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Brave New World

Brave New World

 Mascha Röhrenbeck
Brave New World - Aldous Huxley
Key Facts:
→ John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15
Protagonist: Bernard + J

Brave New World

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Mascha Röhrenbeck Brave New World - Aldous Huxley Key Facts: ● → John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15 Protagonist: Bernard + John Antagonist: The World State + Mustapha Mond POV: Third person omniscient → character x visible in the story knows everything, outside smth comments on the characters behaviour ● ● Genre: Dystopian novel Setting: London + New Mexico they exist under the rule of an imagined future one-world government- → the World State Time: year 632 after Ford (2540 AD), meaning 632 years after the production of the first Model T car. Climax: debate between Mustapha Mond + John Foreshadowing: ● ● Falling Action: ● mainly neutral, distanced switches (middle) → indicating the shift from Bernard to John as the moral center of the story Written: England Published: 1932 ● Literary Period: Modernism Tone: initially sardonic + detached later: despairing + sympathetic Related Historical Events (early 1930s): terrible world war director's memories of his trip to the Reservation foreshadow his relationship to John and Linda Bernard's insecurities and dissatisfactions foreshadow his exile John's longing to sacrifice himself foreshadow his suicide Chapter 18 → John isolates himself in a lighthouse + punishes himself → ends with an orgy and his suicide. Climax John incites a riot in the hospital in Chapter 15. Climax: totalitarian states had sprung up in the Soviet Union Fascist parties were gaining power in Europe another war? huge strides: science + application of science through technology industrialisation English Lk 13 during...

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the extended debate between Mustapha Mond + John, the Savage modern humanity's dilemma: the old vs. the new / science vs. emotion / individual freedom vs. social stability / materialism vs. spiritualism debate does not establish a solution to the problem indicating that the two opposing forces will never be able to compromise and co-exist in peace Outcome: plot ends as a tragedy John has not been able to adjust to the brave new world suicide Social classes: Alphas: Betas: mulberry/red uniform important, less than alphas more power than the lower classes adequate intelligence, less thinking, smart, qualified workers middle class → x much work embryo faction own names + Betas are the sex partners of the Alphas +,- Gammas: highest caste hardest work grey uniform, only men attractive, individual (names), high class (good jobs, high quality, live in good houses), clever, tallest social superiority, interlectual, leaders → power intelligent + live like kings → control the lower classes ++ ● Deltas: green uniform polite, stupid, cloned, serve alphas & betas semi- skilled workers, experts at repetive tasks sex partners from the Betas underclass (Deltas + Epsilons) khaki uniform, ugly conditioned to hate things, serve alphas & betas mass produced, x individuality, menial jobs +,- Epsilons: +, ● ● black uniforms, serve alphas & betas x read + write, semi-morons, mass-produced, undesirable jobs lowest caste → embryos get less oxygen + alcohol lower classes = discriminated classes/embryos resulted from bottles → every caste needs another amount of intelligence → different dose of oxygen = different classes bc they are depending from the intelligence only reason to live → work hard contrast to the Alphas → x popular stupid → can work till 18, x need intelligence Atmosphere: grey, squat buildings 34 floors high ugly, no colours (natural), grey = boring → inanimate environment = like stones, x grows on stones → fictional, futuristic, lifeless tropical heat + summer outside Fertilizing Room, cold despite - light harsh, thin, "glaring, frozen, dead, like a ghost' sterile, artificial (normal light is yellowish) people → robots, working all the time white, pale, rubber gloves, x colour, everybody is the same, x differentiating features humans are impersonal like clones; they are used like machines initial atmosphere = joyless, cold, unwelcoming, discomforting, intimidating world motto evokes a community spirit +feeling of togetherness Tone: Style: ● ● ● sardonic + dispassionate, signaling → remain skeptical about, whether WS is a great place to live ● incongruous imagery → "the air was drowsy with the murmur of bees and helicopters,” stars = "depressing." The fact that the residents of World State have been conditioned to find helicopters soothing and nature unsettling, while the reader has the opposite reactions, creates a distance between the reader and the characters. Suggests, reader understands what is really going on, better than the people we are reading about pity them for their ignorance shifts in the second half we follow John's story + Huxley's tone → emotionally invested admiring + facts + important themes: written detailed, unemotional style technologies seem plausible + characters pitiful Opening: extended explanation of the hatching + fertilizing processes of the WS + little description of the characters themselves Huxley rarely includes physical descriptions of characters, reinforcing their interchangeability + lack of personal identity detail characters look - appearance usually unappealing → characters seem pathetic + undermines the sense of WS as a pleasant place to live total control of society by the misuse of science sex is not seen as an act of love → it is seen as pure entertainment monogamy regarded as immoral soma is a drug which helps the state to keep the people happy all the time strict control of reproduction x ind luals are allowed, x free thinking science is also censored because the World State sees the dangers of threatening the state's stability 'Orgy-Porgy' (meeting where people get together to consume soma and having sex) instead of religious services x families, x love, x relationships, x emotions → threaten the World State's stability + the happiness of their inhabitants: a loss of humanity Means to achieve Community, Identity, Stability: prenatal condition (predestining babies by means of oxygen deprivation/ alcohol poisoning) sleep teaching + taught values post natal conditioning media/ activities Religion (worshipping the community) moral thinking not established by means of society but manipulation Developments in technology Soma + pedagogic theories Independent thinking: suppressed by means of manipulative education, artificial happiness, emotion control, distraction, manipulated media, drugs and conditioning → people do not feel the need to escape Characters: John (the Savage): unable to fit in to World State Society → grows up, outside the World State illegal son of the Director + Linda is an ultimate outsider ● ● ● Bernard Marx: ● ● ● rejected by the Indian culture + the World State culture demonstrates the huge cultural divide between him and World State society takes his values from Shakespeare + develops a love → monopolistic guideline, extensive quotation + language enables him to express his emotions misguided in illusion, idealism, identification, access to past, humanity permanent conflict between his values + the reality of the world around him spends the 20 years of his life on the Reservation natives treat him as an outsider, still picks up their religious + moral values thinks the World State culture is immoral, infantilizing + degrading to humanity potential new hero, attractive, courageous, principled, subjective, naive, superstitious Childhood: raised by moral values of civilized life + believing bible, myths, native religion desire to participate product of desire to escape due to alienation and reflection of illusion romance with Lenina ● World State: confusion, incompatibility of ideals/ values, shocking experiences, understanding inhumanity, social experiment, criticism, mortification, guilt-ridden suicide Unique human being → complex character, identity, family relationship Unwise rebel - morality sponge/ hybrid, confusion due to different inputs, lack of identity, held back by external/ internal entire worldview is based on his knowledge of Shakespeare's plays, which he can quote with great facility Alpha male, one central character of the novel his body does not fit to his conditioning so that he is also an outsider small stature: inferiority complex he feels like an outsider to World State society. self-conscious + more of an individual than other citizen outsider status + individuality allows: recognize + criticize the flaws, the World State inferiority complex defensive, resentful, jealous, cowardly + quick to boast criticizes the World State → secretly wants to be like his friend Helmholtz Watson fears to be exiled to the Iceland - breakdown shows his real character + desire to be an important exploits John to become popular - part in the World State → more hypnopaedia psychologist, privileges, later exiled Conditioning - accident with alcohol in blood-surrogate before decanting, incomplete conditioning inadequate for caste, publicly humiliated, lacking dominance + self-confidence, inferioritycomplex, melancholy, doubt in system, isolation, frustration, jealousy, desire of communication/ privacy + individuality Behaviour evading society, social misfit, exercising criticism Lacking intelligence → short triumph + popularity, no philosophical conviction + moral protest but emotional naivety + desire of acceptance, abandoning principles + hypocrisy Failure → weak character due to outward appearance, would-be rebel, need of compensation for inferiority, decision for impossible conformity, illusion of hero, belief of changing society to please desire to fit Helmholtz Watson: lecturer at the College of Emotional Engineering, perfect embodiment of an Alpha male attractive, strong, intelligent, generous, kind + fun-loving opposite of Bernand emotional engineer/ writer well-built, attractive, successful, indefatigable lover, popular, respected, too much intelligence/ over productive, loyal to his words ● ● ● ● Mustapha Mond: ● ● ● ● represents his caste well Bernard Marx = friend ● bc of their common dislike of the World State Helmholtz + John are very similar in their way of thinking + both love poetry but there is a cultural gap between them ● → even one of the most intelligent characters of the World State can not understand the values of Shakespeare which are represented by John Everything in life comes so easily → women, physical prowess, professional achievement → believes there is more to life his work is empty + meaningless writing abilities, something more meaningful Doubt → search for meaning of life/ extra power, lacking fulfilment, idle mental + intellectual capacity, dissatisfaction, feeling of more than physical existence + meaningful, active criticism + resistance, falls in love with Shakespeare's poems Naivety/ dependency → x realizing real value of Shakespeare, unable to escape conditioning criticisms World State → philosophical + intellectual → Lenina Crowne: Beta, works at the Central London Hatchery + Conditioning Centre, vaccination-worker 19 years, pneumatic + attractive, fashionable, popular, slightly unconventional very attractive (for Bernard Marx + John) dates one man for several months → unusual for the BNW society shares a passion for John but x able to understand + return his love → contrast between the two worlds + the two moral values is one of the 10 World Controllers in BNW The Resident World Controller of Western Europe paradoxical figure, sophisticated, intelligent, good-natured, authoritarian, great rhetoric skills reads Shakespeare + Bible → censors them for all the other people believes in the system of BNW: stability instead of emotions everyone happy + no wars once a physicist loved truth + science so much that he carried out some secret experiments → choice of becoming either a World Controller or going to an Island where he could continue his experiments holds happiness + stability + mutually exclusive of, love or truth Ideology defends BNW's ethos by showing progress/ civilisation, sacrificed freedom to secure ultimate utilitarian goal of maximising societal happiness Development → once young, lawless, illicit, independent-minded scientist with heterodox belief, abandoning principles/ designation Doubts → collection of forbidden readings, passion for literature, knowledge of history + critical aspects, hesitating to censor biology paper, internal dissent combination of past/ present, convention/ rebellion, limited in his own gigantic bottle, believing in World State system against desire of power/ status, dictatorship censors scientific discoveries + exiles people for unorthodox beliefs collection of forbidden literature in his safe Mond = "world" → indeed the most powerful character in the world of this novel object of desire, lust, sex as partnership + communication, superficiality Naivety → complete acceptance, prejudice, repeating phrases of hypnopaedia, enjoying + desiring happiness + consumption + entertainment Doubt →→ longing for lasting relationship, disbelieving rumour of Bernard's condition, exploring emotional territory outside recreational sey Conformity → archetype of the World State female, unable to escape conditioning Imperfection→ rare potential to see beyond conditioning, but x live freely, showing emotions, suffering from immune system disorder lupus causing skin lesions dates Henry Foster + Bernard Marx (attracted to him – the misfit) ● ● Linda: ● ● ● ● The Director (Thomas): ● ● Fanny Crowne: ● → obsessed with John, x immediately sleep with her behavior → intriguingly unorthodox unable to share Bernard's disaffection / to comprehend John's alternate system of values Beta-minus woman, old, fat separated from the Director in storm during a visit to the Reservation During a storm, she got lost, suffered a head injury + was left behind group of native Americans found her + brought her to their village, x abortion ● though → taken all the proper precautions + pregnant with John when separated from the Director Popé: → embarrassed at giving birth that she didn't try to leave the Reservation World State belief in promiscuous sex + drug-taking outcasts in the Reservation returns to the World State drugs herself into a permanent soma-stupor, until she dies Abandonment - left behind for dead, dropped from society, pregnancy, shame, social outcast, undignified death Conditioning promiscuity, longing for BNW, struggle to accept +reject, lacking care as mother ● pedantic, charmless, pretentious + thoroughly conventional Alpha male → runs the Central London Hatchery takes exception to Bernard's unconventional behavior → Bernard discovers + reveals that the Director abandoned Linda in the Reservation + unknowingly fathered a child threatening figure Henry Foster: Lenina's friend + co-worker at the Hatchery → same last name bc only about 10 thousand last names are in use in the WS more conventional than Lenina essentially speaks, acts + thinks exactly as she was conditioned to mainly to voice the conventional values of her caste and society warns Lenina → more men in her life bc it looks bad to concentrate on one man for too long Benito Hoover: One of Lenina's lovers, scientist/ statistician supremely conventional Alpha male + employee at the Hatchery young, fair-haired, blue-eyed Conditioning → consumption, intellectual awareness of conditioning Obsession with numbers detailed quotation of facts about the processes of hatchery + conditioning, in charge of maximizing number of embryos of ovary, industrialization + sterilisation + scientification + efficiency of birth + humans + nature, exact +mathematic precision success with Lenina + casual attitude about it. infuriate jealous Bernard affable though rather hairy former lover of Lenina the Arch-Community-Songster → The World State version of the Archbishop of Canterbury. One of Linda's lovers in the Reservation brings her drugs + gave Linda a copy of The Complete Works of Shakespeare The Arch-Community-Songster: the secular, shallow equivalent of an archbishop in the World State society The Warden: talkative chief administrator for the New Mexico Savage Reservation + Alpha ● Protagonist: Antagonist: Symbols: Ford: Soma: John the Savage = protagonist + symbol of the old world order where emotion + individualism, important ● Mustapha Mond = antagonist + symbol of the brave new world Controllers of the new society: represents the sophisticated, scientific society of the new world order → where conformity + stability are more valued than emotion + individual freedom Shakespeare: all of the art that has been rejected + destroyed by the World State in the interest of maintaining stability ● Ford: x religion, but symbolic and revered father figure: Henry T. Ford → the perfect "god" for World State society, bc in developing his Ford Motor Company → invented mass production by means of the assembly line + the specialization of workers, each of whom has one single and specific job. The World State takes Ford's ideas about mass production + the assembly line →>> applies them to biology / to people. World State is an assembly line pumping out people conditioned to fit into a single specialized caste and job Motifs: Pneumatic: powerful emotion, passion, love, + beauty on display in Shakespeare's plays noble aspects of humanity that have been sacrificed by the World State in its effort to make sure all of its citizens are always happy use of instant gratification to control the World State's populace powerful influence of science + technology on society kind of "sacrament," represents the use of religion to control society Lenina's body and chairs adjective smth has air pockets/works by means of compressed air chairs: chairs' cushions are inflated with air Lenina's body: used by Henry Foster + Benito Hoover → describe what she's like to have sex with herself remarks that her lovers usually find her "pneumatic," well-rounded, balloon-like/bouncy → reference to flesh + bosom human sexuality → degraded to the level of a commodity citizens of WS substitute the name of Henry Ford = early twentieth-century industrialist + founder of the Ford Motor Company religion, replaced by reverence for technology +specifically the efficient, mechanized factory production of goods that Henry Ford pioneered Alienation: ● Sex: Bernard: misfit, too small + powerless for the position → conditioned to enjoy → even to play the role of an Alpha Plus Helmholtz: too intelligent - John: multiple levels/sites: native American community rejects him, unwilling + unable become part of the World State → driving forces of the narrative: provides the main characters with their primary motivations ● Reproductive rights, controlled authoritarian system → sterilizes about two-thirds of women, requires the rest to use contraceptives + surgically removes ovaries when it needs to produce new humans act of sex is controlled system of social rewards promiscuity + lack of commitment conflict: John's desire for love + Lenina's desire for sex → difference in values between the WS + humanity, represented by Shakespeare's works Themes: The Use Of Technology To Control Society: BNW warns of the dangers of giving the state control over new and powerful technologies rigid control of reproduction through technological + medical intervention, the surgical removal of ovaries, the Bokanovsky Process + hypnopaedic conditioning → creation of complicated entertainment machines that generate both harmless leisure + the high levels of consumption + production that are the basis of the World State's stability → Soma: kind of medical, biological + psychological technologies, BNW criticizes most sharply Science = pursuit of truth + fact in the various sciences → biology to physics knowledge Technology = refers to the tools + applications developed from science what you can do with that knowledge The Consumer Society: BNW satire of the society in which Huxley existed, and which still exists today attitudes + behaviors, WS citizens bizarre, cruel, scandalous → WS an extreme, but logically developed version of our society's economic values individual happiness is defined as the ability to satisfy needs + success as a society is equated with economic growth and prosperity Happiness And Agency: Happiness: freedom from emotional suffering, sickness, age + political upheaval, easy access to everything they desire Bernard: believes, wants personal agency Controller offers Bernard the chance to live as an individual in Iceland, he begs to be allowed to stay in the World State → x ready to sacrifice personal comfort for autonomy Helmholtz: express himself through poetry idea that "a lot of wind and storms" are necessary for good poetry suggests that happiness + self-expression are incompatible only achieve personal agency through suffering John: personal freedom through suffering + self-denial self-imposed deprivations make him miserable + gives in to the lure of pleasure by taking part in an orgy + suicide Individuality: WS sees individuality as incompatible with happiness + social stability → interferes with the smooth functioning of the community ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Controllers: prevent people developing individual identities "Bokanovsky's Process": most citizens of the WS are biological duplicates of one another "Hypnopaedic" slogans + "Solidarity Services": encourage citizens to think of themselves as part of a whole rather than as separate individuals Controller people are sent to the islands when they "have got too self-consciously individual to fit into community life." › Bernard, Helmholtz + John, rebelling against the WS involves becoming self-conscious individuals Bernard: wants to feel "as though I were more me." Helmholtz: writes his first real poem about the experience of being alone John: Controller asks John what he knows about God ● ● › John thinks "about solitude." End- | → John + Helmholtz choose to suffer in order to preserve their individuality Bernard x chooses individuality → forced to be an individual due to his faulty conditioning + tries to resist being sent to an island → individuality is a curse World State society = effort to eliminate the individual from society x elimination of all people themselves as individuals. The Dangers Of An All-Powerful State: Dystopia: all-powerful state controls the behaviors + actions of its people in order to preserve its own stability + power BNW maintained through technological interventions that start before birth + last until death + that actually change what people want The government of BNW retains control by making its citizens so happy + superficially fulfilled that they x care about their personal freedom. short, a loss of consequences of state control: loss of dignity, morals, values, emotions humanity. conditioning of those people so that they don't really think of The Incompatibility Of Happiness And Truth: Individual sense of oneself as being separate, distinct, unique → joy of one's own talents + thoughts, sorrows of loneliness + isolation Characters, avoid facing the truth about their own situations almost universal use of the drug soma, pervasive example willful self-delusion Soma clouds the realities of the present + replaces them with happy hallucinations + tool for promoting social stability Shakespeare, avoid facing the truth → John demonstrates by his insistence on viewing Lenina through the lens of Shakespeare's world → first Juliet + later “impudent strumpet" Mustapha Mond: WS prioritizes happiness at the expense of truth by design believes that people are better off with happiness than with truth Mond's argument: happiness refers to the immediate gratification of every citizen's desire for food, sex, drugs, nice clothes + other consumer items identify 2 main types of truth that the WS → eliminate (Mond vs. John) WS controls + muffles all efforts by citizens to gain any sort of scientific, or empirical truth government attempts to destroy all kinds of "human” truths, such as love, friendship, + personal connection objective truth: definitive conclusion of fact “human” truth: can only be explored, x defined search for truth → involve a great deal of individual effort, of striving + fighting against odds will to search for truth is an individual desire that the communal society of BNW based as it is on anonymity + lack of thought, x allow to exist Truth + individuality, become entwined → novel's thematic structure This universal “happiness” is achieved: biological science + psychological conditioning → each citizen is x only suited to its job + role but actually prefers that role to anything else + x want anything he or she x have promotion of promiscuous sex as virtuous + the elimination of families/any long-term relationship of any sort government ensures that x one → face intense + unappreciated emotional/sexual desire sadness brushed away by soma (x side effects) pleasant high + worries dissolve away Dystopia and Totalitarianism: future totalitarian societies individual liberty has been usurped by an all-powerful state most powerful totalitarian state would be one that doesn't overwhelm and frighten its citizens, but instead manages to convince its citizens to love their slavery Industrialism and Consumption: ● ● ● Utopia: ● ● ● criticizes industrial economic systems industrial revolution: second half, 19th century 20th › production of massive quantities of new goods →x value willingness of the masses to consume these new goods crucial to economic growth + prosperity ● economic imperative → satisfied → X consume enough to keep the wheels of industrial society want new things - churning along WS citizens are conditioned to consume Hypnopeadic teachings throw out worn clothes instead of mending them, prefer complicated sports with lots of mechanical parts to simple games, refrain from any activity like thinking/reading that x involve the payment of money for goods → exist to serve their economy Dystopia: A futuristic, imagined universe illusion of a perfect society/utopian world exaggerated worst-case scenario ("Anti-Utopia") industrialisation + science anxiety Place, state/condition technology develops set in distant place/future, independence + freedom Citizens, individual + free Harmonious state, natural world important + protected ideally perfect for politics, laws, customs + conditions positive way criticizes negative tendencies → current trend, social norm, political system → uncontrollable in the future Manipulated + controlled by the government → Totalitarian government Natural world disturbed surveillance, dehumanized state, gap between rich and poor Types of Dystopian Controls: Corporate control: 1/more large corporations control society products, advertising, the media Bureaucratic control: Society, controlled mindless bureaucracy tangle of red tape, relentless regulations + incompetent government officials Technological control: Society, controlled technology → computers, robots, scientific ans Philosophical/religious control: Society, controlled philosophical/religious ideology dictatorship/theocratic government Characteristics of a dystopian society: ● ● Propaganda control the citizens of society Information, independent thought + freedom concept is worshipped → citizens of the society Belief in science + technological process Misuse + abuse of science + technology Citizens under constant surveillance Citizens fear, outside world ● Citizens separated into classes Decline of values, religion + humanity Consumption of drugs Citizens → live, dehumanized state natural world is banished + distrusted Individuality + dissent bad Society → illusion, perfect utopian world Dystopian elements in today's world: Gap between rich + poor Technology, rapidly replacing jobs, reliance of new technology + science (risks) Social networking sites reduce privacy + searching information of people (Google) Web surfing + spending habits → monitored + cameras at every corner Dehumanizing → genetic engineering Limitation of civil rights since 9/11 totalitarian states (dictatorship) + able to vote (democracy) Supervisory authority Gene technology +Pro/Contra: modification of the genetic code of a living organism Ethical & religious issues: Pros: Opportunity to stop suffering from genetic defects/disorders Scientific research could offer new medical opportunities (organs, insulin) structure of a family is more important than the sexual process Family, Faith, moral, religion, → important values Promises / Pros: breading of varieties adapted to normally unfavourable climatic conditions →grow more crops on infertile / less land enable crops to taste better & contain more nutrients (improve nutritional value & taste) greater amount of food production - also a quicker + cheaper production → chance to feed growing world population breeding of stronger, better varieties: → increased resistance to diseases, pests & chemicals (also: makes plants virus resistant) →less need for herbicides & pesticides -less soilpollution=less environmental damage possibility to manufacture food in labs Resistant seed = useful & necessary → urgent demand for GM seeds - as they can be used in poor soil as well! • Genetic Engineering = just another mode of restricted improvement!! costs have decreased, too Other useful possibilites through genetic Engineering: -re-creation of extinct species - creation of new varieties to make up for the loss of biodiversity babys & food can be designed more diseases could be cured Cons: feelings of clones are neglected (treated as objects) strive for identity, loss of values differentiation of worthier & less worthier life discrimination, every individual should be worth the same (+ equality) Loss of diversity due to a longing for an ideal (identity) Life becomes just a predetermined process Humans should not intervene with nature & "play God"! crossing species barriers = immoral & in violation of God's laws. Dangers/Cons: unknown side-effects/long-term effects loss of control (spreading I) uncontrolled dissemination with unknown effects on the eco-system! biodiversity is threatened interference with ecological balance! →natural system can't regulate naturally (-environmental problems) anxiety about safety & quality risk to human health - increase in allergens + antibiotic resistance → & possible chronic illnesses high costs // too expensive for poor countries and farmers. dependency on industry (industrialized nations & companies) to produce seeds fear: motive = profit! •Animals may suffer too → Society could also include people who think and are different experimentations-value of a living being? during the processes & • Children & Persons that not have been designed might be excluded (disabled children?) • Risk that society will manipulate the genetic traits of children • abuse & loss of values Social Problems: Planning your complete life-predetermined life might make unhappy! - how suitible they are as parents. which genetic disposition for diseases threaten them and how to prevent them •Access to genetic profile or not? - Through screening people could be able to find out: → people might live in fear of future health problems →information might be abused by insurance companies & employers → child might not meet the parents expectations (disappointment, frustration) → decision may be regretted, but can't be revised Decide about the features of their child Possible life decisions in the future & social problems: Is it ethically correct to influence or modify a child's development before it is born by means of biology or ‘selective breeding'? Yes child more similar to the parents → enables parent/child to identify + understand each other in a better, more accurate + easier way. providing a child with certain abilities super intelligence position over others could avoid severe genetic diseases + imperfections influence a child's life in a negative/lethal way slightest imperfections/bad habits resulting from genetic presuppositions could be wiped out → everyone equal Conclusion: advantaged + superior ● ● No image of selective breeding (human) = Hitler's idea of creating the perfect' human race why correct, let parents decide those things for their children deciding who will have advantages in achieving certain goals later in life really ethically correct? →x equal chances Who decides which 'imperfections' are severe enough to legalize this form of genetic engineering + who will live or not? our society, inequality already exists → more wealthy parents the possibility/permission to create super humans inequality, intolerance, discrimination + suppression How far would people go? Society > divided into casts of superior super Who would decide which looks, abilities, talents humans (genetically modified) + inferior ‘normal or skin colours are 'ideal'? * people' → x equality + against the American declaration of independence, as 'all men are created equal.' * Diversity, genetic variety + evolution stop Artificial, manmade evolution x definition of perfection → matter of perception means something completely different for every indivual Imperfections + flaws → shapes our character, makes us unique + individual + separates us from machines How far would we go? Would we clone people just to harvest organs etc.? Designing babies = ethically x correct different definition of perfection subjective both parents carry the genetic presuppositions for a severe, incurable genetic disease choosing an embryo x carry those genes PID + vitro fertilization → acceptable if carried out following restrictions if the disease x be avoided by means of any other way decision on the child's gender/eye colour → beyond what is ethically acceptable + best of the future child Is a world full of happiness desirable? Yes No → wars, cruelties, famines, terrorism No discrimination, depression Everybody equal ‘access' to happiness Conclusion: No connected to a lack of knowledge + oppression a society lack of freedom, think independently, own decisions Achieved know) manipulation (only possible - → X No relationships/emotional bonds > formed, x bound + breakups unhappiness, death → grief Happiness, artificially created one, x true happiness → created by means of conditioning prevents from fully developing + coming of age Happiness + appreciation, only exist, knows what unhappiness is → unhappiness = requirement for real, emotional happiness + promotes it world full of happiness → prevents from developing their own character → deprived of any other emotions than happiness. No definition, happiness subjective emotion, triggered by a vast variety of things Unhappiness promotes, desire to change smt leads to progress + innovation in society, environment, health + science motivates, to strive → better result progress world x wars, famine, draught etc.→ desirable. world x sadness due to death / x worrying about people/smaller problems, cold, deprived of feelings + relationships + undesirable x know problems → x know relief + joy → overcome them world x unhappiness → world x happiness, too