to convey the message, certain attitudes, intended effects on the readers, whether both text and visual material should be published together, draw convincing conclusions which clearly focus on the task COMPARING LITERARY TEXTS/FILMS/REAL-LIFE EXPERIENCES > If you compare literary texts / films / real-life experiences, you show the connection between the most important content points according to the task at hand. In your writing you go beyond mere descriptions by pointing out similarities and differences between the text you have to deal with and the literary text / film / real-life experience you want to compare it with. Additionally, you may be asked to discuss, comment on or assess certain aspects relating to the works and/or experiences. ● conclusion: - sum up your main points and conclusions introduction: - begin by explaining the point of comparison. If you have been asked to choose a work from literature/film or a real person/event/organization for your comparison, give good reasons for your choice, state the introductory sentence main part: - present your main points of comparison and give relevant information on, e.g. source of information/text/material, general information (e.g., title, author/director, name/age/location of character...), ethnic/cultural/ personal/background/ experiences/situation/conflicts/support/organizations/ attitudes/beliefs/behavior/development/outcome) - in your comparison refer to information/facts/examples from the text and to aspects from literature/film / real life which are relevant to the task. - if you are asked to do so, assess how the characters/chosen person/organization cope(s)/develop(s) conclusion: - sum up the main points and give your opinion and the reason why you think so DISCUSSING AND COMMENTING ON AN ISSUE > The most common form for discussing an issue is to look at it from different perspectives. If you comment on an issue, you do not necessarily need to consider the pros and cons, but you express your personal opinion. In both cases you need to have a clear structure. ● ● ● introduction: - introductory sentence - refer to the topic, stating the issue, e. g. I would like to discuss/comment on ... main part: - refer to the author's/cartoonist's/artist's position in a more detailed way, e. g. The author claims/maintains ... / The cartoonist/artist shows/illustrates that ... ● - in a discussion you present and weigh the pros and cons of the issue, e.g., on the other hand ... / While ..., whereas ... / In contrast ... - in a comment you focus on the arguments you want to support and/or refute - present your own opinion, e. g. It is my belief/opinion that ... / In my opinion... - include supporting material from other sources, e.g., books, articles or statistics. - arrange your arguments in a logical order conclusion: -say what conclusion you have come to, state your opinion on the topic WRITING AN ARTICLE > When writing an article commenting an issue, you want to inform your readers about the issue and express your opinion about it. You might want to give advice or suggest any further actions. Your language and its degree of formality should be appropriate for your readers. If you use ideas from other material, restate in your own words the author's views, arguments, or examples and anything that might be relevant to your point headline/title: - write a headline/title that captures your readers' interest. introduction: - try to maintain the readers' interest with an intriguing opening sentence - clearly define your topic, focusing on the purpose your article should serve - make clear why your issue is important main part: - Write in a way that suits the purpose of your article - if you base your article on available texts, refer to general ideas of the material. You are not expected to give evidence from the text - explain your position and give well-founded arguments and convincing reasons - give examples and evidence referring to important facts, statistical information or personal experiences to back up your arguments. - make clear which points are the most important ones

Englisch /

summary, comment, mediation, speech, letter, article, discussion, blog entry, outline, contrast, comparison, email, analysis

summary, comment, mediation, speech, letter, article, discussion, blog entry, outline, contrast, comparison, email, analysis

user profile picture

Lena

47 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/10

Lernzettel

summary, comment, mediation, speech, letter, article, discussion, blog entry, outline, contrast, comparison, email, analysis

Dieser Inhalt ist nur in der Knowunity App verfügbar.

 CRITERIA FOR DIFFERENT GENRES
WRITING A SUMMARY:
> If you have to sum up/summarize an article, a short story, a novel or an excerpt from an

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478

Kommentare (2)

M

Vielen Dank, wirklich hilfreich für mich, da wir gerade genau das Thema in der Schule haben 😁

In diesem Know findest du eine Übersicht zu vielerlei Texten, die dir in dem Fach Englisch begegnen werden.

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CRITERIA FOR DIFFERENT GENRES WRITING A SUMMARY: > If you have to sum up/summarize an article, a short story, a novel or an excerpt from any of these genres, present the main information from the original text in a condensed form. introduction: - introductory sentence: the genre, headline/title of the text, author, name of the newspaper/magazine (if given), the year/date of publication, the overall idea/topic of the text > e.g., The article ... [title] ... written by ... [ author's name] ..., published in ... [newspaper/magazine]... on ...[date/year]... deals with ... [topic]... main part: - the essential aspects of the text in a logical order > e.g., the author shows/explains ... - don't interpret the text - use present tense WRITING AN OUTLINE: - use your own words - no personal opinion > If you are asked to outline or sum up certain aspects of a text, only focus on the information relevant to the task. Don't sum up the complete text, as you are expected to do when writing a summary. introduction: - introductory sentence: relating to the issue(s) the task requires you to focus on; the genre, title/headline of the text, author, name of the newspaper/magazine (if given), the year/date of publication, the overall idea/topic of the text - use indirect speech, no direct - shorten the sentences > e.g., The excerpt from the...

Nichts passendes dabei? Erkunde andere Fachbereiche.

Mit uns zu mehr Spaß am Lernen

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Mit dem Fragen-Feature hast du die Möglichkeit, jederzeit Fragen zu stellen und Antworten von anderen Schüler:innen zu erhalten.

Gemeinsam lernen

Mit Knowunity erhältest du Lerninhalte von anderen Schüler:innen auf eine moderne und gewohnte Art und Weise, um bestmöglich zu lernen. Schüler:innen teilen ihr Wissen, tauschen sich aus und helfen sich gegenseitig.

Sicher und geprüft

Ob Zusammenfassungen, Übungen oder Lernzettel - Knowunity kuratiert alle Inhalte und schafft eine sichere Lernumgebung zu der Ihr Kind jederzeit Zugang hat.

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Alternativer Bildtext:

article ...[title]... by ...[author's name]..., published in ...[newspaper]... on ... [date/year]... deals with the situation of migrant workers in California. It contains information concerning ... [topic]... main part: - all the essential information concerning the task - don't interpret the text - use present tense - use your own words - no personal opinion - use indirect speech, no direct - shorten the sentences ANALYZING WRITTEN TEXTS > In an analysis, you´re expected to show your understanding of the underlying meaning of a text and how it is conveyed. In an examination, you may be asked to look at a particular aspect of a text in detail and to reveal the means employed by the author to achieve a certain effect on the reader. Your task might be to show how the central idea of a text/the author's attitude towards a certain issue/the prevailing atmosphere/etc. is conveyed. In order to perform, examine the following aspects: - central idea/message -style/register (objective, subjective...) - tone/language (formal, informal, colloquial...) - stylistic devices (metaphor, contrast, imagery...) With regard to literary texts also consider: - narrative technique(s) (e.g., point of view, mode of presentation...) With regard to non-literary texts also consider: - structure of the text (e.g., order of paragraphs, subheadings, topic sentences, graphics...) > For your analysis, it is important to distinguish between fictional and non-fictional texts and to decide which features are typical of the text you have to deal with. Remember, your main goal is to explain how and why the author uses all kinds of means to make his/her point and to explain the effect this has on the reader. introduction: - begin with a central assertion/statement: e.g., The author takes a critical viewpoint on ...; In this excerpt, character X seems completely distraught ... - introductory sentence: the genre, headline/title of the text, author, name of the newspaper/magazine (if given), the year/date of publication, the overall idea/topic - short summary of the text - hypothesis, that gets analyzed in the main part and answered in the conclusion main part: - analyze linguistic/stylistic/structural devices, give examples and evidence and analyze the effect on the reader (use quotes to argue) > always focus on how those devices help to convey the meaning of a text conclusion: - sum up main points, answer the hypothesis, state your opinion When analyzing literary (fictional) texts: - genre (poem, story...) - theme (love, conflict...) - characterization (direct, indirect...) - rhetorical/stylistic devices - setting (time, place, atmosphere...) - action/plot (internal, external...) - point of view - formal aspects (stanza, refrain, rhyme...) With regard to non-literary (non-fictional) texts: -genre (newspaper, article...) - purpose/intention (argumentation, persuasion...) - structure/layout ANALYZING PICTURES (CARTOONS, PHOTOGRAPHS, PAINTINGS, DRAWINGS) > Like written texts, pictures, such as photographs, paintings and drawings or cartoons, use certain elements to convey information. In your analysis of visual material/texts you are expected to identify those elements, describe them systematically and explain their use and function, Furthermore, you need to evaluate their effect on the reader. introduction: - state the central idea of the cartoon/photograph/painting/drawing, i.e., say what the picture is about - give the artist´s name, mention when and where the picture was published main part: - a detailed description: Name the different parts the picture consists of (e.g., visual elements, foreground, background, captions, speech or thought bubbles) - describe the depicted objects or people (e.g., features, clothing, positioning and size of objects/figures, colors, facial expressions, body language), the action and the setting (i.e., where and when the action takes place) ANALYZING GRAPHS, CHARTS AND TABLES ● - explanation: analyze the different elements (e.g., captions, bubbles...) - analyze techniques bused to convey the message (e.g., symbols, exaggeration...) - say which element are striking and why, say which of the objects and characters carry a meaning that goes beyond the obvious explain what they represent - say how the elements interact and what effect the element has on the reader - explain the message of the picture using your knowledge about the issue conclusion: - conclude the main parts, state your opinion > Data and statistics are usually presented in the form of graphs, charts or tables. Writing about graphs, charts and tables does not only require a thorough analysis and understanding of the material at hand, but also involves specific vocabulary. In an analytical task having to do with statistics, you might have to compare the contents of a written text and a graph. Moreover, writing about statistics is often necessary so that you can underline an argument, for example, in a comment or an article you are working on. ● introduction: - state the topic and briefly say what the graph, chart or table shows. Give the source if relevant, the year of publication. main part: - describe, then compare, explain and finally interpret the information Conclusion: - summarize and evaluate your findings. COMPARING AND CONTRASTING TEXTS > Texts are often published with visual material such as statistics, cartoons, photos, etc. introduction: - begin by explaining what is relevant in the text and the visual material. Show how the text and the visual material relate to each other. ● ● ● main part: - consider and write about: the focus/main aspects of the text and the visual material, similarities and differences, aspects only the text or only the visual material focuses on, means used to convey the message, certain attitudes, intended effects on the readers, whether both text and visual material should be published together, draw convincing conclusions which clearly focus on the task COMPARING LITERARY TEXTS/FILMS/REAL-LIFE EXPERIENCES > If you compare literary texts / films / real-life experiences, you show the connection between the most important content points according to the task at hand. In your writing you go beyond mere descriptions by pointing out similarities and differences between the text you have to deal with and the literary text / film / real-life experience you want to compare it with. Additionally, you may be asked to discuss, comment on or assess certain aspects relating to the works and/or experiences. ● conclusion: - sum up your main points and conclusions introduction: - begin by explaining the point of comparison. If you have been asked to choose a work from literature/film or a real person/event/organization for your comparison, give good reasons for your choice, state the introductory sentence main part: - present your main points of comparison and give relevant information on, e.g. source of information/text/material, general information (e.g., title, author/director, name/age/location of character...), ethnic/cultural/ personal/background/ experiences/situation/conflicts/support/organizations/ attitudes/beliefs/behavior/development/outcome) - in your comparison refer to information/facts/examples from the text and to aspects from literature/film / real life which are relevant to the task. - if you are asked to do so, assess how the characters/chosen person/organization cope(s)/develop(s) conclusion: - sum up the main points and give your opinion and the reason why you think so DISCUSSING AND COMMENTING ON AN ISSUE > The most common form for discussing an issue is to look at it from different perspectives. If you comment on an issue, you do not necessarily need to consider the pros and cons, but you express your personal opinion. In both cases you need to have a clear structure. ● ● ● introduction: - introductory sentence - refer to the topic, stating the issue, e. g. I would like to discuss/comment on ... main part: - refer to the author's/cartoonist's/artist's position in a more detailed way, e. g. The author claims/maintains ... / The cartoonist/artist shows/illustrates that ... ● - in a discussion you present and weigh the pros and cons of the issue, e.g., on the other hand ... / While ..., whereas ... / In contrast ... - in a comment you focus on the arguments you want to support and/or refute - present your own opinion, e. g. It is my belief/opinion that ... / In my opinion... - include supporting material from other sources, e.g., books, articles or statistics. - arrange your arguments in a logical order conclusion: -say what conclusion you have come to, state your opinion on the topic WRITING AN ARTICLE > When writing an article commenting an issue, you want to inform your readers about the issue and express your opinion about it. You might want to give advice or suggest any further actions. Your language and its degree of formality should be appropriate for your readers. If you use ideas from other material, restate in your own words the author's views, arguments, or examples and anything that might be relevant to your point headline/title: - write a headline/title that captures your readers' interest. introduction: - try to maintain the readers' interest with an intriguing opening sentence - clearly define your topic, focusing on the purpose your article should serve - make clear why your issue is important main part: - Write in a way that suits the purpose of your article - if you base your article on available texts, refer to general ideas of the material. You are not expected to give evidence from the text - explain your position and give well-founded arguments and convincing reasons - give examples and evidence referring to important facts, statistical information or personal experiences to back up your arguments. - make clear which points are the most important ones