Englisch LK Abitur 2021 1) Summary 1. Introduction "The article/speech/poem ["title"] written/given by [author/speaker/poet] in [place] on [date] (to [audience] for [occasion]) is about [topic(s)]." 2. Body • own words • simple present • only the essentials • formal language connectives 2) Analysis - fictional text Common tasks: • Analyze the way in which X is characterized Analyze the way X + Y's relationship is characterized Examine the narrative perspective + explain how it affects... → Bezug zur Aufgabenstellung 2. Body Claim: characters central trait Language help Characters: 1. Introduction e.g.: "The protagonist/(main) character X out of the (short) story ["title"] written by [author] can be characterized by the use of narrative techniques and language" ● ● Language help According to [author/speaker],... X is directly characterized by... • ...reveals different sides of X as each of them perceives X in his/her own way. X is characterized indirectly by/through... ● [Author/speaker] believes/claims/emphasizes/ points out... From the speakers/authors point of view,... [Author/speaker] is of the opinion that... ● N. Brunsmann The frequent use of direct characterization creates a clear/positive/negative picture of.../helps the reader to... X's behavior/the way X speaks/dresses...suggests that... As X is presented/described as..., it becomes clear that... X's reaction/comment reveals/makes the reader feel/believe that... Narrative perspective: By granting the reader access to the character's mind, the narrator draws attention to/makes the reader see... Due to the first-/third-person- narration (with a limited/omniscient point of view), it is (not so) easy for the reader to identify with... From the way X reacts...
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to/behaves when... we can infer/conclude... The protagonist seems to be... Language: The author makes use of...to create an...atmosphere. The use of short forms + colloquial language in direct speech suggests that... By incorporating a lot of direct speech, the narrator manages to... The author uses metaphorical language to... 3. Conclusion (main findings) As the story is told by [[narrator type], the reader knows more/does not know more than the character(s) in the story. The reader needs to be careful not to take all they read for granted as they experience the development through the main character's eyes. 1 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Narrative techniques First person narrator draws reader into the story limited point of view • identification with protagonists information not always reliable (subjective view) stream of consciousness Characterization direct characterization open traits mentioned directly • outward appearance: e.g. hair, height, clothes • personal data: e.g. name, age → Bezug zur Aufgabenstellung 2. Body Thesis omniscient • total knowledge different perspectives may comment on events/ behavior switch between places + times flashbacks + foreshadowing ● Third person narrator Types of articles News article → factual information limited ● indirect characterization thoughts + feelings actions + reactions Atmosphere e.g.: alarming, awkward, cheerful, depressing, threatening, tense, hopeful, idyllic, inviting, relaxed, harmonious N. Brunsmann presentation of things through eyes of one character lets reader know what the character thinks, sees, knows, hears + feels easy to identify with Analysis - non fictional texts (e.g. newspaper article, speech) 1. Introduction "In his/her [type of article/speech] ["title"], [author] criticizes/informs/warns/appeals... The author makes use of a certain line of argument and structure and uses several rhetorical devices in order to convince the reader of his/her view." • body language + facial expressions • intentions • choice of words + tone Feature article → wider context of a story (analysis of situation) → authors opinion may shine through → strengthened by examples, statistics, authorities, rhetorical devices, (hidden) ratings... 3. Conclusion (main findings) Opinion piece → author clearly expresses view on an issue 2 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Language help Argumentative analysis: The speaker starts off with/claims/demands/presents facts on/focuses on/offers solutions to/ promises/refers to/addresses the issue of/weights up the argument/is in two minds about/criticizes/ assumes/backs up his argument/puts forward another argument/doubts/blames/puts forward the idea... In the first few lines... He/she continues by expanding his/her arguments on... About halfway through the speech/article he/she appeals to the audience by... He/she offers a powerful argument on behalf of... Linguistic analysis: The function/aim/purpose of... is to... • The intention behind this... is to... The speaker/author makes use of/employs/lets sentences start with... in order to... By using a [device], the speaker tries/hopes/aims to achieve... A [device] helps... The function/effect of... This • ...to convey a vivid impression of... ...to illustrate/visualize the idea... shows/emphasizes/underlines/highlights/stresses/reinforces... ...to offer an easy-to-understand image... ...to make somebody feel personally addressed... Rhetorical + stylistic devices device (e.g.) alliteration anaphora ( Epiphora) # allusion antithesis hyperbole (exaggeration) litotes (understatement) metaphor personification similie repetition rhetorical question synecdoche euphemism parallelism example ...safety and security... Every.... Every.... famous people/literature Fair is foul, and foul is fair. I told you 1000x. That's not bad. Time flies. Uncle Sam (US) A is like B. N. Brunsmann Down, down, down... Why do you think? A roof over ones head (= house) The big sleep (= death) Every.... Every.... 3 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 3) Introduction Main part Conclusion Language help Arguments ● ● ● ● ● Above all, it is important to note/it must be said/one cannot ignore... • I am convinced... ● ● ● ● ● Furthermore/In addition/Additionally,... On the one hand,... on the other hand... For instance/In this case/With regard to... In contrast/Whereas/Nonetheless/However/On the contrary/Despite this/In spite of the fact that/ Regardless/Even though/ In contrast to... • Although it is true that, it would be wrong to claim... From B's point of view, however,... Looking at the problem from A's side, you have to admit that... Supporters/opponents of...might argue/claim that.../Some critics may say.../ Another argument/point/reason that is often put forward is... Discussion make the topic relevant → rhetorical question 2-3 arguments on both sides Which side is more justified? Considering the fact that... Another important point/factor/argument is... You also have to take into consideration that... • It is only partly true that... Under certain circumstances... ● Opinion • It seems to me that... ● ● In my opinion/experience... As far as I can see... ● Not only..., but also... It is certain that/There is no doubt that... Firstly..., secondly.../Next/Previously/Afterwards/Later,... From my point of view,... If I am not mistaken,... • I cannot deny that... I suppose... • I rather agree/disagree with... As far as I am concerned,... Comment make the topic relevant → state position clearly Conclusion Personally,... As I see it,... 2-3 arguments on your side supported by examples, statistics etc. (+ counter-arguments to invalidate) sum up evidence + restate thesis (+ personal feelings, outlook...) N. Brunsmann • Weighing up the pros and cons, it becomes clear that... • Taking into account what has ben said so far, I... • Having considered the different arguments, I... To sum up/All in all/In conclusion/To come to a final conclusion, I think/strongly believe/l am convinced/certain... 4 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Opinion piece 1. Headline → grab readers attention 2. Introduction + Body (similar to comment) 3. Conclusion → punch (note-worthy statement) Speech 1. Greeting audience, thanking for invitation e.g.: "Dear fellow students, teachers and visitors. I feel deeply honored to have the opportunity to speak to you today." 2. Stating importance of topic e.g.: "I would like to explain to you why "..." is one of the most important texts I've come across regarding..." 3. Body (similar to comment) 4. Conclusion (summary/appeal/quote...) e.g.: "All my evidence points into one direction:.../ What it all boils down to is the following:.../ If we don't act now, future generations will.../ That is why I ask/urge you to.../ Let me conclude with the words of...who said that...“ 5. Ending e.g.: "Thank you for your attention. Do you have any further questions?" Creative writing → continuation of prose text/change of (narrative) perspective) Formal letter → Dear Sir or Madam (unknown) / Ms, Mrs, Mr, Dr... (known) → Yours faithfully (unknown) / sincerely (known) The address of the person you are writing to should be on the left. Say why you are writing the letter in the first paragraph. In the last part of the letter, say how you expect the recipient to reply. End the letter in an appropriate way. 68, Wood Lane Romford RM12 8JY [email protected] November 1, 2018 Ms Diane Poole Personnel Department Debenhams Ltd. Romford RM10 6NX Dear Ms Poole, With reference to your advertisement in the Romford Recorder of October 24th, I would like to apply for a summer job in your Department Store. My final examinations finish on June 23rd and I will be available to start work any time after that date. I am just completing my final year at Hornchurch Grammar School and have applied to do Business Studies and French at Bristol University in October. Meanwhile, I would like to gain some experience in a large organization such as yours, and of course earn some extra money to help finance my university course. N. Brunsmann Having worked in a local supermarket on Saturdays for the past two years, I have gained a lot of experience in dealing with customers. I also greatly enjoy working in a team and was always a popular member of any group presentation at school because I always do my share of the work. In my last year at school I was a prefect and also captain of the hockey team, which shows I have a sense of responsibility towards others. My teachers have always considered me to be a reliable and conscientious student. I have attached my CV and will be glad to supply you with any other information you require, for example, the names of referees. Thank you for considering my application. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely, S. Goodenough Sandra Goodenough Write your address and email in the top right- hand corner or on the left above the recipient's address. Leave a line and write the date below your address. The main part of the letter should include any other necessary information. 5 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Letter to the editor → similar to formal letter 1. Introduction -> name article you refer to → give reason for writing letter 2. Body (similar to comment) 3. Conclusion → strong statement → sign name (no "Yours sincerely/faithfully") 4) N. Brunsmann Language help • I am writing to you in response to the article... Mediation 1. Text type (email/ blog...) 2. information needed (→ task) 3. addressee (teenagers (= less formal)/ experts (= formal)) A • Having read your article..., I would like to point out... • In the article...the author...claims that... 6 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Shakespeare Background information William Shakespeare 1564-1616 in England • one of the most important influences on English literature + poetry wrote 37 plays + 154 sonnets ● The Elizabethan world view England was ruled by Queen Elizabeth I → pictured the world as a "great chain of being" hierarchical order of the universe (God>angels>people>animals>plants>minerals) • monarchs position given by God → rebellion = sin against God • society: the poor were at the bottom, woman had few rights ● The theatre in Shakespeare's time 1599: "The Globe" → Shakespeare became Shareholder acting wasn't considered a respectable profession no women on stage, instead young boys main form of entertainment Shakespearean sonnets Sonnets 1-126: Fair Youth (young man) →> true, deep friendship • Sonnets 127-152: Dark Lady (mistress, beloved) → sexual imagery, praising of imperfections Analyzing Shakespearean drama - sonnets N. Brunsmann Shakespearean plays tragedy, history + comedy e.g. Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet ● 1. Introduction e.g.: "William Shakespeares poem "XX" gives an insight into / deals with [main message of sonnet] by providing numerous stylistic devices and following a certain train of thought and structure." 2. Structure "The given poem is a typical Shakespearean sonnet because it consist of 14 lines which are divided into 3 quatrains and a two-lined couplet at the end. It follows an alternate rhyme scheme in the quatrains and is written in an iambic pentameter. As it is common for a Shakespearean sonnet, there is a turning point that happens in line XX (and is being introduced by the contrasting conjunction "XX".) 3. Train of thought (argumentative structure) 1st quatrain: exposition of main theme/ metaphor/ opening train of thought › topics: love, transience, social conventions, time, beauty, injustice 2nd quatrain: extension of theme/ metaphor/ argument → often with evidence/ examples 3rd quatrain: often a turning point (twist/ conflict/ train of thought) in 1.9 Couplet: summary/ final statement/ conclusion/ moral/ leaving reader with new image →> true intention behind sonnet is expressed 7 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 4. Language • common stylistic devices: anaphora, antithesis, metaphor, parallelism, simile, repetition, rhetorical question, personification, alliteration, allusion, ellipsis → (more detailed on p. 275) →show how structure, train of thought + language underline/ highlight/ reinforce main message Language help The author opens his train of thought by/ in the form of... He continues by expanding his argument... By this statement,... The aim/purpose/ function of... is to ... The intention behind this... is to... ● ● By using a [device] the author tries/ hopes/ aims to achieve... This shows/ emphasizes/ underlines/ highlights/ stresses/ reinforces... The sonnet employs the imagery of.../ creates an image of... Throughout the sonnet,... is (repeated) They use this device in order to convey the reader... This [device] enriches the opinion of the author... The author gives evidence to support the claim... This [device] reflects the speaker's train of thought... ! "speaker"= lyrisches Ich "addressee"= lyrisches Du Is Shakespeare still relevant today? timeless topics (love, friendship, injustice) identification with characters (e.g. woman who don't live up to beauty standards mindset was ahead of time → s. Elizabethan world view (e.g. "Macbeth" had power) revolution of English language (1700 words (e.g. "birthplace", "gossip")) great influence on other artists, producers + writers (e.g. Romeo and Juliet) stories contain ancient knowledge N. Brunsmann students who are not interested in literature are bored topics of his time (~400 years ago) (E.g. frequent use of puns that were only understandable to Elizabethan audience) not easy to understand on the first read (e.g. outdated words: "thou") wrong grammar is misleading outdated attitudes + values 8 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Britishness UK = England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales constitutional monarchy (monarchy + democracy) "The Queen reigns, but she does not govern" → only formal role • no written constitution, instead based on documents: Magna Carta + Bill of Rights Brexit: UK left EU (referendum: 52% leave; 48% stay) ● ● ● ● The British system of Government appoints official head of state → represents the UK internationally & upholds traditions. can dissolve → gives Royal Assent to Acts of Parliament The Government. (The Executive) pots forward laws. Monarch (The Crown) → Prime Minister →head of the government → leader of the strongest party in the House of commons appoints Cabinet 20 of the most important ministers Electorate all men women > 18 years appoints party with the most MP's elects every 6 years Parliament! House of Lords (Appointed Legislature), →→760 members (life peers, 26 Anglican bishops! 92 hereditary peers) Should Britain abolish the monarchy? >examines bills passed by the House of Commons House of Commons (Elected Legislature), →650 MPs from constituencies" → makes laws → elected for each constituency in a first-past-the-post system monarchy entrenches elitism + a class system hereditary monarchy (inheritor will take the crown regardless of their suitability + character) makes possible dictatorship hard to stop → considerable powers (wage wars, sign treaties, dissolve parliament) • outdated question of competence the Royals are expensive (40 million Pounds/year) → tax payers pay for royal lifestyle N. Brunsmann ● ● *Royal Assent: the monarch's approval of an act * Acts of Parliament a law passed by the Parliament * bills: → laws that are proposed to the Legislature MP: member of Parliament first-past-the-post! →winner-takes-all" candidate with the most votes is elected to represent the constituency, all the other votes count for nothing * constituency: Wahlkreis monarch has no real power, only symbolic, representing the country, mainly formal functions → awakens sympathy, tourism magnet, helps to secure trade deals (economical benefits) citizens are content + don't want a change (68% believe monarchy is good for Britain) democratically elected head of state not cost-free * appoints: = ernennt either Royal Family creates jobs don't vanish in a republic (e.g. America) 9 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 The American Dream Declaration of Independence (1776) One of the most important documents of the USA • Taken by all 13 American colonies in declaring independence from British rule → all men are created equal → They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights: right to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness → individuals have a civic duty to defend these rights for themselves + others Definition (by James Truslow Adams) not about material possessions dream of social order in which everybody should be able to attain their innate capabilities (regardless of circumstances of birth or position) Beliefs + values democracy, liberty, equality, individualism, progress, multiculturalism The American Nightmare: disillusion of the AD • discrimination + unequal opportunities still a factor concept of classless society never became reality ● huge gap between rich + poor immigrants often disappointed because they assumed to find better living conditions + chances in the "land of equal opportunities" N. Brunsmann Visions of the future Utopia = perfect world Dystopia = problems that plague present world are more extreme (e.g.: inequality, increase of power, mass surveillance, online harassment, climate change) Dystopian fiction 1. Government control (oppression → rebellion) 2. Environmental destruction 3. Technological control 4. Survival 5. Loss of individualism Dystopian literature • helps to examine fears + to understand why we're right to be afraid • helps to think about scenarios without actually having to live through them • entertaining + engaging → identification with characters → more young people are reached scary making fun of serious problems going on in the world by e.g. exaggerations 10 Englisch LK Abitur 2021 Artificial Intelligence (Al) efficient (does not get tired, faster...) • rational + accurate decision making → not guided + influenced by emotions → less room for errors (e.g. false diagnosis) • better research outcomes (implementing Al in risky situations e.g. ocean floor) helpful tool to humankind (= Digital Utopians) Globalization ● compromise: "The Beneficial Al Movement": create not undirected, but beneficial intelligence →> Al doesn't get the chance to end humanity + assists humans to make the world a better place Information + technology spread more easily Broadens access to goods + services can lift people in developing countries out of poverty increases cultural awareness ● ● Climate change (Al Gore (American politician + environmentalist)) CO₂ increase thickens atmosphere + causes higher temperature effects: ice melts →→sea level goes up ● • high costs involved • leads to unemployment (e.g. driverless cars) • lack of creativity nobody to blame for accident (e.g. driverless cars) dependency on machines → mental + thinking abilities of humans will decrease over time ● - homes of many people + animals gone dryouts, storms, hurricanes, burning forests - Infectious diseases spread faster • we are "worst contributor to the crime" → "each of us is the cause but can be the change" N. Brunsmann also diseases (e.g. Corona virus) spread more easily Multinational corporations gain more power, small ones don't have a chance on the world market failed to deliver gains in labor rights, human rights + environmental protection contributes to cultural homogeneity Fast fashion workers are underpaid (30$/month) ● • low safety standards in factories (no fire extinguishers, emergency exits are blocked) → e.g. factory in Bangladesh collapsed + killed > 1000 people underaged workers (no education) harmful for environment (toxic chemicals are dumped into streams + rivers) solutions: consume more carefully (e.g. 2nd hand) global agreement on minimum wage + safety standards 11