Act I On a bleak Scottish moorland, Macbeth and Banquo, two of King Duncan's generals discover three strange women (the witches). The witches prophecy that Macbeth will be promoted twice: to Thane of Cawdor (a rank of the aristocracy bestowed by grateful kings) and to King of Scotland. Banquo's descendants will be kings, but Banquo isn't promised any kingdom himself. The generals want to hear more, but the „weird sisters“ disappear. Soon afterwards, King Duncan names Macbeth Thane of Cawdor as a reward for his success in the recent battles. The promotion seems to support the prophecy. The King then proposes to make a brief visit that night to Macbeth's castle at Inverness. Lady Macbeth receives news from her husband about the prophecy and his new title. She vows to help him become King by whatever means are necessary. → Exposition: Macbeth Act II Macbeth returns to his castle, followed almost immediately by King Duncan. The Macbeths plot to kill Duncan together and wait until everyone is asleep. At the appointed time, Lady Macbeth gives the guards drugged wine so Macbeth can enter and kill the King. He regrets this almost immediately. But his wife reassures him. She leaves the bloody daggers by the dead King just before Macduff, a noblemen, arrives. When Macduff discovers the murder, Macbeth...
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kills the drunken guards in a show of rage and retribution. Duncan's sons, Malcolm and Donalbain, flee, fearing for their own lives; but the are, nevertheless, blamed for the murder. - erster Überblick über die Handlung und die beteiligten Personen Informationen über die grundlegende Konstellation des Dramas Vorstellung der drei Hexen, des Königs und seiner Söhne, Macbeth und Banquo Steigerung: erste entscheidende Handlung an der Hauptperson (Mord am König) -> dramatische Steigung - Macbeth wird König -> zweiter Teil der Prophezeiung wird erfüllt Act III Macbeth becomes King of Scotland but is plagued by feelings of insecurities. He remembers the prophecy that Banquo's descendants will inherit the throne and arranges for Banquo and his son Fleance to be killed. In the darkness, Banquo is murdered, but his son escapes the assassins. At his state banquet that night, Macbeth sees the ghost of Banquo and worries the courtiers with his mad response. Lady Macbeth dismisses the court and unsuccessfully tries to calm her husband. Höhepunkt: Macbeth ist der König —> schmiedet Plan Banquo und Fleance zu töten (Fleance überlebt) Wendepunkt: Macduff and Malcolm treffen sich und planen Macbeths Tod Act IV Macbeth seeks out the witches who say that he will be safe until a local wood, Birnam Wood, marches into battle against him. He also doesn't need to fear someone born a women (that sounds secure, no loop-holes here). They also prophecy that the Scottish succession will still come from Banquo's son. Macbeth embarks on a reign of terror, slaughtering many, including Macduff's family. Macduff had gone to seek Malcolm (on of Duncan's sons who fled) at the court of the english King. Malcolm is young and unsure of himself, but Macduff, painted with grief, persuades him to lead an army against Macbeth. Retardierendem Moment: Verzögerung der Katastrophe Es erscheint kurzzeitig, als sei Lösung in Sicht Erfährt vom Verrat von Macduff (lässt seine Familie töten) Act V Macbeth feels safe in his remote castle at Dunsinane until he is told that Birnam Wood is moving towards him. Malcolm's army is carrying branches from the forest as camouflage for their assault on Macbeths stronghold. Meanwhile, an overwrought and conscience-ridden Lady Macbeth walks in her sleep and tells secrets to her doctor. She commits suicide. As the final battle commences, Macbeth hears of Lady Macbeth's suicide and mourns. In midst of losing the battle, Macduff challenges Macbeth. Macbeth learns that Macduff is the child of caesarean birth, as he realises he is doomed, and submits to his enemy. Macduff triumphs and brings the head of the traitor Macbeth to Malcolm. Malcolm declares peace and goes to Scone to be crowned king. Katastrophe: Lady Macbeth begeht Selbstmord Prophezeiungen waren zweideutig Macbeth wird getötet Macbeth tötet Duncan Lady Macbeth ermutigt Macbeth Aufstieg Macbeth' Macbeth wird König 1. Prophezeiung 1. Prophezeiung ist wahr geworden bzw. wurde verhindert Macbeth tötet Banquo II III Englische Armee zieht in den Krieg gegen Macbeth 2. Prophezeiung IV Fall Macbeth' Lady Macbeth begeht Selbstmord Birnam Wood bewegt sich auf Macbeth' Schloss zu V Macduff tötet Macbeth Characters Character Macbeth Lady Macbeth reality feelings are surpressed dreams deeper consciousness Surppressed thoughts feelings Characteristics outside Subconsciousness - - brave warrior leader Ambitious Loyal → Lady Macbeth pushes all her feelings down/surpresses them and that is eventually the reason why she kills herself (because of her mental health issues). rational, thoughts ambitious Knows what she wants Is willing to become fully evil and loose all her human qualities Does not have any moral values anymore Is influential and dominant Disguises her evil well (nice to her guests) Strong, caring Soothing characteristics inside naive Weak Fears god/getting murdered Worried by the strength of his own ambition Changeable Guilty conscience Ruthless Two faced Sensitive needs alcohol to boost her courage She is not as strong as she seems to be She could not kill Duncan because he looks like her father (sensitive) Is not as heartless as she wishes (has human feelings) Rationalises the dead (does not want to think about the murder in order not to go insane) Makes herself believe that it is childish to be afraid of the dead Two faced Manipulative Ruthless (Subliminal) guilty conscience Mentally unstable Character Map Lady Macbeth (Macbeth's wife and co-conspirator) encourages in mur der of Duncan The Doctor (called by Lady Macbeth's gentlewoman) reveals prophecies to Macbeth (great warrior, later king of Scotland) arranges the murder of Banquo (warrior and Macbeth's friend) hears nighttime confession of Fleance (Banquo's son, father to later Scottish kings) reveals prophecies to Three witches (agents of Fate) arranges the murder of Lady Macduff and son (Macduff's wife and son) ultimately kills murders Macduff (thane of Scotland) Duncan (king of Scotland) Donalbain (Duncan's son) support in final battle joins forces against Macbeth Malcolm (Duncan's son, later king) Lennox, Ross, Menteth, Angus, Caithness (thanes who eventually turn against Macbeth) The importance of Banquo Macbeth is willing to kill a good friend of his, because becoming King is more important As described by others Banquo is like Macbeth (but a better version of him that isn't two faced or has a dark side) Brave soldier, very loyal, noble, trustworthy Also got a prophecy from the witches (his prophecy results danger for Macbeth) He automatically realises the danger of the prophecy Is the good or even better Macbeth = „anti-Macbeth" Banquo is a constant reminder of what he could or should be Banquo can resist his prophecy Banquo is Macbeth's conscience (reappears as a ghost and reminds him of the murder, makes him feel guilty) When Macbeth kills Banquo, he also kills his own conscience and becomes evil and mad -> the ghost of Banquo is covered in blood which represents the sin and guilt Macbeth feels because of the murder -> it also shows brutality and violence -> stands for death Macbeth in relation to the murder of Duncan first he is willing to kill Duncan He questions his decision to kill the king because he is afraid of god and knows that the king trusts him - He does not believe that he is strong enough to do it Lady Macbeth convinces him to do it Manipulates him into doing him and persuades him Lady Macbeth's ways of persuasion attacking him Puts pressure on him Questions his bravery/masculinity Empowering him Telling him how strong she could be and how far she would go Showing madness and disappointment Shows him that she is stronger than him manipulates him His feelings after the murder bad Guilty, thinks that god left him Irritated Confused Traumatised Paranoid Regrets his tion immediately Thinks that he will be punished Fair is foul and foul is fair what appears to be good could be bad (Lady Macbeth & Macbeth) What appears to be bad could be good All is not what it seems What seems good and trustworthy is actually not Looks can be deceiving Is a motif throughout the play appearance vs reality Examples: the witches themselves are ugly, but they offer what Macbeth would think are beautiful words about his rise to power Macbeth seems heroic and loyal to the king, but he is actually a traitor The natural order - the king as head of the state -> highest source of authority -> only god is above him a disruption of the natural order of being results in pure chaos General themes of the drama appearance vs reality -> something appears to be one thing, actually is another -> something bad is disguised as good Banquo as Macbeth's conscience Lady Macbeth as Macbeth's ruthless and evil side Macbeth's manhood Ambition -> spirals by the witches and Lady Macbeth (cause for their deaths) Loyalty vs betrayal -> betrayed the king and Banquo, even though he had the reputation of being a loyal nobleman Fate vs free will -> would Macbeth have named King without the murder? -> he was named Thane of Cawdor without any actions of him -> assassinations were free will due to his own planning sleep - as purity and innocence - Lady Macbeth's sleepwalking Blood - murder and guilt Relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth unusual relationship (wife more dominant and manipulates her husband) Most of the time: polite, respectful, loving Lady Macbeth is more confident, while Macbeth is more quiet Lady Macbeth uses her knowledge about his husband to manipulate him (questions his manhood, uses different ways of persuasion) Macbeth's character and his character development as seen by others: His true self: Brave and heroic warrior Describes as noble and loyal to his kingdom His wife sees him as weak and afraid (wants him to man up) Reasons: king honoured him, was nice, doesn't want to loose his good status Is willing to kill more and more people, even good friends to succeed Development: 1. brave warrior and loyal leader 2. falls victim to the witches predictions 3. plans to murder the king 4. grows uncertain about the deed 5. Is afraid of death and his afterlife 6. Feels his manhood threatened 7. „Mans up" and kills the king 8. His fear increases (kills more and more people to protect himself) 9. Feels guilty 10. Is more or less heroic at the end when he fights against the English troops - very invested in his future (wants to increase his power) Inner conflict: wants the crown but is afraid of being king Is ruthless and somehow evil (plots the murder for gaining power) Is afraid for his afterlife (doesn't want to go to hell) Is afraid of getting murdered himself, since he played the example, that is possible Is uncertain about the murder Scene by scene Act I Scene 1: - Scene 2: The three witches meet and agree to meet Macbeth The King is informed about Macbeth's actions and success against the Norwegian army Scene 3: - Macbeth and Banquo meet the witches and ask them about their future Scene 4: Macbeth and Banquo meet the king, who thanks them and then announces that Malcolm will be next king Scene 5: Lady Macbeth and Macbeth discuss their plan of killing Duncan Scene 6: Duncan and his attendants arrive at Macbeth's castle Scene 7: Macbeth grows uncertain about the murder but his wife persuades him into doing it Act II Scene 1: Macbeth roams the halls right before killing Duncan and meets Banquo and his son Scene 2: Scene 3: the murder is discovered and Macbeth kills the two attendants and the king's son flee Scene 4: Macbeth and Lady Macbeth meet after the murder Act III Scene 1: !!! Macbeth is chosen to be the next king since Duncan's sons are suspected of the murder since they fled Scene 2: Macbeth (king now) fears Banquo and decides to instruct murders to kill Scene 3: Lady Macbeth and Macbeth discuss his fears - Scene 4: Banquo is killed (arranged by Macbeth), Fleance manages to escape Macbeth holds a banquet, Banquo's ghost appears Scene 5: the three witches meet with their leader, prepare for meeting Macbeth, leading him into false sense of security Scene 6: Act IV Scene 1: !!! Macduff joined forces with the English army with Malcolm Scene 2: Macbeth meets the witches again to learn more about his future - A group of murderers (instructed by Macbeth) kills Macduff's wife and kids Scene 3: Macduff and Malcolm come together and agree to fight Macbeth together Act V Scene 1: !!! Lady Macbeth is sleepwalking and tries to get „the blood of her hands" Scene 2: four Scottish lords join the English army and discuss their progress Scene 3: Macbeth prepares for battle, when he is informed about his wife's mental state Scene 4: the English troops arrive near Macbeth's castle and camouflage Scene 5: Lady Macbeth killed herself, Macbeth is informed that the english army is closing in Scene 6: the real battle begins Scene 7: !!! Macbeth kills young Siward on the battlefield Scene 8: Macduff kills Macbeth Scene 9: Malcolm is the new/righteous king stylistic devices alliteration anaphora antitheses epiphora hyperbole metaphor simile parallelism Stylistic devices ➜ All effects cannot just be copied out of the list below and must be explained further. example Repetition of initial "The fair breeze blew, consonant sound. the white foam flew." definition Repeating the first part of a In every town, in every house in sentence. every man, in every woman and in every child ..... Having two opposite ideas "One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." a sentence. Repeating the ending words of a sentence. Exaggeration of ideas. Comparing two things without using the words "like" or "as". Comparing two things using the words "like" or "as". Using components in a sentence that are grammatically the same or have similar sounds or construction. "I am an American, he is a n American, everybody is an American. " 'I loved Ophelia: forty thousand brothers could not, with all their quantity of love make up my sum.' (Shakespeare) "... the sand of time..." "All the world's a stage And all the men and woman merely players..." (Shakespeare) ... as dead as a mutton ... as fit as a fiddle ... like a bull in a china shop ... ILL "I wandered lonely as a cloud..." (Wordsworth) "Like father, like son." or "They got together and talked, laughed and giggled." effect ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Create amusing effect. ● Common human feelings sound remarkable. Can also create contrast if something is described using exaggeration and the next thing isn't. This attracts reader's attention. Helps visualise. ● Grabs reader's attention, sort of punctuates words. Also creates mood for e.g. if it's an 's' sound, maybe shows snakelike quantity or hissing. Perhaps slyness of the narrator. ● to stress the main point often used in speeches. Adds rhythm making it easier to read and remember. Emphasises ideas. Makes it easier to understand the point being made or the complexity of the situation. Emphasise words/message.. Gives a unique rhythm to text. Convey the importance of something. Gives readers another way of thinking about something. Creates an image for the reader. Make it easier to understand what the reader is saying (mostly applies to similes). Adds rhythm to sentences. In literature, usually used to convey some message. personification When an idea or animal is given human characteristics. Repeating words or phrases. repetition rhetorical question tone short / long sentences enumeration irony ellipse ambiguity allusion A question which is meant to be unanswered. Denotes the accent or inflection of the voice as adapted to the emotion or passion expressed, also used for the style or manner of approach in speaking or writing in general A number of points set out in a list. It is a figure of speech by which the writer says the opposite of what he means. Sources: The shortening of a sentence by the omission of one or more words that may be easily understood from the context. In deceptive rhetoric it is the deliberate wording of a phrase or passage in such a way that it can be taken in two ways. Short sentences may make it more authoritative like an order. Could also give more clarity. Long sentences may sound formal or even. conversational. Depends on the language used! A reference to a person, work of art, event etc. Allusions require a common cultural experience shared by the writer and the reader. "The sky weeps.", "Justice is blind" "Bond. James Bond." (James Bond films) https://lehnigernet.de "Who does nor love this country?" (= of course everybody loves his country) The tone can be: colloquial, ironical, serious, earnest, humorous etc. "Dear inhabitants from Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Oceania. The Old Man and the Computer (allusion to The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway) https://ibyourwayout.files.wordpress.com/2019/05/stylistic-devices-their-effects.pdf ● ● ● ● ● Also persuasive because an idea is emphasised and easy to remember using this structure. Gives things life or some similarity with human beings. To grab the reader's attention. For e.g. repeating a line. Emphasise and create rhythm. Used to bring liveliness into a speech Emphasise a point being made. Mostly used to as an effect. Used to persuade people. It reflects the mood of the author and his attitude towards his subject. Create the feeling of wholeness; Accentuate and emphasize something. It is often used to blame. Eventually it will draw attention to its actual meaning. It is used to avoid repetition but also used for artistic effect. It is e.g. to hide the truth or to leave the reader uncertain about the author's real attitude. The reader is expected to think about the situation himself and to have a certain knowledge. Summary 1. Einleitungssatz -> Autor, Jahr, Thema, Textsorte, The (text type) (title) was written by (author) in (date of publication) and deals with (main topic). -> The given text taken from Shakespeare's Macbeth Act `` Scene is preceded by the following events: 2. Hauptteil -> Einordnung in die Tragödie (Was passiert davor, was danach?) -> Worum geht es in der Szene? Was passiert? 3. Schluss -> Kein Schlusssatz -> Summary endet damit, dass Lady Macbeth sich zu Ende der Tragödie umbringt, Macbeth von Macduff getötet wird Analyse 1. Einleitung -> Kein Einleitungssatz -> Analyse wird mit der Deutungshypothese eingeleitet 2. Deutungshypothese -> Hauptthema des Textes -> Vermutung über die Kernaussagen wird im Laufe der Analyse widerlegt oder unterstützt -> Intention des Autors 3. Schluss -> zusammenfassender Schlusssatz -> Rückbezug auf Deutungshypothese