•by Aldous Leonard Huxley, 1932 •Setting: Set in "Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre" L34 storeys in 632 A.F. (after Ford) • structure of the society: 5 castes ·motto: "Community, identity, stability" • atmosphere: cold, artificial, dead, sterile, scientific, not colourful, grey •reproduction: artificial way of reproductial, babies grow in hatcheries •people / students - write everything down they hear -> believe what's said, get convinced •Social life / behaupeople do their jobs, do not stop work → of it Brave New World -want to develop (example: Mr. Foster) ・relationships: no real love, no deeper relationships, just sex •ways of controlling people: conditioning (achieving stability sleep-teaching or hypnopaedia Social criticism •government: Mustapha Mand -> one of the ten controllers > totalitarian State is difference in intelligence and outward appearance no possibility to change the caste-> embryos are manipulated > people produced to fulfill certain tasks / jobs in the society is can be easily controlled this way religion /belief: they worship Ford •Betas - Gammas the society •Alphas represent the intellectually superior group. who run the factory; the highest social class and are further subdivided into Plus, Minus or Double-Plus ·Deltas Epsilons (black) (Henry Ford → seen as the inventor of mass production) have adequate intelligence living similarly to Alphas but their positions require Less thinking are semi-skilled workers; low-risk professionals or experts at repetitive tasks are mass-produced (literally-genetically. created twins) who lack individurality and tend to menial jobs are mass-produced; can't read...
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or write; work undesireable jobs like and foundry-worker's 'Semi-morons jobs like sewage labor. i are referred to as 5 caste system Alphas Betas Gammas Deltas Epsilons Dystopian Elements and Characteristics • stories are often about survival •primary themes: oppression and rebellion • important role: the environment • takes place in large cities devastated by pollution • there is a back story of war, revolutions, overpopulation, other disasters • features from reality and discusses them, not society in general • takes place in the future, but are about today or yesterday •strict division of the citizens by intellect, ability and class no social group except the State or such social groups are under government control •independent religions don't exist, but there is a personality cult • institution of family has been eradicated->children reproduced artificially A or are to spy on parents powerlessness of the individuals, corutal government run by a totalitarian dictatorship or massive bureaucratic institutions Societies are being monitored, betrayed or manipulated hero alevays questions society although he/she is usually in a high-standing within the social system; sees what is wrong and tries to change the system. •technology to manipulate: sleep teaching, electro shock the apy • the goal: 1) escape 2) destruction of the society's principals is but he/she fails in his intentions to change anything, sometimes they themeles end up changed to conform to the society's mile Compared to BNW •the state's means to make the people happy and avoiding them to question the system. ->conditioning -sleep teaching/hypnopaedia -> soma (drug ->different free-time activities -> sexual recreation -> Satisfaction of basic human desires/needs Consumerism -> work = feeling worthy and useful is keeping them busy →> the caste system = feeling good in your position in the society rde of sex: -> no real relationship between sex and love or any deep emotion → free-thought and fear of death do not exist is sexual and reproductive habits: children play erotic games in the hatchery and ->as adults sex is kind of entertainment conditioning centre > Promiscuity is celebrated in different ways -> in the 'Feelies' and cerenamies they use sex to make people happy -> World State controls everything whether women are sterilized or not women who are not: have to use "contraceptives" to not get pregnant -> they exclude people who get pregnant the natural way sexample: John was born in the reservation, he got a book of Shakespeare's complete works as a young boy and thinks that he has to work for a woman to get her love and have sex with her (f.e. with Lening: he falls in love, but do not want sex, while lening is under influence of soma, which leads her to convince John to have sex with her)