History dandmarks 1650s the Dutch East India Company establishes a Station 1690 Dutch farmers move deeper into the country, take land and start farming 1780s Frontier wars between white settlers and tribes 1795 The British occupy the cape Colony, and it's farming areas, they start a British colony. 1830s. Dutch settlers move further norths and found their Boer Republics First Boer war between British and Dutch republic 1880 1899 Second Boer War, the British win the farmer Boer. colonies. 1910 The Union of South Africa is formed, becomes. independent, but it's a dominion within the British Empire. 1912 ANC if founded as a multi-racial national party. (illegal from the 60s until the 90s). 1948 1955 1961 1969 7 1986 L The National Party wins the whites only elections, apartheid begins Freedom Charter, ANC and other multiracial groups published their vision of a democratic, non-racial SA SA leaves the Commonwealth and becomes an independent republic. Rivonia Trials Welson Mandela is imprisoned,. he gave his speech at court ("I am prepared to. world-wide sanctions against SA 7 1990 white president de Klerk releases N. Mandela, proces to abandon apartheid begins 1994 N. Mandela becomes president (ANC) in free elections 1995 Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) begins its work Cvictims and perpetrators can confess, some are granted amnesty), ubuntu: forgiveness is better than revenge 1996 199¹8 Parliament adopts a new constitution The Truthi and Reconciliation Commission report declares apartheid to be a crime against humanity and finds the ANC accountable for...
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human rights abuses 1999 The ANC wins the general elections 2009 Jakab Zuma (with a dropped corruption case) is elected as president by parliament. 2013 Nelson Mandela dies. 2015 President Zuma announces plans to limit farm sizes and ban foreign farmland ownership to redistribute land to African farmers A series of anti-immigrant attacks leaves several. people dead. colitical Facts The Republic of South Africa (the Rainbow Nation) 3 capitals, multi-party republic. head of state President Cyril Ramaphosa (since 2018, ANC) main exports: gold, diamonds, metal, minerds, cars and arms, fruits. trading partners: China, Germany, USA, UK · population by race: Africans (about 80%), Asians (2,5%), Colored's. (9%), Whites (9%). 19. official languages (Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans (related to Dutch) English) religion: 80%. Christians, 15% indigenous beliefs, 1,5% Muslims national anthem in Xhosa and Afrikaans, colorful flag (old colonies'. colors) townships: a growing number of poor people live there, confronted with bad housing, hunger, diseases, a high crime rate, little education; Soweto in. Johannesburg: about. 1.200.000 inhabitants. policy of racial segregation and discrimination between the late 1940s and 1990 1 black and colored people live in homelands, townships (separated from white people) unhealthy and dangerous living conditions for black people. all citizens are registered, and they belong to: 4 groups: white, native (black), coloured (mited Indian (Asian), the Population Regristration Act race), schooling and education limited (Bantu education) not enough equipment at school or in hospitals strict policing: passports must be shown when travelling people spying on each other (for the state or the AUC arrested people were often tortured or died in police custody interracial marriages were forbidden. current struggles poverty, unemployment. (among young people), HIV, high crime and corrupt politicians, redistribution of land (among black and white), land reforms. some white groups separating themselves le.g. in Orania) anti-immigration riots directed against African ・immigrants reconciliation is a slow process, races often don't mix education for black people is still insufficient .cappucino metaphor: many colored / black people are inferior to a white minority, on top some black politicians. (chocolates) r Population The Khoikhai pastorals (schäfer) owned cattle /sheep, herded, groups animals across land. > Animals essential-source of food, clothing, transport, symbol of wealth. livestock more valuable than land itself The San huntergatherers > feeding on plants hunting antelopes, smaller mammals > earliest people to have lived in South Africa. > 18/19th century.- hunted down by white settlers small number of San survived in remote. desert areas. The Portuguese 1488 Portuguese → Cape (first Europeans) > little interest in settling trading, used islands for refilling on their route to the East. The VOC "Vereenigde Ost-Indische Compagnie" > private commercial trading company > Founded in 16.02 > politically and economically powerful. > lost its power in the 18th century as a result of competition from English and French traders. 1652 Arrival of the VOC (Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope VOC set up straight rules for Cape settlement and its inhabitants. (strict regulation. on market). > much discontent Jan van Riebeeck official of the VOC > > established refreshment station at Cape in 1652 > served as: First Commander of the Cape 1652-1662 during apartheid: referred to as "founding father of the country" Cimplying, South African history starts with his arrival at the Cape - highly questionable - owadays not in history Books) 1795 occupation of the British started > reasons fear of growing French power in Europe -awakening desire for colonies by other European countries > Voc had lost its power, was easily taken over by the British Commissioners > a person appointed to a role on or by a commission > a representative of the supreme authority in an area A frikaner > an Afrikaans-speaking white person in South Africa (descended from Dutch (etc) settler from the 17th century) Afrikaans language of southern Africa (official language) > adjective relating the Afrikaner people, their way of life, or their language Africans > a person from Africa, especially a black person, person black African descent. of سهند elson Mandela > 1918-2013 first black leader of SA - 1956 charged with high treason > Mandela undertook a campaign of sabotage against the state, was arrested and charged with conspiracy to overthrow the government. : Rivonia trial 3 hour speech: "It is an ideal to which I hope to live for and to see realized.. But.. my Lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die". imprisoned on Robyn. Island (top. security prison). for nearly 30 years was not em bittered by his long imprisonment. > the whole world was pleading for this release of Mandela (there even were sanctions agathst.SA) 1 > F. W. De Klerk. released Mandela, Mandela walked to freedom with his then. Wife Winnie at his side. > Mandela always and repeatedly pleaded for peace and against violence Black people were still massacring each other > First multiracial elections in 1994. > implicates Truth and. Reconciliation > December 1997: Nelson Mandela gave up the presidency. of the African National Congress. >. 1998 at the age of eighty he married Graca Machele, African politician and activist. 7 if he. > Mandela has the credibility because he has suffered, people have to forgive people can't tell him he does not know about suffering himself. J Mandela travelled lots around the country, supporting many projects dear to his heart - "Whatever I am, is for the sake of others", as a passic what he does if for the others and not for himself > "forgiveness and understanding" Speech: "I am prepared to die South Africa in Mandela's Statement > richest country in Africa > land of extremes and remarkable contrasts > Whites - rich and high standards, Africans- poverty and misery. > living and working conditions are bad for the Africans Secondary effects of apartheid? > first generation are the parents: they work and have to keep the family alive, they can't be there to raise the children most of the time > second generation has no acess to good education and cannot go to school wanders in the streets. leads to violence, illegitimacy and a breakdown in moral standards G couth & Reconciliation headed/led by Desmond Tutu. (Archbishop) 1995-2001 National Party - white parby demanded amnesty for everyone who was involved into political conflicts in the past. - ANC did not accept white washing-compromise: truth for amnesty total of 31.000 cases Commissioners: seven Africans, two coloureds, two Indians, Six whites goal: gain a complete picture of the gross violations of human rights Letting them tell their stories and recommending how they could be assisted perpetrators had to make a full disclosure of their deeds and had to prove. a political motive > Amnesty. some perpetrators admitted much more in front of the TRC then at their court trials. about 3000 applications were from people who had already been convicted of crimes and were serving sentences not enough money for all the victims murderes of Steve Biko were not granted amnesty not South African can state that they were not aware of what happened in the past. Function into two parts. (1) taking testimony from victims Ccollecting information :about committed crimes) (2) receiving applications for amnesty (three judges) - reviewed, hearing victims and witnesses etc., announcing decision. nother to Mother Sindiwe Magona born in Umata, eastern South Africa grew up in Guguletu, township outside Cape Town primary school (Guguletu), high school (correspondence course) bachelor's degree (University of SA), master's degree domestic work, school teacher > United Nations 2003 retiring to Cape Town Historical Context Dutch East India Company, permanent settlements. in Cape Town. (Boer.) colonists killing and enslaving black. Africans British as stategic port > war against. Boer 1948 beginning of apartheid characters Mandisa. • born 1958. forced to the township of Guguletu forced by their families to marry 3. children, 3 different. fathers ambitious, bright, strong-willed, intelligent, reflective She is not being the best mother she could be Mxolisi born January 4th, 1973 intense and troubled relationship between him and his mother the early disappearance of his father broke his bond from the rest of China's family the killing of his two friends by police is a deeply traumatic event negatively affected by the birth of Lunga. he is unwanted by society shaped by circumstances of his life and environment. disobient, difficult to control, clever, intense, dangerous violent, troubled, active in protesting and rebelling IG 11 Nono Tatomklaulu "Tata" о: Khaya Nobukumko "Mama" متمحمد China. I unoffically married Mxolisi Makholo Amy Biehl Funiwe Malume affair Lungile. Lunga 8 Dwadwa Sizi we 9 គ 4 بمهنه RESTORY Pandmarks 2.500 B.C.. Prehistory construction of Neolithic monuments e.g. Stonehenge 700-ss B.C. The Celts: technically advance SS B.C.-430 A.D. The Romans: foundation of the province Britannia. ·800 - 1066 Norway and Denmark invade Britain Norman conquest battle of Hastings. 1066 1215 1460-85 Crises of kings and nobles. - War of the Roses → house of Lancester vs. house of York => house of Tudors. The beginnings of parliament: king and the barons. → barons: House of Lords → people from the countries: House of Commons 1509-47 Henry Villl foundation of the Church of England → England becomes a Protestant country. -> 3 children: Edward, Mary and. Elizabeth. ASS8-1603 Elizabeth 1: struggle between Catholics and. Protestants; rival. England / Spain defeat of the Spanish Armada -> England becomes. Europe's leading sea power establishment of East India , colonies. (SA) company. 1588 Culture: Thomas More: Utopia, William Shakespeare's. works become famous and popular 1649-60 1642-45 Civil War: fights between Protestans and Catholics rebellions in Ireland and Scotland. r Britain: a republic under leadership of Oliver Cromwell who dissolves. Parliament; he calls himself. 'Lord Protector of England! 7 1688 the Glorious Revolution takes place, based on theorie: of thinkers like John Locke, Parliament has more power than the king; Britain becomes a constitutions harchy →→ Bill of Rights; Act of settlement. monar 1689/1701 rising influence of Puritanism; revolution in 1759 British control over Canada (defeat of the French in. Quebec); defeat of the French in India; rise of transatlantic trade scientific thinking, e.g. Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton and Christopher Wren war 1775-83 1769 Industrial Revolution: steam engine 19th century British factories produce more than country 1914-18 against the rebellious American colonies 1939-45 other any in the world; control of world Traffic ar world markets 1824/34 first workers' unions are founded/workers' revolt in London exploration of workers and suffering farmers > rise of poverty and misery; Charles Dicker → descriptions of crime and poverty 1837-1901 reign of Queen Victoria; she is very popular. connects monarchy with Britain's "'glorious history' World War I: riots and fighting; civil war (Ireland) World War I Britain, the USA, France and the Soviet Union become allies to fight Germany 1945 the United Nations cames into existence. 1945-65 500 million people in former colonies become self-governing 1973 Britain joins the EU 1980s black immigrants riot against bad housing and and economic problems in London, Liverpool, Bristol 1990-91 Gulf War; invasion led by USA and. UK 2003-10 Trag war; UK ends combat in 2009. 2014 Scottish independence referendum: the majority of Scots vote against independence (SS.3% vs. 44,798 2016 23 June: referendum to leave the European Union (Brexit): 51,9% of Britons vote in favour of leaving the EU 24 June: David Cameron announces resignation 13 : Theresa May becomes new Prime Minister suly: L triangular trade began with the colonization of America and in 1623 economic + political power. food foreign culture came to the UK. strategic advantage (military power around the world) taught other countries European culture territory GB grew in time. powerful navy + height: 1920s (national pride increased) crown became King / Queen in colonies massive trading wealth → loss of colonies in 20th century → disappointment, weakne. → criticism: former colonies complained became more independent Elizabethan Ase World Order. Greek philosopher Aristotle's concept of the universe. everything in the world had its position fixed by God heaven: God > archangles > angles earth society: king churchmen > nobles > merchants → peasants animals: lion → rest plants rose > rest. minerals: gold attempt to break the chain of being > universal →→ amount to a rebellion against God. disorder The music of th Spheres. > rest made up of a number of spheres contained within one another transparent crystal-like = aether) earth centre spheres make music in harmony. The Four Elements and the Four Humours. everything but the moon made from a combination: fire, earth, water, air counterpart human body (humors): ·blood, phlegm, mela lancholy, choler .A. balance → "good humour"" imbalance →→ill or ill-humoured 3: The wheel of Fortune fate was the main controlling force in life. person's life moves like a wheel ( from high to low 3) no way of knowing where the wheel would stop The Renaissance revival of interest in Greek & Roman civilizations took place continental developments from the 14th to 16t centuries Shakespeare took folk stories, history > "modern play" people recognized own individuality & gradually محمد class system Elite most privileged wealth of all three capitals Established middle class second highest ranking (cultural wealth) Technical middle class research science, technical occupations New affluent workers young class, socially & culturally active, middle economical wealth. Traditional working class. old class, low wealth on all three capitals, high house values .Emergent service workers new young, urban class, high social / cultural capital Precariat, or precarious proletariat poorest, most deprived class, low social/cultural L JI political SYSTEM Judiciary Supreme Court <appoints justices 12 professional. judges. appoin Legislative/Parliament 2 House of dords 700 members (high social position) represents unwritten constitution approves laws passed by the House of Commons. // Telects Electorate aristocrats House of Commans 646 Members of Parliament creates laws The Monarch/The Crown. official head of state signs parliamentary bills into law appoints elects can dissolve I can dissolve HM Government Prime Minister. head of the governme leader of the strongest party Cabinet ca. 20 ministers/hear of government departments. all men and women over the age of 18 puts forward laws/ runs government 4 transition BREAT trading/moving/travelling is the same the single market, trade deals stay the same UK follows E.U regulation (laws) the UK can't vote, no members in the EU parliament. So far no controls along the Nothern Irish border to not sure when the transition period actually. ends consequences (Hard Brexit) more controls /more tarifs. Brits in the EU/EU members in the UK might have to move. border to NI can be controlled the UK gains more freedom e.g. in immigration. policy, in foreign affairs new trade deals with e.g.. USA/ India no more EU taxes / money for EU projects they won't get the EU's support. Reasons economic stability inside the country more freedom in immigration policy / foreign affairs/ trading. betrayal of EU. (welfare state) L Commonwealth organisation some still are under the crown former territories of the British Empire all former territories may join. some territories were too small to be independent state: (still controlled by British) most former territories are independent states now. the Queen is often head of state aims freedom, human rights, democracy economic interests improve former relations cultural exchange (commonwealth games) help in emergencies/crisis criticism don't enforce it's values it lacks leadership they don't sanction "misbehaviour" they indirectly dignify human right not regarded as a serious organisation it's cheap: countries don't invest much into it sanctions are not effective stronger countries (e.g. Canada) don't change much abusers G CUPPENT STRuggles Islamophobia & Terrorism terror attacks caused general islamophobia along the country Islam people live in communities to avoid discrimination mix cultures to avoid isolation muslims are afraid of violence Chigh rate of hate crime) should be treated as antisemitism extreme wrong acting against muslims (police). Tell MAMA" organisation monitors anti-Muslim attacks L Being British Union Jack Pride Tea, Scones. London Eye, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben Shakespeare The Royal Family Cricket, Football, Wimbledon Aston Martin, Rolls Royce, Bentley. James Bond The Queen Democracy Industrial Revolution period of great change machinery developed rapidly society adapted agricultural society industry and urban areas towns & cities grew quickly → factories & mines rapidly constructed housing hard for workers steam power began in Britain and spread to the rest of. the Industrial Revolution, the British textile business was a "cottage. industry" mid-18th century: more efficient, mechanized production meant new textile. less human. labour. Britain's iron and steel production expanded by the Napoleanic Wars. > railroad industry. early 1700s: Thomas Newcomen > prototype for the first. modern steam engine > used to power the machines pumping water out o.f. mine shafts 1760s, Scottish engineer James Watt's models, with a seperate. water condenser that made it. far, more efficient. ornello general information setting Venice & Cyprus year publisched 1622 author William Shakespeare characters Othello ·protagonist, soldier (general) eloquent, physically powerful. elevated status easy prey to insecurities ...free and open nature". jealousy (destructive, powerful) Desdemona daughter of Venetian senator wife of Othello (secret marriage) pure, meek, determined, self-possessed · equally capable of defending her mo marriage dignity Brabanzio. D's father feels betrayed by.0 r lago Othello's ensign, villain of the play 28 years old ostensible reason to hate Othello (passed to lieutenant) never clearly expressed motivation originate an obsessive, almost aesthetic delight in manipulation and destruction Michael Cassio Othello's lieutenant high position is much resented by lago extremely ashamed after being implicated in a drunken. brawn. losing his place as lieutenant young, good looking, friendship with Desdemona Emilia lago's wife, Desdemona's attendant cyrical, worldly, attached to D & I Rodrigo jealous suitor of Desdemona, pet of lago desperate Bianca prostitute favorite customer: Cassio, teases her with promises of marriage EL Brabantio t %: brother Gratiano son\ cousin Lodovico father. loves برجوز Desdemona t Emilia ornerea ts attendant Rodrigo هم Tago. uses plots. against arrests captures lieutenant. Cassio. loves Bianca Montano. wounds. → kills 7 Themes & Symbois Jealousy Deception X Love The handkerchief The song "Willow" h, beware, my lord, of jealousy!. It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock. The on. G PLot Overview) PLOT Rising Action lago tells the audience of his scheme, arranges for Cassio to lose his position as lieutenant, and gradually insinuates to Othello that. Desdemona is unfaithful. Climax Othello kneels with lago and vows not to change course until he has achieved bloody revenge Falling Action ·lage plants the handkerchief in. Cassio's room:. lago attempts to kill Cassio, and Othello smothers Desdemona. . Emilia exposes lago's deceptions. Othello kills himself, and lago is taken away to be tartured. Major Conflict Othello and Desdemona marry and attempt to build a life together, despite their differences in age, race, and. experience. Their marriage is sabotaged by the envious lago,. who convinces. Othello that. D. is unfaithful. L social dream equality mobility. classless society. religous freedom political dream American Dream. equality federal system. ・justice. سمعة economic dream. DI prosperity material success from rags. to. riches personal dream pursuit of happiness. justice individual rights. freedom government regulations Chealth care democracy ・political influence freedom, liberty keywords: possibilities, progress, technological development, freedom major elements • promise of a better and richer life for everyone promise of freedom, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness opportunity for each according to his abilities there are material gains and personal. definition Anybody in America, regardless of their circumstance. at birth or their place in society can achieve success, happiness and prosperity as long as they work hard recognation of the unique combination of It is a freedom and opportunity. Wildfis - White Black Asian Diversity datino/a/x or Hispanic 2+ races Decline to self- identify 000 0,24 0,24 13,29 1.98 9,85 498 American Indian or Alaska Native Native Hawaiian or. ather. Pacific Islander. mong new immigrant arrivals, Asians out number lispanics. Asian's $7/15 Hispanics. 2018. Immigration Immigration troughout history no limits on immigration until 1808 (constitution) Britain, Germany, China → Italian, Irish, Eastern Europs Ellis Island receiving station for immigrants Immigration Act 1917: limit of numbers and countries → immigrant visa (green card) → Hispanics & Asians 2013: four basic principles for reform • a citizenship path for illegal immigrants already the US business immigration system reforms - an expanded and improved employment verification system in. improved work visa options for low-shill workers and an agricultural worker programme => ended in deadlock Protestans Catholics Religion Other Christians - No Religion. other Religions. All Christians 14 Religion throughout history less protestans more without religion catholics. stable 10 b n Uur History Landmarks 1607 first English settlement - Virginia Company 1620 Pilgrim Fathers - Mayflower ship. June 1623. first eleven slaves 1733 the British own thirteen seperate colonies 1775 War of Independence 4. Joly 1776. Declaration of Independence. 1783 Treaty of Paris - Independent state: United States of America. 1789 Constitution of the United States 1791 Bill of Rights until 1850s exploration of the west 1848 Manifest. Manifest Destiny has come true. 1861-65 Civil War. 1863 Emancipation Proclamation (Lincoln) 1865 abolishing of slavery by law 1865 (66 Black Codes (southern blacks / rules) 1866 Ku Klux Klan (KKK) 1870 ·black right to vote. 1910 NAACP Coldest civil rights organisation) 1917 war war on Germany (blacks fight for country). 1920s The Roaring Twenties 1929 Wall Street Crash 7 com 1930s Great Depression (TKAMB) 1939-45 World War II (segregated regiments fight for U.S. 1945 Nagasaki 1940s-89 Cold War 1955 156 Rosa Parks arrested / Montgomery bus boycott 1963-65 marches from Selma to Montgomery March on Washington (MCK "I have a dream assasination of John F. Kennedy 1950-53 Korean War 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1965-73 Vietnam War 1965-68 Black Panthers/Black Power Movement 1968 Martin Luther King Jr is assassinated 1992 riots in Los Angeles CAffrican-American beaten by white policemen). 1995 Million Man March to Washington 2001 9/11 attacks 2002 Department of Homeland Security 2003 begin of Iraq War. 2008 global economic crisis 2009 Barack Obama first African-American president 2010 Obamacare" 2013 US Federal Government Shutdown 7 2014 student Michael Brown is shot by white ·police officer 2014 crisis in Trag. 2016 Donald Trump (nuclear politics/Twitter). 2020 Black lives matter movement CGeorge Floyd) 2021 Joe Biden DI