Englisch /

The civil rights movement

The civil rights movement

 The Civil Rights movement
THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY
„There is no noise as powerful
as the sound of the marching
feet of a determined people
 The Civil Rights movement
THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY
„There is no noise as powerful
as the sound of the marching
feet of a determined people

The civil rights movement

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Powerpoint mit Handout zum Thema „Civil Rights Movement“, Note:1

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The Civil Rights movement THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY „There is no noise as powerful as the sound of the marching feet of a determined people. -Martin L. King Jr. WE MARCH The Declaration of Independence, 1776 IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776. A DECLARATION BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, IN GENERAL CONGRESS ASSEMBLED. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. -Thomas Jefferson Did this actually grant African Americans political, economic, educational, and social equality? HEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes neceffary for one People to diffolve the Political Bands which have connected there with another, and to afiame among the Powers of the Earth, the feparate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Refpect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the caults which impel thein to the Separation. W W hold theie Truths to be felf-evident, that all Men are created equ, that they are endowed by their Crestor with certain alienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Purfuit of Happisefe-That to fecere thele Rights, Governmen are Infitated among Mes, deriving their juft Powers from the Content of the...

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Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes deftructive of thefe Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolis it, and inte new Government, laying in Foundation on fach Principles, and organizing its Powers in fach Form, ss to them thall feem tot likely to effect their Safety and Hippinel. Pradence, indeed, will difiate that Governments long el tablished thould not be changed for light and tranfest Cafes, and accordingly all Experience hath thewo, that Mankind are more difpoied to fuffer, while Evils are fefferable, than to right themselves by abouching the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abules and Ufarpations, parfu ing invariably the fame Objed, evinces & Defigs to reduce them under abfolete Defpotifm, it is their Right, it is their Daty, to throw off focs Government, and to provide new Gaards for their future Secarity. Such has been the patient Sufferance of thefe Colonies and fach is now the Neceflity which contains them to alter their former Syftems of Government. The Hiftory of the prefest King of Oren-Britain is Hifary of repeated Injuries and Ularpations, all hasing in direct Object the Etablishment of an abfolute Tyranny over these Senes. To prove this, let Facts be fubmind to a candid World. He has refuled his Affent to Laws, the molt wholefime and neceffary for the public Good. He has forbidden his Governors to pak Laws of immediate and prefing Importance, ankefe fufpended in their Operation till his Affest thould be obtained; and when fo felpendel, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pale other Laws for the Accommodation of large Difrida of People, usled thofe People would relinquish the Right of Reprefentation in the Legillature, a Right ineftimable to them, and formalable to Tyrants only. He has called together Legiſlative Bodies st Places unafual, uncomfortable, and distant frees the Depository of their poblic Records, for the fole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Mealeres. He has diffolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for oppofing with maily Firmnes his Iarations on the Rights of the People. He has refuied for long Time, after fach Diffolutions, to caule others to be elected whereby the Legiflative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have re- turned to the People at large for their exercife, the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invalion from without, and Convallions within. He hm endeavoured to prevent the Population of the States for that Parpefe obftracting the Laws for Naturalization of Foreignars, refusing to pali others to encourage their Migrations hither, and railing the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands He has obflruched the Adminitration of Justice, by refeing his Afent to Laws for eftablihing Judiciary Powers. He has made Jadges dependent on his Will aloor, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries. He has reled Maltinade of new Ofices, and lent hither Swarms of Officers to harrafs our People, and eat out their Subdance He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armin, without the confent of our Legillatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and feperior to the Civil Power. He has combined with others to fubject as to a Jurifdiction foreign to our Conbitation, and unacknowindged by our Laws, giving his Adent to their Ads of pretended Legillition: Fox quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us Fox protecting them, by a mock Trial, froma Panilament for any Murders which they Ghould commit on the Inhabitants of these State Fox cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World: Fox impoling Taxes on us without our Confint Fox depriving st, in mady Cafes, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury: Fox tranfporting a befond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences Fox abchiting the free Syftem of English Laws in a neighbouring Provinu, tablishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, fo sa to render it at once an Example and fit Intrument for introducing the fame abfolute Rale into thefe Colonies Fox taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: Fox fafpending our own Legiatures, sed declaring themfilves invelled with Power to legidaie for us in all Cafes whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War again us He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coals, burst our Towas, and defroyed the Lives of our People. His it this Tims, tranfporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complet the Works of Death, Defolation, and Tyranoy, already begun with cir- comftances of Cruelty and Perfidy, carcely paralleled in the mot barbaross Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of geivilized Nation. He has conftesined our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms againk their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall thrmálves by their Hands. He has excited domeltic Informations amongst un, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the miles Indian Serager, whofe known Rule of Warfare, is an andiflinguihed Deftruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions. Is every itage of these Opprefions we have Petitioned for Redreft in the mot humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been andwered only by repeat- at lajary. A Prince, whole Character is this marked by every act which may define a Tyrast, is unfit to be the Raler of free People Nos bare we been wanting in Antrations to our British Brethres. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legiflature to extend an unwarrantable Juridiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circundances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native Jallice and Magosianity, and we have conjured then by the Ties of our common Kindred to difavow thefe Uferpations, which, would inevitably interrupt oor Connections and Correfpondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Juftice and of Confanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiefce in the Necefity, which demances our Separation, and hold them, at we hold the ruit of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends. Ws. therefore, the Reprefentatives of the UNITED STAGES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Allembled, pealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rechirade of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, Z mnly Publich and Declare, That chefe United Colonics are, and of Right ought to be, FARE AND INDEPENDENT STATES dut they are abfolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great Britsin, is and ought to be totally dif folsed and that a FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATEL, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, chablish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of eight do. And for the fapport of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge seach other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our facred Hesor. Signed by Opper and in BEHALF of the CONGRES JOHN HANCOCK, PRESIDENT. Life before the movement ➤ Abolishment of slavery after the Civil War Discrimination and racism especially in the South Black people are disadvantaged by segregation and poorer education Many blacks could not find work They had to live separately from whites ➤ struggle for social justice during the 1950s to gain equal rights under the law in the United States 193 CIVIL RIGHTS NOW ➤ They, along with many white Americans, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades. AS THE MICHICA OR Types of segregation De jure segregation Segregation by law common in the South ➤ Laws forbid African Americans from attending the same church, using the same swimming pool, eating in restaurants or marrying white people. De facto segregation Segregation without laws common in the North ➤ Housing discrimination Non-Whites weren't allowed in white neigbourhoods ➤ Faced discrimination in employment 1960s:Most urban African Americans live in slums; landlords ignore ordinances; African American unemployment twice as high as white; Police brutality. How did change happen? Anti-discrimination organizations: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored people NAACP was founded in 1909 by American citizens "to achieve, through peaceful and lawful means, equal citizenship rights for all" The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee SNCC SNCC ST ➤The National Urban League NUL ➤ CORE Congress of Racial Equality CORE Congress of Racial Equality SCLC Southern Christian Leadership (11 National Urban League FOR THE Woryเวอร NAACP FOUNDED 1909 TENN ADVANCEMENT CHRISTIAN SOUTHERN CON OF COLORED LEADERSHIP civil rights movement The struggle for equality Life before the movement Abolishment of slavery after the Civil War Discrimination and racism especially in the South Black people are disadvantaged by segregation and poorer education Many blacks could not find work ► Blacks had to live separately from whites Struggle for social justice during the 1950s to gain equal rights under the law in the United States They, along with many white Americans, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades Anti-discrimination organizations: ▶The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured people NAACP The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee SNCC The National Urban League NUL ▶CORE Congress of Racial Equality ▶SCLC Southern Christian Leadership 7053 Montgomery Bus Boycott An Alabama law said that African Americans had to sit at the back of the bus Rosa Parks as the mother of freedom movement" 22 . Rosa Parks boarded a public bus in Montgomery on Dec. 1. 1955, she sat behind a reserved seat in the front section of the bus •She had to pay a fine of 14$ FOR Sit-ins = form of protest where protesters would sit down at segregated lunch counters and refuse to leave until they • Bus driver told her to move when a white man was standing but she was arrested for refusing to stand were served A new way to protest segregation of public facilities. THE TORON NAACP 1909 ADVANCEMENT O 274034 Types of Segregation De jure segregation ►Segregation by law common in the South De facto segregation National Urban League ▶Segregation without laws common in the North Housing discrimination ►Discrimination in employement OLORED The March on Washington on August 28, 1963 ▶250.000 Americans came to Washington D.C for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom ▶The march ended with King's "I have a dream" speech ▶One of the most important speeches in history ▶It gave hope to many African-Americans around the nation 1960 ...most urban African Americans live in slums ...landlords ignore ordinances ... African American unemployment twice as high as white ...police brutality SNCC CHRISTIAN MERC TIAN LEA CONFE CORE Congress of Racial Equality Martin Luther King Jr decided to get involved, he believed in peaceful, non-violent protests • He told African-Americans to stop riding the bus Walking for Justice, for 381 days, African Americans refused to tide the buses in Montgomery Finally in 1956, the Supreme Court declared segregation on public transportation unconstitutional. Martin Luther King Jr. * 15. January 1929 in Atlanta +4.April 1968 in Memphis ▶Martin Luther King Jr. decided to fight for equality and justice for all Americans of all colors He wanted to bring social change in a peaceful way He hold his most important speech ,,I have a dream" at the March on Washington The symbolic leader of American blacks and a world figure I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. ~ Martin Luther King The Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed into law on July 2,1964 by President Lyndon Johnson ▶Prohibition of discrimination in public places ► Desegregations of schools ► Outlawed discrimination in employment ▸ Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC The Voting Rights Act of 1965 Spurred by actions of protesters and the President, Congress passed the act Secured the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South ▶By 1975 Congress extended to Hispanics ▶Black participation jumped from 7% in 1964 to 70% in 1986 The Fair Housing Act of 1968 ▶Provided equal housing opportunities ▶Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of most housing ▸ Strengthened anti-lynching laws ▸ Made it a crime to harm civil rights workers VOTE Civil Rights Victories Eliminated de facto or de jure segregation Knocked down barriers of voting and political participation for African Americans ▶ Increase in the number of African Americans high school graduates "THE BEAUTY OF MAKE THIS NEIGHBORHOOD MIXED INCOME ▶Fair housing act ▶Poverty rate fell Appointment of Thurgood Marshall as the first African American Supreme Court Justice in 1967 ANTIRACISM IS THAT YOU DON'T HAVE TO PRETEND TO BE FREE of RACISM TO BE AN ANTI-RACIST. ANTIRACISM IS THE COMMITMENT TO FIGHT RACISM WHEREVER YOU FIND IT, INCLUDING IN YOURSELF. AND IT'S THE ONLY WAY FORWARD." IJEOMA OLU

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The civil rights movement

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 The Civil Rights movement
THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY
„There is no noise as powerful
as the sound of the marching
feet of a determined people

App öffnen

Powerpoint mit Handout zum Thema „Civil Rights Movement“, Note:1

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The Civil Rights movement THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY „There is no noise as powerful as the sound of the marching feet of a determined people. -Martin L. King Jr. WE MARCH The Declaration of Independence, 1776 IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776. A DECLARATION BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, IN GENERAL CONGRESS ASSEMBLED. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. -Thomas Jefferson Did this actually grant African Americans political, economic, educational, and social equality? HEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes neceffary for one People to diffolve the Political Bands which have connected there with another, and to afiame among the Powers of the Earth, the feparate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Refpect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the caults which impel thein to the Separation. W W hold theie Truths to be felf-evident, that all Men are created equ, that they are endowed by their Crestor with certain alienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Purfuit of Happisefe-That to fecere thele Rights, Governmen are Infitated among Mes, deriving their juft Powers from the Content of the...

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Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes deftructive of thefe Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolis it, and inte new Government, laying in Foundation on fach Principles, and organizing its Powers in fach Form, ss to them thall feem tot likely to effect their Safety and Hippinel. Pradence, indeed, will difiate that Governments long el tablished thould not be changed for light and tranfest Cafes, and accordingly all Experience hath thewo, that Mankind are more difpoied to fuffer, while Evils are fefferable, than to right themselves by abouching the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abules and Ufarpations, parfu ing invariably the fame Objed, evinces & Defigs to reduce them under abfolete Defpotifm, it is their Right, it is their Daty, to throw off focs Government, and to provide new Gaards for their future Secarity. Such has been the patient Sufferance of thefe Colonies and fach is now the Neceflity which contains them to alter their former Syftems of Government. The Hiftory of the prefest King of Oren-Britain is Hifary of repeated Injuries and Ularpations, all hasing in direct Object the Etablishment of an abfolute Tyranny over these Senes. To prove this, let Facts be fubmind to a candid World. He has refuled his Affent to Laws, the molt wholefime and neceffary for the public Good. He has forbidden his Governors to pak Laws of immediate and prefing Importance, ankefe fufpended in their Operation till his Affest thould be obtained; and when fo felpendel, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pale other Laws for the Accommodation of large Difrida of People, usled thofe People would relinquish the Right of Reprefentation in the Legillature, a Right ineftimable to them, and formalable to Tyrants only. He has called together Legiſlative Bodies st Places unafual, uncomfortable, and distant frees the Depository of their poblic Records, for the fole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Mealeres. He has diffolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for oppofing with maily Firmnes his Iarations on the Rights of the People. He has refuied for long Time, after fach Diffolutions, to caule others to be elected whereby the Legiflative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have re- turned to the People at large for their exercife, the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invalion from without, and Convallions within. He hm endeavoured to prevent the Population of the States for that Parpefe obftracting the Laws for Naturalization of Foreignars, refusing to pali others to encourage their Migrations hither, and railing the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands He has obflruched the Adminitration of Justice, by refeing his Afent to Laws for eftablihing Judiciary Powers. He has made Jadges dependent on his Will aloor, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries. He has reled Maltinade of new Ofices, and lent hither Swarms of Officers to harrafs our People, and eat out their Subdance He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armin, without the confent of our Legillatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and feperior to the Civil Power. He has combined with others to fubject as to a Jurifdiction foreign to our Conbitation, and unacknowindged by our Laws, giving his Adent to their Ads of pretended Legillition: Fox quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us Fox protecting them, by a mock Trial, froma Panilament for any Murders which they Ghould commit on the Inhabitants of these State Fox cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World: Fox impoling Taxes on us without our Confint Fox depriving st, in mady Cafes, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury: Fox tranfporting a befond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences Fox abchiting the free Syftem of English Laws in a neighbouring Provinu, tablishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, fo sa to render it at once an Example and fit Intrument for introducing the fame abfolute Rale into thefe Colonies Fox taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: Fox fafpending our own Legiatures, sed declaring themfilves invelled with Power to legidaie for us in all Cafes whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War again us He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coals, burst our Towas, and defroyed the Lives of our People. His it this Tims, tranfporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complet the Works of Death, Defolation, and Tyranoy, already begun with cir- comftances of Cruelty and Perfidy, carcely paralleled in the mot barbaross Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of geivilized Nation. He has conftesined our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms againk their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall thrmálves by their Hands. He has excited domeltic Informations amongst un, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the miles Indian Serager, whofe known Rule of Warfare, is an andiflinguihed Deftruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions. Is every itage of these Opprefions we have Petitioned for Redreft in the mot humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been andwered only by repeat- at lajary. A Prince, whole Character is this marked by every act which may define a Tyrast, is unfit to be the Raler of free People Nos bare we been wanting in Antrations to our British Brethres. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legiflature to extend an unwarrantable Juridiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circundances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native Jallice and Magosianity, and we have conjured then by the Ties of our common Kindred to difavow thefe Uferpations, which, would inevitably interrupt oor Connections and Correfpondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Juftice and of Confanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiefce in the Necefity, which demances our Separation, and hold them, at we hold the ruit of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends. Ws. therefore, the Reprefentatives of the UNITED STAGES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Allembled, pealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rechirade of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, Z mnly Publich and Declare, That chefe United Colonics are, and of Right ought to be, FARE AND INDEPENDENT STATES dut they are abfolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great Britsin, is and ought to be totally dif folsed and that a FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATEL, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, chablish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of eight do. And for the fapport of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge seach other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our facred Hesor. Signed by Opper and in BEHALF of the CONGRES JOHN HANCOCK, PRESIDENT. Life before the movement ➤ Abolishment of slavery after the Civil War Discrimination and racism especially in the South Black people are disadvantaged by segregation and poorer education Many blacks could not find work They had to live separately from whites ➤ struggle for social justice during the 1950s to gain equal rights under the law in the United States 193 CIVIL RIGHTS NOW ➤ They, along with many white Americans, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades. AS THE MICHICA OR Types of segregation De jure segregation Segregation by law common in the South ➤ Laws forbid African Americans from attending the same church, using the same swimming pool, eating in restaurants or marrying white people. De facto segregation Segregation without laws common in the North ➤ Housing discrimination Non-Whites weren't allowed in white neigbourhoods ➤ Faced discrimination in employment 1960s:Most urban African Americans live in slums; landlords ignore ordinances; African American unemployment twice as high as white; Police brutality. How did change happen? Anti-discrimination organizations: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored people NAACP was founded in 1909 by American citizens "to achieve, through peaceful and lawful means, equal citizenship rights for all" The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee SNCC SNCC ST ➤The National Urban League NUL ➤ CORE Congress of Racial Equality CORE Congress of Racial Equality SCLC Southern Christian Leadership (11 National Urban League FOR THE Woryเวอร NAACP FOUNDED 1909 TENN ADVANCEMENT CHRISTIAN SOUTHERN CON OF COLORED LEADERSHIP civil rights movement The struggle for equality Life before the movement Abolishment of slavery after the Civil War Discrimination and racism especially in the South Black people are disadvantaged by segregation and poorer education Many blacks could not find work ► Blacks had to live separately from whites Struggle for social justice during the 1950s to gain equal rights under the law in the United States They, along with many white Americans, mobilized and began an unprecedented fight for equality that spanned two decades Anti-discrimination organizations: ▶The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured people NAACP The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee SNCC The National Urban League NUL ▶CORE Congress of Racial Equality ▶SCLC Southern Christian Leadership 7053 Montgomery Bus Boycott An Alabama law said that African Americans had to sit at the back of the bus Rosa Parks as the mother of freedom movement" 22 . Rosa Parks boarded a public bus in Montgomery on Dec. 1. 1955, she sat behind a reserved seat in the front section of the bus •She had to pay a fine of 14$ FOR Sit-ins = form of protest where protesters would sit down at segregated lunch counters and refuse to leave until they • Bus driver told her to move when a white man was standing but she was arrested for refusing to stand were served A new way to protest segregation of public facilities. THE TORON NAACP 1909 ADVANCEMENT O 274034 Types of Segregation De jure segregation ►Segregation by law common in the South De facto segregation National Urban League ▶Segregation without laws common in the North Housing discrimination ►Discrimination in employement OLORED The March on Washington on August 28, 1963 ▶250.000 Americans came to Washington D.C for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom ▶The march ended with King's "I have a dream" speech ▶One of the most important speeches in history ▶It gave hope to many African-Americans around the nation 1960 ...most urban African Americans live in slums ...landlords ignore ordinances ... African American unemployment twice as high as white ...police brutality SNCC CHRISTIAN MERC TIAN LEA CONFE CORE Congress of Racial Equality Martin Luther King Jr decided to get involved, he believed in peaceful, non-violent protests • He told African-Americans to stop riding the bus Walking for Justice, for 381 days, African Americans refused to tide the buses in Montgomery Finally in 1956, the Supreme Court declared segregation on public transportation unconstitutional. Martin Luther King Jr. * 15. January 1929 in Atlanta +4.April 1968 in Memphis ▶Martin Luther King Jr. decided to fight for equality and justice for all Americans of all colors He wanted to bring social change in a peaceful way He hold his most important speech ,,I have a dream" at the March on Washington The symbolic leader of American blacks and a world figure I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. ~ Martin Luther King The Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed into law on July 2,1964 by President Lyndon Johnson ▶Prohibition of discrimination in public places ► Desegregations of schools ► Outlawed discrimination in employment ▸ Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC The Voting Rights Act of 1965 Spurred by actions of protesters and the President, Congress passed the act Secured the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South ▶By 1975 Congress extended to Hispanics ▶Black participation jumped from 7% in 1964 to 70% in 1986 The Fair Housing Act of 1968 ▶Provided equal housing opportunities ▶Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of most housing ▸ Strengthened anti-lynching laws ▸ Made it a crime to harm civil rights workers VOTE Civil Rights Victories Eliminated de facto or de jure segregation Knocked down barriers of voting and political participation for African Americans ▶ Increase in the number of African Americans high school graduates "THE BEAUTY OF MAKE THIS NEIGHBORHOOD MIXED INCOME ▶Fair housing act ▶Poverty rate fell Appointment of Thurgood Marshall as the first African American Supreme Court Justice in 1967 ANTIRACISM IS THAT YOU DON'T HAVE TO PRETEND TO BE FREE of RACISM TO BE AN ANTI-RACIST. ANTIRACISM IS THE COMMITMENT TO FIGHT RACISM WHEREVER YOU FIND IT, INCLUDING IN YOURSELF. AND IT'S THE ONLY WAY FORWARD." IJEOMA OLU