QII The USA - the formtion of a nation <- Inhaltsverzeichnis CH -> development & principles of American democracy and the Constitution -> landmarks of American history Q1.2 Living in the American society →> the American way of life -> migration and the American Dream Q13 Manifestation of individualism Thema / Inhalt -> the American Dream as a manifestation of individualism → concepts of life -> → stories of initiation - To kill a Mockingbird. Seite 2 3 +4 LO 5 6 + 7 7 8 9-10. LEGISLATIVE Congress House of Representatives can veto each others laws W JE UT L E. c. D 2 E UTLY R Senate 소 с JOC EQUOUS can impeach can declare laws as unconstitutional veto JUDICIARY Supreme Court Chief Justice appoints judges (for life) Associate Justices eligible voter president Political System system of chicks and balances EXECUTIVE can declare presidential acts as unconstitutional APPOINTS head of state . head of government с T presidential electors ELECT 9 0 V e r n 3.03 3 t first modern democracy main parties: Democrats & Republicans O advantages. system of checks & balances -> seperation of power • House of representatives: amount of representatives per state is calculated every 10years. disadvantages presidential electors →→ president is not elected directly -> • Senate: every state has two senators disregarding its size and population. developement of the constitution 1. 4th July 1776 Declaration of Independence -> separation from Great Britain -> right to found a state union 2. 1787 Introduction of the Constitution -> federal system, system of checks & balances -> representative democracy George Washington is commander-in-chief 3..1791 Bill of Rights →> 10 amendments for the Constitution -> civil rights that cannot be taken away -> freedom of religion, speech -> right to own a gun (2nd) 1492 Columbus discovers America 1607...
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first British colony in North America →→ Jamestown (Virginia) 16.10 Mayflower with pilgrims arrives; formation of the colony. Plymouth -> searching religious freedom. more colonies with dutch, french, spanish and british people 16 19 first slaves from Africa arrive 1754 - 1763 7 years war between France and Great Britain -> France looses and has to hand over its colonies -> 13 british colonies 1773 Boston Tea Party -> colonists throw tea of the British East India Company into the habor -> „No taxation without representation" -> colonies have to pay high taxes but aren't politicaly represented (-> no political impact) 1775 - 1783 war of independence against Great Britain 4th July 1776 Declaration of Independence --> 13 colonies declare themselves as independent 1787 Constitution -> federal system, system of checks & balances →> representative democracy George Washington is commander-in-chief -> landmarks of American history -> 1791 Bill of rights · -> 10 amendments for the Constitution -> civil rights that can not be taken away -> ex.: freedom of religion, speech, press and right to assemble in public (1st. amendment), the right to have guns (2nd amendment) until 1850s exploration of the west -> Manifest Destiny 1861-1865 Civil War (South vs. Union (North)) -> question of slavery (North is against slavery) 1865 official abolition of slavery 1865 foundation of the Ku Klux Klan -> organisation which wants to reintroduce slavery 1896 Supreme Court decides that white and black people can be separated but only with same conditions beginning of segregation, for example in buses, southern states discriminated black people „Jim Crow Laws“ →> theater caracter potrayed by white people (black face), racist desribtion of afro-americans 1900s peak years of immigration 1917 US declares war on Germany. -> -> 1930s Great Depression →→ 1929 stock market crash, government doesn't interfere -> prices fall, people pick their money from the bank, banks close, poorness, suicide, lack of prospects, mental illnesses, hate developes (searching a responsible person). 1939-1945 World War II 1945-1991 Cold War 1948-1952 Marshall plan -> credits for european countries 1954 abolition of segregation in school Civil Rights Movement 1955 - 1968 - fight for racial equality - non-violent protests - background: after the Civil War many southern states continued to treat African-Americans as second class citizens -leading figure: Martin Luther King 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott -> Rosa Park refuses to make place for a white person and gets arrested →→ a group of black peolpe boycotts the bus over a year 1957 Civil Rights Act -> Congress makes law which allows black people to vote 1963 March on Washington -> march for jobs and freedom -> Martin Lither King gives his famous speech I have a dream" 1968 Martin Luther King is assassinated 20019/11 2008 Barack Obama, first Afro-American president Black Lives Matter 2013 beginnig of Black Lives Matter in the USA →> social movement against racial violence by the police → hashtag on social media the origin 2014 demonstrations in lots of american cities after the death of two afro-american people which were killed by police men 2020 protests after the death of George Floyd (also killed by a police man), protests spread around the world, widely spread topic on social media international superpower -> culture, consume nation of immigrants -> melting pot / salad bowl / mosaic - multicultural society country of freedom and independence -> high regards to democracy & liberty • land of dreams & opportunities -> everything can be achieved materialism & ownership • country of contrasts → nature/big cities, social and class contrats -> superior -> bigger, better, more powerful than everyone -> „God's blessed and given country" -> Manifest Destiny proud and patriotic nation. O criticism excessive consume the American way of life • waste of raw materials • explotaition of human labour . pollution mability driving everywhere • big cars • highways • lots of travelling attitude • (foreign) friendly • helpful →→ voluntary work -> • cheerful • active • happy character optimistic freedom-loving. sports-loving linked between generations O reasons for immigration colonies needed worker ..new and unexplored land. -> hope economic reasons -> job opportunities, poverty,... • religious reasons -> discrimination,... • personal reasons -> marriage, ... • political reasons -> oppression, discrimination, war,... • hope of a better life -> American Dream -> no restrictions according to immigration until the end of the 19th century ↓↓ -> since the beginning of 20th century.there are restrictions because the number of immigrants was not sustainable anymore ·lots of illegal (undocumented) immigrants especially from Mexico -> doing hard work -> not well paid the pilgrims -> immigrants from Europe -> brought African slaves migration Statue of Liberty • gift from France to celebrate 100 years of American independence 0 salad bowl / mosaic O symbol of freedom & independence Ellis Island first stop for the immigrants entering the USA symbol of hope > first thing the immigrants would see negative assocaitions -> people who were not. allowed to enter where detained before being. sent back to their land of origin the population consists of many different ethnic groups -> multicultural society melting pot . immigrants entering the USA. fuse with their culture giving up their origin culture. -> assimilation • mixture of ethnic groups which maintain their culture, all together form the American society. quilt -> blanket with different pattern. sewed together in the past James Adams 1931. - religious and personal freedom - opportunities of succes and prosperity - political and social expectations - everyone is able to live the American Dream Declaration of Independence -> concept has its roots in the Declaration of Independence. -> basic human rights -> equality of the people nowadays -> caracterized by individual hopes & dreams individualism self-responsibility for owns fate self-realization (nobody is force I to do something) equality & freedom o individual dreams & hopes -> Q material dream wealth property mobility American Dream →> INDIVIDUAL O O immaterial dream happiness freedom (democracy) self-realization equality Dream of a land where everybody has the chance to live a better life with equal rights and chances for everyone. Dream to achieve everything through hard work from rags to riches". Ellis Island place of hope critizism just an illusion for many people unrealistic living in the city lots of people mobility-> public transport less privacy anonymity more noise, hecticness & pollution. →> traffic hotspots for different things education, crime social diversity lots of free time opportunities. -> night life, culture new innovations, modern Concepts of life dropping out of society reasons why people do not want to be part of society are very individual self-discovery, feeling of not fitting into society -> →→ 100% self-sustainability -> buying property & living on the own production -> people travelling around the world → semi-integrated because they are not at a place for a long time period -> they sacrifice the advantages of a society integrating back into society is possible living in the country more privacy more space & less people around →> good connection between neighbours not that noisy →> calm, easy -> -> less traffic better air closer to nature less hecticness relax less things to do in immediate reach lots of agriculture -> supply of the city cheaper good place to raise children long distance between places (school, hospital) worse infrastructure (internet9 stories of initiation / coming of age story. -> special type of American short stories -> > presents a deeply confusing incident of a child / adolescent -> protagonist is confronted with an aspect of adult life for the first time (death, old age) -> different stages of coping with this experience® →> shock. -> struggle for answers →> coming to terms (etw. bewältigen) -> greater insight into the complexities of grown-up life →> 3 children learn about inequality and racism mockingbird = symbol.for.innocence -> Tom Robinson, Boo Radley setting - town called Maycomb, Alabama rural, old-fashioned; run-down, boring -> - Great Depression movie to kill a Mockingbird by Robert Mulligan (1962) Tom Robinson black married man defends hin in court Atticus Finch widowed lawyer. father accuses him of rape Mayella Ewell young white woman Scout Jean Luise Finch siblings Jem Finch Dill friend father Bob Ewell saves drunkard kills Boo Radley Walter Cunningham pays Atticus with a sack of nuts children meet Atticus at work. Jem gets to know with Dill and tells him about Boo Radley Atticus gets to know that he is appointed to defend Tom Robinson -> he agrees. →> monster leaving the house at night →> Dills aunt adds that Boo stabbed in his fathers leg with a scissor -> People wanted to send him to asylum but instead he was locked up in the courthouse basement, until he was brought home again -> since then he has not been seen leaving his house - mad dog is on the street - Atticus kills him + - Atticus visits Tom Robinson's wife - Jem stays in the car -Bob Ewell comes & looks into the car - Atticus comes & Bob Ewell calls him nigger-lover - children go to the courthouse to see where Boo was locked - Bob wants to kill the children because of the trial. Scout wants to see the person Atticus should defend Scout gets into another fight at school. someone calls his father nigger-lover - Atticus explains that it is her moral duty which got her into that fight Jem & Dill want to look through the windows of the Radley's house scared & go home - shadow passes them - Jem's pants get cought in the fence & he goes without it - Jem goes back because of his pants Mr Radley fired his gun because he heard a prowler - Atticus sends children home - Atticus is accosted by Bob Ewell children get help from an unknown person →> Boo Radley Boo kills Bob -> - Scout's first school day son of Walter Cunningham has dinner with the family - talking about guns Atticus tells about his father who told to never shoot at a mockingbird (innocent, nice singing) - Scout does not want to go to school again because she got into trouble with her teacher - Atticus tells her to „climb inside the other person's skin and walk around in it" - Atticus has to leave to the jail - children follow him - armed men (also Mr. Cunningham) arrive - Scout talks to Mr. Cunningham - men leave - Tom Robinson is not guilty (Mayella kissed him) - Tom gets shot children go to the courthouse to watch the trial -> › only free space on the black balcony Scout compares Boo with a Mockingbird