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Brave New World

Brave New World

 Mascha Röhrenbeck
Brave New World - Aldous Huxley
Key Facts:
●
●
→ John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15
Protagonist: Bernard +

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Brave New World

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Mascha

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11/12/13

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Mascha Röhrenbeck Brave New World - Aldous Huxley Key Facts: ● ● → John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15 Protagonist: Bernard + John Genre: Dystopian novel Setting: London + New Mexico Antagonist: The World State + Mustapha Mond PoV: Third person omniscient → character x visible in the story knows everything, outside smth comments on the characters behaviour they exist under the rule of an imagined future one-world government → the World State Time: year 632 after Ford (2540 AD), meaning 632 years after the production of the first Model T car. Climax: debate between Mustapha Mond + John ● ● Foreshadowing: ● mainly neutral, distanced switches (middle) → ndicating the shift from Bernard to John as the moral center of the story Written: England Published: 1932 Literary Period: Modernism Tone: initially sardonic + detached later: despairing + sympathetic Falling Action: director's memories of his trip to the Reservation foreshadow his relationship to John and Linda Bernard's insecurities and dissatisfactions foreshadow his exile John's longing to sacrifice himself → foreshadow his suicide Related Historical Events (early 1930s): terrible world war Chapter 18 → John isolates himself in a lighthouse + punishes himself → ends with an orgy and his suicide. Climax John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15. totalitarian states had sprung up in the Soviet Union Fascist parties were gaining power in Europe another war? huge strides: science + application of science through technology industrialisation Climax: English Lk...

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13 during the extended debate between Mustapha Mond + John, the Savage modern humanity's dilemma: the old vs. the new / science vs. emotion / individual freedom vs. social stability / materialism vs. spiritualism debate does not establish a solution to the problem → indicating that the two opposing forces will never be able to compromise and co-exist in peace Outcome: plot ends as a tragedy John has not been able to adjust to the brave new world - suicide Social classes: Alphas: Betas: highest caste hardest work grey uniform, only men attractive, individual (names), high class (good jobs, high quality, live in good houses), clever, tallest social superiority, interlectual, leaders → power intelligent + live like kings control the lower classes +,-, ++ mulberry/red uniform important, less than alphas → more power than the lower classes adequate intelligence, less thinking, smart, qualified workers middle class →x much work embryo faction own names + Betas are the sex partners of the Alphas +,- Gammas: green uniform polite, stupid, cloned, serve alphas & betas semi- skilled workers, experts at repetive tasks ● sex partners from the Betas underclass (Deltas + Epsilons) +,- Deltas: khaki uniform, ugly conditioned to hate things, serve alphas & betas mass produced, x individuality, menial jobs +, - Epsilons: black uniforms, serve alphas & betas x read + write, semi-morons, mass-produced, undesirable jobs lowest caste embryos get less oxygen + alcohol only reason to live work hard contrast to the Alphas →x popular stupid - → can work till 18, x need intelligence lower classes discriminated classes/embryos resulted from bottles → every caste needs another amount of intelligence → different dose of oxygen = different classes bc they are depending from the intelligence Atmosphere: grey, squat buildings 34 floors high ugly, no colours (natural), grey = boring → inanimate environment = like stones, x grows on stones fictional, futuristic, lifeless → Fertilizing Room, cold despite - tropical heat + summer outside light harsh, thin, "glaring, frozen, dead, like a ghost' sterile, artificial (normal light is yellowish) people → robots, working all the time white, pale, rubber gloves, x colour, everybody is the same, x differentiating features › humans are impersonal like clones; they are used like machines initial atmos here = joyless, cold, unwelcoming, discomforting, intimidating world motto evokes a community spirit +feeling of togetherness Tone: Style: ● ● sardonic + dispassionate, signaling remain skeptical about, whether WS is a great place to live incongruous imagery "the air was drowsy with the murmur of bees and helicopters," stars="depressing." ● The fact that the residents of World State have been conditioned to find helicopters soothing and nature unsettling, while the reader has the opposite reactions, creates a distance between the reader and the characters. Suggests, reader understands what is really going on, better than the people we are reading about pity them for their ignorance shifts in the second half we follow John's story + Huxley's tone admiring + emotionally invested facts + important themes: written detailed, unemotional style technologies seem plausible + characters pitiful Opening: extended explanation of the hatching + fertilizing processes of the WS + little description of the characters themselves Huxley rarely includes physical descriptions of characters, reinforcing their interchangeability + lack of personal identity detail characters look - appearance usually unappealing → characters seem pathetic + undermines the sense of WS as a pleasant place to live total control of society by the misuse of science sex is not seen as an act of love it is seen as pure entertainment monogamy regarded as immoral soma is a drug which helps the state to keep the people happy all the time strict control of reproduction x individuals are allowed, x free thinking science is also censored because the World State sees the dangers of threatening the state's stability 'Orgy-Porgy' (meeting where people get together to consume soma and having sex) instead of religious services x families, x love, x relationships, x emotions → threaten the World State's stability + the happiness of their inhabitants: a loss of humanity Means to achieve Community, Identity, Stability: prenatal condition (predestining babies by means of oxygen deprivation/ alcohol poisoning) sleep teaching + taught values post natal conditioning media/ activities Religion (worshipping the community) moral thinking not established by means of society but manipulation Developments in technology Soma + pedagogic theories Independent thinking: suppressed by means of manipulative education, artificial happiness, emotion control, distraction, manipulated media, drugs and conditioning → people do not feel the need to escape Characters: John (the Savage): unable to fit in to World State Society → grows up, outside the World State illegal son of the Director + Linda is an ultimate outsider ● ● ● rejected by the Indian culture + the World State culture demonstrates the huge cultural divide between him and World State society takes his values from Shakespeare + develops a love Bernard Marx: ● monopolistic guideline, extensive quotation + language enables him to express his emotions misguided in illusion, idealism, identification, access to past, humanity permanent conflict between his values + the reality of the world around him spends the 20 years of his life on the Reservation natives treat him as an outsider, still picks up their religious + moral values thinks the World State culture is immoral, infantilizing + degrading to humanity potential new hero, attractive, courageous, principled, subjective, naive, superstitious Childhood: raised by moral values of civilized life + believing bible, myths, native religion desire to participate product of desire to escape due to alienation and reflection of illusion romance with Lenina World State: confusion, incompatibility of ideals/ values, shocking experiences, understanding inhumanity, social experiment, criticism, mortification, guilt-ridden suicide Unique human being → complex character, identity, family relationship Unwise rebel → morality sponge/ hybrid, confusion due to different inputs, lack of identity, held back by external/ internal entire worldview is based on his knowledge of Shakespeare's plays, which he can quote with great facility Alpha male, one central character of the novel his body does not fit to his conditioning so that he is also an outsider small stature: inferiority complex · he feels like an outsider to World State society self-conscious + more of an individual than other citizen outsider status + individuality allows: recognize + criticize the flaws, the World State inferiority complex → defensive, resentful, jealous, cowardly + quick to boast criticizes the World State → secretly wants to be like his friend Helmholtz Watson fears to be exiled to the Iceland - breakdown shows his real character + desire to be an important exploits John to become popular - part in the World State → more hypnopaedia psychologist, privileges, later exiled Conditioning - accident with alcohol in blood-surrogate before decanting, incomplete conditioning inadequate for caste, publicly humiliated, lacking dominance + self-confidence, inferioritycomplex, melancholy, doubt in system, isolation, frustration, jealousy, desire of communication/ privacy + individuality Behaviour evading society, social misfit, exercising criticism Lacking intelligence →short triumph + popularity, no philosophical conviction + moral protest but emotional naivety + desire of acceptance, abandoning principles + hypocrisy Failure → weak character due to outward appearance, would-be rebel, need of compensation for inferiority, decision for impossible conformity, illusion of hero, belief of changing society to please desire to fit Helmholtz Watson: lecturer at the College of Emotional Engineering, perfect embodiment of an Alpha male attractive, strong, intelligent, generous, kind + fun-loving opposite of Bernand emotional enginee writer well-built, attractive, successful, indefatigable lover, popular, respected, too much intelligence/ over productive, loyal to his words ● ● ● Mustapha Mond: ● represents his caste well Bernard Marx = friend → bc of their common dislike of the World State ● Helmholtz + John are very similar in their way of thinking + both love poetry but there is a cultural gap between them ● → even one of the most intelligent characters of the World State can not understand the values of Shakespeare which are represented by John Everything in life comes so easily - → women, physical prowess, professional achievement believes there is more to life → his work is empty + meaningless writing abilities, something more meaningful Doubt → search for meaning of life/ extra power, lacking fulfilment, idle mental + intellectual capacity, dissatisfaction, feeling of more than physical existence + meaningful, active criticism + resistance, falls in love with Shakespeare's poems Naivety/ dependency → x realizing real value of Shakespeare, unable to escape conditioning criticisms World State → philosophical + intellectual is one of the 10 World Controllers in BNW The Resident World Controller of Western Europe paradoxical figure, sophisticated, intelligent, good-natured, authoritarian, great rhetoric skills reads Shakespeare + Bible censors them for all the other people believes in the system of BNW: stability instead of emotions → everyone is happy + no Lenina Crowne: Beta, works at the Central London Hatchery + Conditioning Centre, vaccination-worker 19 years, pneumatic + attractive, fashionable, popular, slightly unconventional very attractive (for Bernard Marx + John) dates one man for several months - unusual for the BNW society shares a passion for John but x able to understand + return his love contrast between the two worlds + the two moral values wars once a physicist - loved truth + science so much that he carried out some secret experiments → choice of becoming either a World Controller or going to an Island where he could continue his experiments holds happiness + stability + mutually exclusive of, love or truth Ideology defends BNW's ethos by showing progress/ civilisation, sacrificed freedom to secure ultimate utilitarian goal of maximising societal happiness Development - → once young, lawless, illicit, independent-minded scientist with heterodox belief, abandoning principles/ designation Doubts collection of forbidden readings, passion for literature, knowledge of history + critical aspects, hesitating to censor biology paper, internal dissent combination of past/ present, convention/ rebellion, limited in his own gigantic bottle, believing in World State system against desire of power/ status, dictatorship censors scientific discoveries + exiles people for unorthodox beliefs collection of forbidden literature in his safe Mond = "world” → indeed the most powerful character in the world of this novel object of desire, lust, sex as partnership + communication, superficiality Naivety → complete acceptance, prejudice, repeating phrases of hypnopaedia, enjoying + desiring happiness + consumption + entertainment Doubt → longing for lasting relationship, disbelieving rumour of Bernard's condition, exploring emotional territory outside recreational sey Conformity - archetype of the World State female, unable to escape conditioning Imperfection→→ rare potential to see bey onditioning, but x live freely, showing emotions, suffering from immune system disorder lupus causing skin lesions dates Henry Foster + Bernard Marx (attracted to him - the misfit)

Englisch /

Brave New World

Brave New World

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Mascha

148 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/13

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Brave New World

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 Mascha Röhrenbeck
Brave New World - Aldous Huxley
Key Facts:
●
●
→ John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15
Protagonist: Bernard +

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So ein schöner Lernzettel 😍😍 super nützlich und hilfreich!

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Mascha Röhrenbeck Brave New World - Aldous Huxley Key Facts: ● ● → John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15 Protagonist: Bernard + John Genre: Dystopian novel Setting: London + New Mexico Antagonist: The World State + Mustapha Mond PoV: Third person omniscient → character x visible in the story knows everything, outside smth comments on the characters behaviour they exist under the rule of an imagined future one-world government → the World State Time: year 632 after Ford (2540 AD), meaning 632 years after the production of the first Model T car. Climax: debate between Mustapha Mond + John ● ● Foreshadowing: ● mainly neutral, distanced switches (middle) → ndicating the shift from Bernard to John as the moral center of the story Written: England Published: 1932 Literary Period: Modernism Tone: initially sardonic + detached later: despairing + sympathetic Falling Action: director's memories of his trip to the Reservation foreshadow his relationship to John and Linda Bernard's insecurities and dissatisfactions foreshadow his exile John's longing to sacrifice himself → foreshadow his suicide Related Historical Events (early 1930s): terrible world war Chapter 18 → John isolates himself in a lighthouse + punishes himself → ends with an orgy and his suicide. Climax John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15. totalitarian states had sprung up in the Soviet Union Fascist parties were gaining power in Europe another war? huge strides: science + application of science through technology industrialisation Climax: English Lk...

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13 during the extended debate between Mustapha Mond + John, the Savage modern humanity's dilemma: the old vs. the new / science vs. emotion / individual freedom vs. social stability / materialism vs. spiritualism debate does not establish a solution to the problem → indicating that the two opposing forces will never be able to compromise and co-exist in peace Outcome: plot ends as a tragedy John has not been able to adjust to the brave new world - suicide Social classes: Alphas: Betas: highest caste hardest work grey uniform, only men attractive, individual (names), high class (good jobs, high quality, live in good houses), clever, tallest social superiority, interlectual, leaders → power intelligent + live like kings control the lower classes +,-, ++ mulberry/red uniform important, less than alphas → more power than the lower classes adequate intelligence, less thinking, smart, qualified workers middle class →x much work embryo faction own names + Betas are the sex partners of the Alphas +,- Gammas: green uniform polite, stupid, cloned, serve alphas & betas semi- skilled workers, experts at repetive tasks ● sex partners from the Betas underclass (Deltas + Epsilons) +,- Deltas: khaki uniform, ugly conditioned to hate things, serve alphas & betas mass produced, x individuality, menial jobs +, - Epsilons: black uniforms, serve alphas & betas x read + write, semi-morons, mass-produced, undesirable jobs lowest caste embryos get less oxygen + alcohol only reason to live work hard contrast to the Alphas →x popular stupid - → can work till 18, x need intelligence lower classes discriminated classes/embryos resulted from bottles → every caste needs another amount of intelligence → different dose of oxygen = different classes bc they are depending from the intelligence Atmosphere: grey, squat buildings 34 floors high ugly, no colours (natural), grey = boring → inanimate environment = like stones, x grows on stones fictional, futuristic, lifeless → Fertilizing Room, cold despite - tropical heat + summer outside light harsh, thin, "glaring, frozen, dead, like a ghost' sterile, artificial (normal light is yellowish) people → robots, working all the time white, pale, rubber gloves, x colour, everybody is the same, x differentiating features › humans are impersonal like clones; they are used like machines initial atmos here = joyless, cold, unwelcoming, discomforting, intimidating world motto evokes a community spirit +feeling of togetherness Tone: Style: ● ● sardonic + dispassionate, signaling remain skeptical about, whether WS is a great place to live incongruous imagery "the air was drowsy with the murmur of bees and helicopters," stars="depressing." ● The fact that the residents of World State have been conditioned to find helicopters soothing and nature unsettling, while the reader has the opposite reactions, creates a distance between the reader and the characters. Suggests, reader understands what is really going on, better than the people we are reading about pity them for their ignorance shifts in the second half we follow John's story + Huxley's tone admiring + emotionally invested facts + important themes: written detailed, unemotional style technologies seem plausible + characters pitiful Opening: extended explanation of the hatching + fertilizing processes of the WS + little description of the characters themselves Huxley rarely includes physical descriptions of characters, reinforcing their interchangeability + lack of personal identity detail characters look - appearance usually unappealing → characters seem pathetic + undermines the sense of WS as a pleasant place to live total control of society by the misuse of science sex is not seen as an act of love it is seen as pure entertainment monogamy regarded as immoral soma is a drug which helps the state to keep the people happy all the time strict control of reproduction x individuals are allowed, x free thinking science is also censored because the World State sees the dangers of threatening the state's stability 'Orgy-Porgy' (meeting where people get together to consume soma and having sex) instead of religious services x families, x love, x relationships, x emotions → threaten the World State's stability + the happiness of their inhabitants: a loss of humanity Means to achieve Community, Identity, Stability: prenatal condition (predestining babies by means of oxygen deprivation/ alcohol poisoning) sleep teaching + taught values post natal conditioning media/ activities Religion (worshipping the community) moral thinking not established by means of society but manipulation Developments in technology Soma + pedagogic theories Independent thinking: suppressed by means of manipulative education, artificial happiness, emotion control, distraction, manipulated media, drugs and conditioning → people do not feel the need to escape Characters: John (the Savage): unable to fit in to World State Society → grows up, outside the World State illegal son of the Director + Linda is an ultimate outsider ● ● ● rejected by the Indian culture + the World State culture demonstrates the huge cultural divide between him and World State society takes his values from Shakespeare + develops a love Bernard Marx: ● monopolistic guideline, extensive quotation + language enables him to express his emotions misguided in illusion, idealism, identification, access to past, humanity permanent conflict between his values + the reality of the world around him spends the 20 years of his life on the Reservation natives treat him as an outsider, still picks up their religious + moral values thinks the World State culture is immoral, infantilizing + degrading to humanity potential new hero, attractive, courageous, principled, subjective, naive, superstitious Childhood: raised by moral values of civilized life + believing bible, myths, native religion desire to participate product of desire to escape due to alienation and reflection of illusion romance with Lenina World State: confusion, incompatibility of ideals/ values, shocking experiences, understanding inhumanity, social experiment, criticism, mortification, guilt-ridden suicide Unique human being → complex character, identity, family relationship Unwise rebel → morality sponge/ hybrid, confusion due to different inputs, lack of identity, held back by external/ internal entire worldview is based on his knowledge of Shakespeare's plays, which he can quote with great facility Alpha male, one central character of the novel his body does not fit to his conditioning so that he is also an outsider small stature: inferiority complex · he feels like an outsider to World State society self-conscious + more of an individual than other citizen outsider status + individuality allows: recognize + criticize the flaws, the World State inferiority complex → defensive, resentful, jealous, cowardly + quick to boast criticizes the World State → secretly wants to be like his friend Helmholtz Watson fears to be exiled to the Iceland - breakdown shows his real character + desire to be an important exploits John to become popular - part in the World State → more hypnopaedia psychologist, privileges, later exiled Conditioning - accident with alcohol in blood-surrogate before decanting, incomplete conditioning inadequate for caste, publicly humiliated, lacking dominance + self-confidence, inferioritycomplex, melancholy, doubt in system, isolation, frustration, jealousy, desire of communication/ privacy + individuality Behaviour evading society, social misfit, exercising criticism Lacking intelligence →short triumph + popularity, no philosophical conviction + moral protest but emotional naivety + desire of acceptance, abandoning principles + hypocrisy Failure → weak character due to outward appearance, would-be rebel, need of compensation for inferiority, decision for impossible conformity, illusion of hero, belief of changing society to please desire to fit Helmholtz Watson: lecturer at the College of Emotional Engineering, perfect embodiment of an Alpha male attractive, strong, intelligent, generous, kind + fun-loving opposite of Bernand emotional enginee writer well-built, attractive, successful, indefatigable lover, popular, respected, too much intelligence/ over productive, loyal to his words ● ● ● Mustapha Mond: ● represents his caste well Bernard Marx = friend → bc of their common dislike of the World State ● Helmholtz + John are very similar in their way of thinking + both love poetry but there is a cultural gap between them ● → even one of the most intelligent characters of the World State can not understand the values of Shakespeare which are represented by John Everything in life comes so easily - → women, physical prowess, professional achievement believes there is more to life → his work is empty + meaningless writing abilities, something more meaningful Doubt → search for meaning of life/ extra power, lacking fulfilment, idle mental + intellectual capacity, dissatisfaction, feeling of more than physical existence + meaningful, active criticism + resistance, falls in love with Shakespeare's poems Naivety/ dependency → x realizing real value of Shakespeare, unable to escape conditioning criticisms World State → philosophical + intellectual is one of the 10 World Controllers in BNW The Resident World Controller of Western Europe paradoxical figure, sophisticated, intelligent, good-natured, authoritarian, great rhetoric skills reads Shakespeare + Bible censors them for all the other people believes in the system of BNW: stability instead of emotions → everyone is happy + no Lenina Crowne: Beta, works at the Central London Hatchery + Conditioning Centre, vaccination-worker 19 years, pneumatic + attractive, fashionable, popular, slightly unconventional very attractive (for Bernard Marx + John) dates one man for several months - unusual for the BNW society shares a passion for John but x able to understand + return his love contrast between the two worlds + the two moral values wars once a physicist - loved truth + science so much that he carried out some secret experiments → choice of becoming either a World Controller or going to an Island where he could continue his experiments holds happiness + stability + mutually exclusive of, love or truth Ideology defends BNW's ethos by showing progress/ civilisation, sacrificed freedom to secure ultimate utilitarian goal of maximising societal happiness Development - → once young, lawless, illicit, independent-minded scientist with heterodox belief, abandoning principles/ designation Doubts collection of forbidden readings, passion for literature, knowledge of history + critical aspects, hesitating to censor biology paper, internal dissent combination of past/ present, convention/ rebellion, limited in his own gigantic bottle, believing in World State system against desire of power/ status, dictatorship censors scientific discoveries + exiles people for unorthodox beliefs collection of forbidden literature in his safe Mond = "world” → indeed the most powerful character in the world of this novel object of desire, lust, sex as partnership + communication, superficiality Naivety → complete acceptance, prejudice, repeating phrases of hypnopaedia, enjoying + desiring happiness + consumption + entertainment Doubt → longing for lasting relationship, disbelieving rumour of Bernard's condition, exploring emotional territory outside recreational sey Conformity - archetype of the World State female, unable to escape conditioning Imperfection→→ rare potential to see bey onditioning, but x live freely, showing emotions, suffering from immune system disorder lupus causing skin lesions dates Henry Foster + Bernard Marx (attracted to him - the misfit)