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Analysing a narrative (fictional) text

16.4.2021

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How to analyse a fictional text
narrative perspectives:
Third-person omniscient narrator
- not visible, tells the story from the outside
- k
How to analyse a fictional text
narrative perspectives:
Third-person omniscient narrator
- not visible, tells the story from the outside
- k

How to analyse a fictional text narrative perspectives: Third-person omniscient narrator - not visible, tells the story from the outside - knows everything (thoughts, feelings, background of the story) - comments on the characters behavior sometimes - mainly neutral and more distant - narrative techniques Third-person limited narrator First-person narrator: - tells the story from the outside - a character narrates the story - only describes the feelings and thoughts of from his own perspective one particular character - we only know what he thinks, knows, sees, hears - the narrator is not identical with his character - often the main protagonist - we sympathize more easily with the character we are told most about Useful phrases: - The story is written from the few point of the narrator. The neutral description of lets the reader judge for himself. We immediately share the experiences/feelings of the first person-narrator. - The narrator perspective is limited because the reader only sees... Structure: - exposition: first part of the narrative, gives basic information about setting, characters and plot - rising action: a development in the main part, in which a conflict escalates; builds tension - climax: most exciting part of the story - falling action solutions to the conflict - dénoument: resolution of a conflict / solution to a mystery, making the ending happy or tragic - frame story presents a story within a story Chronology: - back story: gives the...

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history of characters, objects, places or other elements in the story - flashback narrative is taken back in time - flash-forward: future events are revealed foreshadowing clues early in the story that hint at a future development - we sympathize most easily with this type of narrator narrative situation: - point of view: shows the attitude to the narrator to the character and can limit what the reader knows - unreliable narrator: does not tell the whole truth to the narrator suspense: created by not giving away too much information - Tense: influences the distance between reader and characters if the narrator uses present tense you feel close to the action - narration: dialogues, description or comment - stream of consciousness: represents as exactly as possible the thoughts of the character, seems unstructured, chaotic and very close to the reader Language and structure: - choice of words (negative/positive, many adjectives - register (formal, informal, neutral/colloquial English) stylistic devices - sentence structure (coordinate sentences-> main clauses, compound sentences-> subordinate sentences; questions, imperatives etc.) - tone (dry, ironic, joyful, pessimistic, inspirational, fearful) Useful phrases: The author makes use of everyday/colloquial/informal/vulgar language An atmosphere of is created by using a humorous/ironic/serious/critical/positive tone. vivid/animated/exaggerated language. Analysing narrative texts Introduction: include general information about the text (author, title, year, text type, theme) Body: - Each paragraph should make one point to support your argument/interpretation - - always connect the author's choice (stylistic devices, characters, location etc.) with its effect. Look for \ reasons why the author made these choices - use quotations and line references Conclusion: - short summary or (if asked) a comparison of this text with other works or with your own experience