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Englisch Abiturvorbereitung 2023

28.5.2023

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Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
1. M
Englisch Zusammenfassung
Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen
1
1 Writing A Mediation
1. Method:
Appropiate heading (if necessary)
Indroduction
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Englisch Zusammenfassung Abitur 2023 eA Niedersachsen 1 1 Writing A Mediation 1. Method: Appropiate heading (if necessary) Indroduction 1. Method → Short 2. important: main part Reason for mediation / purpose → Addressee, target group (+ relevance for them) → Define topic; name aspects focused on → Source of information at hand conclusion ➜focus on relevant aspects ➜leave out small / irrelevant aspects →logical order / structured; not chronological ➜→give necessary explanations (terms, concepts, public figures) WRITING SKILLS - → indication at end (in short / conclusion, overall, etc.) one sentence to briefly summarize the overall idea clear, short sentences ➜appropriate vocabulary depending on purpose + situation of mediation no own opinion ➜simple present → reference to original text: accprding to the author (...) etc. → mediation = no longer than 1/3 of original text Writing A Summary / An Outline introduction → type of text, title, author, year of publication, topic TTAYT) → "The text "..." written by "..." and published in "..." is about "..." and contains information concerning "the task"." → Fictional texts: perspective, setting, point of view main part ➜essential information relevant to task ➜no examples, generalise aspects → leave out own opinion: neutrality, no interpretation →logical order, no chronology ➜ 1/3 of original text →shortly sum up all aspects summary: condensed form of the whole text outline: only information relevant to task conclusion important: Writing An Analysis Of Non-Fictional Texts outline 2 2 2. Language 3. Speech: Introduction 5. Effects main part with analysis conclusion / evaluation 3. relevant aspects...

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to analyse: Pronouns 6. Actions ➜say what you are doing in the following →if no outline beforehand, summary / outline 7. Looks 8. Method summarise most important aspects → reliability of given information + effect on reader (non-fictional texts) Writing A Character Analysis 1. Direct characterisation present tense ➜formal language sentence variety (length, structure) connectives (therefore, thus, furthermore, ...) →P-E-E method (point, evidence, effect) 2. Indirect characterisation 4. Thoughts Relationship with reader Word choice (positive / negative connotations) Sentence structure (parataxis/ hypotaxis) Imagery (rhetoric / stylistic devices) Tells audience what a character's personality is Shows things that reveal a character's personality Examples for how a character speaks Choice of words, sentence structure/patterns, register (formal vs. informal) Differences/similarities in communication with other characters Effect on reader + other characters; conclusion Examples for character's private thoughts: monologues, dialogues, narrator's remarks Feelings in everyday life and/or extreme situations Relationship between characters Behaviour and responses towards each other Positive or negative influence on each other? Character's behaviour in (extreme) situations Conclusion about character Examples for descriptions of character's looks Conclusion about looks + complexion Outward appearance to inner nature (behaviour, thoughts, emotions, feelings, attitudes) and character's position / situation 9. Character types Flat (minor) characters → Little to no change → Presented without much individualising detail → Static Round (major) characters ➜ Complex + well developed Individual or developing 10. Character analysis Introduction 3 →General information (age, sex, gender) 3 - ➜ → Setting, point of view, perspective Importance of aspects above Depending on task: TTAYT Main part ➜Adjectives to describe character → Character's socioeconomic situation (profession, social life, family life, etc. IF known) → Examples to illustrate character traits as mentioned before: STEAL Direct/indirect characterisation 3. Conclusion Speech Thoughts Effects Actions Looks P-E-E method: point (descriptive adjectives, key words), evidence (examples from text), explain (evidence in context, comment on its effect) Analysing The Atmosphere Of A Literary Text 1. Setting ➜ Summarise findings in 1 or 2 sentences → Five areas: say, think, do, said about them, author's direct statements ● Time, place, social conditions of the character 2. Pathetic fallacy Weather conditions reflecting the emotional state of a character / the mood of a scene 3. Analysis Introduction: ● Main part: → Say what you are doing in the following ➜ Identify atmosphere (which atmosphere and how?) → Aspects to focus on in analysis →P-E-E method → Describe the setting (time, place, social + weather conditions) → Point of view of the character ➜ Character's behaviour, feels and responses to others → Interplay between setting and character's state of mind → Stylistic devices → Word choice ➜ Sentence structure ➜ Imagery Conclusion/Evaluation: 2. Main part: → Summary of the most important observations Writing A Comparison Two different approaches: subject-by-subject (character by character) or point-by-point 1. Introduction: Conclusion: Topic of comparison Arousing reader's interest: relevance General information on the source for my one's comparison (title/author/director etc.) + general details on person from given text Each paragraph one well developed P-E-E argument Characters' cultural/ethnic/socio-economic background/social surrounding Characters' daily life experiences (work, school, etc.) Interaction with others + comment on relationship between other characters Evaluate (assess) characters' ability/inability to cope with obstacles/challenges/situation/etc. 4 Refer to given task 4 Evaluate character's ability to cope with their experiences for final statement, summary of most important reasons for your opinion Moral/social observation + final position on topic Stylistic Devices 1. Rhetoric Personal pronoun (we, us, our): personal relationship / togetherness with reader Direct address: makes reader feel involved Conditionals ("If more people behaved like that...") Rhetorical question: stirs emotions Reference / allusions (to important historical events): engages reader Alliteration (same letter): rhythmic effect, emphasis False dilemma (either or; only two options) Tenses 2. Choice of words Positively / negatively connotated words Comparatives + superlatives (better than; the best) Register (formal; informal) 3. Sentence structure Parataxis vs. hypotaxis Repetition Enumeration: items are listed Anaphora: repetition of the same words/clauses at the beginning Climax 4. Imagery Metaphor: visualisation of abstract ideas, indirect comparison Simile: explicit comparison using words such as "like" Personification Symbol 5 5 Point Of View 1. First person - Setting "I" or "we" Level of insight: one perspective; reader knows only, what character knows; thoughts, feeling, emotions Level of identification: allows closeness to character; makes identification easy 2. Second person 3. Third person Conflict MAIN ELEMENTS OF SHORT STORIES - "You" Very uncommon "he", "she" Objective third-person narrator: → Level of insight: narrator doesn't know any feelings/thoughts of any character → Level of identification: none; reader might be distanced towards characters Limited third-person narrator: → Level of insight: narrator knows thoughts + feelings of a single character → Level of identification: reader might be distanced towards characters Omniscient third-person narrator: → Level of insight: narrator knows thoughts + feelings of all characters → Level of identification: might make identification for reader easier Time + place in which story takes place Sometimes important, sometimes not Character Where is story taking place? (Location) When is story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc.) What is going on? (main events) Who is part of the action? (Characters involved) Weather conditions Social conditions (local colour: focused on speech, dress, mannerisms, customs etc. of a certain place) Mood or atmosphere (feeling that is created during story) Often protagonist + antagonist Five areas: → What they say → What they do → What they think → What is said about them The author's direct statements Individual character: round, multifaceted, complex personalities Developing character: dynamic, multifaceted, changing personalities (better or worse) Static character: stereotypical, one or two never changing but emphasised characteristics Essential to any plot: opposition of forces Any form of opposition facing main character External conflict: struggle with force outside of one's self Internal conflict: struggle within one's self (hard decisions, overcoming pain, quieting temper, resisting urges) Different kinds of conflicts: → Man vs. Man (physical): protagonist struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, animals 6 6 Theme → Man vs. Circumstances (classical): protagonist struggles against fate or circumstances of life Man vs. Society (social): protagonist struggles against ideas, practices, customs of other people → Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological): protagonist struggles with himself, his own soul. Ideas of right/wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc. Controlling idea Central insight Author's underlying message, meaning, main idea E.g. "Love is blind", "Believe in yourself", etc. 7 7 What Makes Us Human Identity - TOPICS & KNOWLEDGE - Evolution + genes determine what we can become Socio-economic environment brings out behaviour matching skills, beliefs, values of that cultural group Constant struggle to define our own social identity, reaching uniqueness + freedom; meanwhile not wanting to be an outsider Thrive for being virtuous + doing the right thing (based on own beliefs + values) constantly conflicts with need for social belongingness + fitting opinion of majority Ability to make conscious decisions, fighting our own nature + instincts (despite external circumstances) Moral obligation to make decision + direct humanity in long term directions benefitting everyone, even if involving short term personal suffering Guiding principle: strategy of empathy, reaching own goals while helping others reach theirs "The only way for me to be human is for you to reflect my humanity back at me." No way of being human without other humans Multi-faceted; can mean anything Combination of many traits Depending on wish to be perceived a certain way (by oneself + by others) Many different forms → Career identity → Family identity (mother, father, sister, brother, daughter, etc.) → Skills identity (athletic, intelligent, artsy, etc.) → Cultural identity (history, tradition, religion) → Social identity (peer group, gang, social class, etc.) Different situations, different identities (altering accordingly to environment + people) Caused by innate desire to belong → Sacrificing/amending identity to belong Belonging Feeling a sense of welcome + acceptance to sth./sm. A need that is naturally sought out in order to feel loved Many different forms: Relationship Social ➜ Environment. Failing to belong causes isolation + depression Not belonging can also give feeling of independence + liberty (desire to rebel) Recognising and celebrating differences Othering Term capturing many notions of prejudice Connotates how people are positioned within society Based on conscious or unconscious assumptions that certain identified groups/individuals pose threat to one's favoured group Attributes defining "Other" differ from place to place ➜Based upon race 8 ➜ Religion ➜ Gender ➜LGBTQ status → Ability → Nationality 8 → Language Creates new processes of exclusion + dehumanisation Opposite of belonging The Beautiful And The Sublime Typical for gothic novels: sublime things Beautiful: small, smooth, elegant, clear colours, small variations (e.g., flower in a vase) Sublime Clash Of Cultures → Linked to fear, power →Opposite of beautiful: large, coarse, powerful ➜ Large waterfall, extreme weather conditions 1. Bi-cultural people identify with two cultures simultaneously → Often experience collision of multiple worlds → Gives rise to conflicts → Face criticism, rejection from heritage culture for stepping outside boundaries of what's normally acceptable More or less aware of living in two cultures Caught between two cultures →Torn between two identities Feeling of betraying their own culture Wish to identify with + preserve roots of family's culture vs. being barred from friends + family Postcolonial Writing Reflection on multi-cultural Britain + coping with one's on identity Second half of 20th century Explores impacts of colonisation Notions of British identity Struggle of finding one's own identity + place of belonging Self-Identity Experience of migration Clash of culture Experience of marginalised people and discrimination Set of believes we have about ourselves → E.g. Racial + gender identity, academic + professional success Answer to question "Who am I?" →Lifelong quest for understanding ourselves Beacon for setting personal goals + directions, making important choices, evaluating ourselves At least two layers: Personal identity (how I perceive myself) → Social identity (how others perceive me) Can vary considerably Social-identity integrates into self-identity Social-identity + sense of belonging go hand in hand → Acceptance/lack of it have massive impact on emotional well-being The Ambiguity Of Belonging (Gran Torino) Die Unbestimmtheit/Ambivalenz vom Dazugehören / der Zugehörigkeit Walt Kowalski Lonely old man, no close relationships, wife died recently Member of white American mainstream society Experiences ambiguity of belonging → Ethnic + cultural changes in his neighbourhood → More African Americans + Asian Americans →Feels estranged in own Neighbourhood Remnant/relic of a time passed: 9 9 Worked in production for the "Ford Motor Company" Served in U.S. Army during Korean War →Outdated + racist views + values → Struggles with being part of today's society Sense of belonging is obscured by lack of familial connection. → Father + grandfather but no real connections to neither his sons nor their families Contradictive religious belonging Part of Detroit's Polish-Catholic community yet no emotional/religious connection to church Only for late wife's wish Service and needing to kill during time the Army haunts Walt But keeps old weapons as tokens of remembrance →Prides himself in having served Over time: starts overcoming hies values + beliefs, accepting his past + feeling more at ease with himself -> develops a sense of belonging before becoming a martyr 10 10 describe outline state summarise, sum up analyse, examine compare contrast explain illustrate assess, evaluate comment (on) discuss justify write (+ text type) - OPERATOREN - give a detailed account of (no line references, no quotes) give the main features / structures / general principles of sth (no line references, no quotes) briefly + clearly present the main aspects of sth (no line references, no quotes) give a concise account of the main points or ideas of a text /issue/topic (no line references, no quotes) describe + explain in detail show similarities + differences emphasise the differences between two or more things make something clear; shiw causes + effects in a given context use examples to explain or make sth clear express a well-founded opinion on the nature or quality of sb / sth give your opinion + support your view with evidence or reasons give arguments or reasons for + against, especially to come to a well-founded. conclusion present reasons for decision / positions / conclusions produce a text with specific features 11 11 Summary: Gothic novel, written by Mary Shelley First published in 1818; heavily edited edition in 1832 Centred around Victor Frankenstein → discovers secrets of creating life Three first-person narrators: Captain Robert Walton, Victor Frankenstein, the creature Walton's letters as framing device: introduce + conclude story Walton's opening letters: O O O Frankenstein's narration: O O O O O O From explorer Robert Walton to sister Margaret Saville O Happy upbringing + childhood (fascination: mysteries of heaven + earth) Studies science at university of Ingolstadt (learns about chemistry + modern scientific theories) Moher's death (grief) + seclusion → buries himself in work Gathers human body parts, builds creature + brings it to life Horrified by own creation → panic + severe illness Creature flees O - FRANKENSTEIN - - W. travels to North Pole (search for glory, hope for geographical + scientific discoveries) Crew rescues stranger → Victor Frankenstein F. tells his story: warning against dangers of ambition The creature's narration: O O O Watches unhappy family; provides them with wood O Real interest in understanding them, willingness to learn: learns to speak + read O Gains knowledge about history + society O Wishes to befriend family, but is driven away O O Recovery: learns of younger brother William's death (by creature) Justine (household help) accused of the murder + hanged → no intervention by Frankenstein (despite better knowledge) → fears for own reputation (madness) Tells Frankenstein of his experiences (hard life) → ugly appearancescares away people Hides from civilisation: shed behind cottage of De Lacey family Frankenstein's narration: O Anger: swears to seek revenge (especially against creator Frankenstein) Way to Geneva: meets William + wants to befriend him (more receptive because of youth?) → disappointed when same reaction as everyone else Creature learns of Williams relation to Frankenstein (younger brother) → murders him + frames Justine for murder Asks Frankenstein to create female companion to live in exile with (someone like him) O Moved by creature's story Begins creating female O Destroys it: thinks about fatal consequences → observed by creature O Creature swears so seek revenge (again) + kills Victor's best friend Henry Thirst for vengeance: creature kills Frankenstein's wife Elizabeth on wedding night O Frankenstein decides to find + destroy creature → pursuit leads to Arctic O Collapses: exhausted+emaciated Walton's final letter: Picked up by Walton's ship Harsh conditions → several deaths → Walton decides to return home Frankenstein dies (failed to creature) O Later: Walton finds creature weeping over F.'s body 12 O Creature tells W. about his suffering + plan to travel north + commit suicide O W: realisation → some successes come at too high a cost Ethics of science: "playing God" Frankenstein: willing to go beyond what is acceptable in research →Still relevant today → Humanity: want to understand + solve mysteries of life to allow humanity to thrive 12 ➜ Research: code of conduct (most scientists abide, Frankenstein however not) → Code of conduct: think critically, act responsibly, consider ethical + moral questions, share results (Frankenstein fails in every single one of them) F. "plays God" → Achieves the impossible: creates human beings from dead body parts → Doesn't take responsibility for own creation → Things get out of control → Actions lead to destruction: several deaths of F.'s loved ones → directly/indirectly caused by creature → consequences of scientific breakthroughs often unpredictable "playing God" → If it can be done, should it be done? → Term: often used when science provides new answers where before humans simply had to accept situation Without science: no choice → down to nature or God → With choice comes responsibility + moral dilemma (saving/significantly improving lives vs. unpredictable potential consequences) Scientific advances: question needs to be asked over + over again → Frankenstein remains relevant Questions of (human) identity: What is it that makes us human? Central question of novel Creature = artificial being; consists of human body parts but looks deformed + monstrous; but experiences human emotions (pain, sympathy, anger, curiosity, longing) → Behaviour towards Frankenstein + its victims: inhumanely ruthless, cruel + brutal ➜ Possesses "superhuman speed"; immunity to cold; incredible strength + endurance →Question: has Frankenstein failed or succeeded? Creature = alive, but is it human? Something misses: → F. feels immediately repulsed by own creation, but wanted to create "sth. beautiful" + chose used body parts carefully + purposefully Suggests that sth. is missing: having "parts" of a creature + ability to infuse life = not enough to "make" a human being? → Possible nod to spirituality: F. has ability to create living being, but creature lacks sth. that maybe only God can provide (soul?) Contrast to that: reader's constant confrontation with creature's human traits → Strong desire to understand world around him (learns speaking + reading) → Delights in nature ➜ Intense need for human connection: defined by desire for connection → Suffers from loneliness, lack of belonging + exclusion from society → Becomes aware of own deformity + inescapable otherness →wants creation of someone else like him (female companion) What makes creature human? →Longing to belong? ➜ Reaction to isolation, rejection, cruelty? → Ultimate human characteristic reaction to: abandonment by creator/being shot at for saving drowning girl/being mistreated/hurt/insulted/shunned/hunted wherever he goes = lashing out + seeking revenge? → People behave monstrous, not creature? Central questions of novel: what is it that makes us human? →Our ability to emphasise? →Our desire to belong? →Our need to learn + understand? →Our fear of the unknown + strange? → Our cruelty? → Left for reader to decide The role of nature: The sublime and (natural) settings: Concept of the sublime: Experience of thoughts + feelings beyond the ordinary 13 13 O O O O O O O > Caused by e.g. looking at/reading of particularly dramatic + magnificent landscapes Also caused by having (reading of overwhelming/terrifying sensations "the sublime" delights in unexpected, unusual manner Potential to make people feel awe (fear + wonder at the same time) In Frankenstein often used by Mary Shelley to depict a character's state of mind Frankenstein only finds a place of comfort in sublime, ever changing landscapes → reflect his tormented mind + inner conflict The Arctic: ➤ O ➤ The Alps: ➤ Connected to themes of exploration + pursuit of knowledge (Robert Walton's exploration) Frames novel's narrative: beginning an ending set in it The Orkneys: Walton's ruthless pursuit of knowledge: accepts dangers that come with it → crew + Walton trapped in ice → chooses isolation because of desire for the unknown (like Frankenstein) Place of darkness, isolation, danger Threatening, dangerous place Frankenstein meets his creation ➤ Ingolstadt: Storms: Very remote setting Place where F. starts making creature's companion Desolate landscape mirrors unease + desolation F. feels while conducting unnatural experiments Connected to F.'s intellectual pursuits Creature seeks shelter here Place to hide + try to survive Gives creature comfort + peace The forest: Symbols: lightning, storms and the moon O Lightning strike: ➤ Triggers F.'s fascination with science + electricity when striking oak tree near him (foreshadows F.'s experiments, which will cause death + destruction) 14 To Frankenstein: both beautiful + frightening; reflect troubled state of mind Used to announce creature's arrival Foreshadow terrible events The moon: Light that shines on F.'s experiments Light that illuminates creation of creature's mate (observed by creature through window) F.: misinterprets creature's grin of delight as malicious intent → for F.: seeing creature by moonlight reflects his fears + prejudices Creature: first thing to bring him pleasure → worships it → beauty of moon as a contrast to creature's appearance 14 Postcolonial writing: The British Empire: O Group of countries formerly ruled by the UK Consisted of Britain + its many colonies all around the globe First British colony established in 16th century At its height in 19th century: largest ever existing empire Described as "the empire on which the sun never sets" because of its size O Dated view: colonies benefited from Britain's rule ("mother country" introduced superial systems of government/law/infrastructure/education) Today: Empire widely considered shameful aspect of British history Built on exploitation Many indigenous people killed or stripped of their land + culture Heavily involved in slave trade O O O O O ➤ O The Commonwealth (of Nations) Postcolonial literature: SHORT STORIES - Grew out of British Empire Free association of states (mostly former British colonies) Britain's colonial past made people more connected Masses of immigrants throughout history poured into the country Immigrants in armed forces during WWII +as immigrant workers after war (e.g. from the Caribbean + India) Increased immigration since then → steps to take care of it Immigration what made Britain the multicultural society it is today Largest immigrant communities: Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis Authors reflect on colonialism + its past + present effects on societies + individuals Umbrella term for works written after the end of colonial rule (second half of the 20th century onwards) → clear link with colonialism Frequent themes: Problems + consequences of colonisation + decolonisation Questions of the possibility / success of decolonisation Colonial influence on language + education Notions of national / cultural identity Quest for identity + place of belonging Experiences of migration Culture clash Experiences of marginalised people Racism and discrimination Notions of "Britishness" Postcolonial experience: All short stories to some extent related to postcolonialism Some set in Britain (one of the major colonial powers): O Lose Change by Andrea Levy She Shall Not Be Moved by Shereen Pandit The Escape by Qaisra Shahraz Some set in former British colonies: O Pakistan →The Escape by Qaisra Shahraz O USA → The Third and Final Continent by Jhumpa Lahiri All short stories told from O An immigrants perspective (The Escape, The Third and Final Continent) O Or that of an immigrant's descendant (Lose Change, She Shall Not Be Moved) All short stories deal with questions of identity + belonging Clash of cultures: 15 O Term describes situations in which diverging attitudes/opinions/morals/customs of two different cultures come into conflict Can concern cultures from different countries 15 O O Culture shock = when cultures clash O O Displacement: questions of belonging and identity Displacement: O O Identity: O O Belonging: Can concern subcultures within larger groups Bi-cultural people (identify with two different cultures) sometimes experience conflict + difficulties when trying to reconcile both their cultural identities Immigrant's children may wish to identify with parents' culture but experience rejection when having seemed to have adjusted to new culture in way that clashes with their cultural origins Feeling of being torn between to cultures = also type of culture clash O Anxiety + confusion felt when finding yourself in a very different culture than your own (often felt when arriving in a new country, e.g. when immigrating or on holiday) People's enforced departure from their home country Many causes for departure: natural disaster, poverty, war, globalisation, urbanisation, climate change Feeling of being in the wrong place / having (been) moved from one's proper position Identity = person's sense of self ➤ Defined by physical/psychological/interpersonal characteristics, group memberships + social roles Identity = multi-faceted (combination of many traits) Many things at the same time: sister, daughter, wife, professor, atheist, Scot, lesbian, someone funny, a woman, a person in their 50s, a dog owner, a hobby painter, ... Defined by: things a person does (job or free time), things they like + dislike, things they are good/bad at, who they spend their time with, where they were born, where they grew up, where they live now, etc. Relevant aspects when thinking about someone's identity: Education + career Upbringing Social class Gender Sexuality Social roles Peer group(s) Skills Culture Some parts of someone's identity are sometimes (in some situations) more activated than others (e.g. behaving differently at work with "work identity" than when at home as a daughter for example) Feeling of being comfortable + happy in certain place and/or among particular group of people Feeling accepted + approved, being in one's "proper place" Fundamental human need Examples of places + groups to which people can feel like they belong to ➤ Family Friends Partners Social groups Classes, schools, universities Companies Teams, clubs, organisations One's country of birth 16 The country of one's parents' birth One's country of residence One's country of current residence A particular city Cities in general Particular places in nature The countryside in general Etc. Humans need to feel they belong in order to be happy Conscious decision to not belong = making a statement for example; results in rejection + criticism 16 Assimilation identification with the host culture, rejection of the heritage culture threat of losing one's identity O Integration adopting aspects of the host culture without rejecting one's heritage culture Andrea Levy: Loose Change (2005) Summary Story of prejudices against immigrants; illustrates that generosity doesn't depend on wealth Told by unnamed female first-person narrator Narrator meets Laylor during visit to toilets at National Portrait Gallery in London Laylor generously helps narrator by giving coins for hygiene products + doesn't expect to be paid back Narrator + Laylor walk through gallery together, commenting on different pictures Narrator starts feeling uncomfortable with Laylor's exuberant youth Head to cafeteria Narrator learns about Laylor's precarious living situation Laylor + brother = refugees from Uzbekistan, don't know anyone in London, don't have much money, sleep rough Narrator feels pressured / shamed into helping Laylor even though Laylor doesn't ask for anything Narrator thinks about advantages that helping Laylor could bring while unexpectedly + without further comment leaving the gallery Displacement: questions of identity and belonging Narrator: Laylor: O Grandmother immigrated to the UK from the Caribbean O Narrator keen on blending in, priding herself on stereotypical Londoner behaviour O Influenced by now xenophobic grandmother → seems to neither fully accept cultural background norf feel entirely accepted as a British native O Gives up on part of her heritage culture + isn't able to fully embrace identity as bicultural Londoner → left without a "Heimat" → insecurity Both characters' attitudes: illustrate importance of belonging regarding identity Settled + strong character Young illegal immigrant, forced to leave home country Strength seems to be based on self-knowledge + complete acceptance of her family's background → provides her with strong sense of belonging Narrator seems to lack true sense of belonging → appears to also lack proper sense of self O Narrator: anxiousness + lacking self-confidence hint at identity struggle O Laylor: difficulties not at all linked to identity O Laylor experiences displacement, but nevertheless appears confident + strong → her sense of belonging underpins her identity Postcolonial experience Narrator lives in UK (formerly one of the major colonial powers) O Descendant of first-generation immigrant from the Caribbean (potentially once under British rule) O O O Grandmother has become xenophobic (despite being an immigrant herself), maybe to set herself apart from more recent immigrants + to stress her own belonging to Britain Narrator = similarly prone to overcompensation Takes pride in behaving like a stereotypical Londoner (being aloof + unapproachable) When meeting Laylor: realises that she has the power to help her but ironically decides against it (caused potentially by stereotypical Londoner aloofness) 17 Linked to postcolonialism by themes of identity + belonging O Laylor seems empowered by her sense of belonging despite being in a precarious situation O Narrator in contrast is weakened by lack of it + appears to be losing her humanity in the end, defeated by her continuing struggle to belong 17 Shereen Pandit: She shall not be moved (2005) Summary Deals with racism + one woman's failure to speak out against it Unnamed first-person narrator + daughter Mariam: on their way to dance lesson, cold day in London Board a bus: aisle is blocked by Somali woman with a pram + a toddler Seats in special area in bus (reserved for people with prams): taken by 2 middle-aged white women Narrator considers helping Somali woman by confronting white women + asking them to make space Decides against it doesn't want to cause a scene + disturb daughter unnecessarily Bus driver shouts at Somali woman + tells her to fold up pram or leave the bus Narrator observes how steadfast Somali woman is even when bullied by the white women + bus driver → doesn't back down, doesn't fold up pram (bc her baby is sleeping) Frail looking older white woman enters bus → narrator decides against giving up her seat for her + prevents Mariam from doing so as well Doesn't want to give up her seat as long as 2 white women don't give up theirs → payback, "one of their kind" (white old racists) Mariam = confused by her mother's behaviour; goes against everything she has been taught (by her parents) Somali woman gets off Bus → narrator advises her to report bus driver Somali woman replies that bus driver = slave and therefore not worthy of their attention Later at Mariam's dance class: narrator cannot stop thinking about incident → feels guilty for not standing up against wrongdoing + worries about being bad role model for Mariam Displacement: questions of identity + belonging Unnamed narrator: fled to England to avoid political persecution Strong sense of right + wrong: determined to teach daughter morally correct behaviour + instil desire to speak out against wrongdoing Does not act accordingly when faced with situation in which she could live up to own ideals Makes excuses not to act even though she's deeply troubled by racist incident + fully aware that speaking out would be the right thing → fails to set good example for her child Sense of identity + belonging (based in part on her values + ideals) = threatened Identifies as person who speaks out + belongs to group of people who stand out against racism → needs to face up with fact that she might not be who she thought she was O O Mariam in similarly upsetting situation: Witnesses her mother act contrary to her teachings May have traumatising effect on her: children acquire their sense of belonging + identity to significant degree from watching their parents O Acts accordingly to own convictions O Forced to rethink her mother's identity + potentially because of that her own too Somali woman has strong sense of identity + belonging Experiences "othering" (treated as someone, who doesn't belong) + discrimination O Well aware of her right to be there + doesn't let herself be moved ("displaced") Narrator inaction = contrast O Inaction = suggestive of desire to belong to crowd on the bus + a fear of standing out Doesn't want to cause a scene O O Doesn't want to be centre of attention Doesn't want to be targeted + singled out like Somali woman 18 O →Goes against her own morals Short story depicts multiculturalism as mere lip service Narrator considers herself anti-racist + even preaches against injustice + discrimination, but doesn't speak out against it when it really matters → neither do other people on the bus except Mariam Potential interpretation: may be argued that Mariam receives first lesson in looking away + ignoring racism Postcolonial experience Characters: first-generation immigrant (narrator), her daughter + woman with migration background (Somali woman) Story takes place in UK (one of major colonial powers of past) British Empire heavily involved in slave trade O Significance of Somali woman calling bus driver (and other people on bus) a "slave" O Figurative use of term: suggests that people are enslaved through their need to conform Society where its not uncommon to turn blind eye to racism + to remain silent in face of injustice O People who conform in this regard make themselves complicit in racism + injustice O Become tools reinforcing racism 18 O Link to postcolonialism in story's title: O Silence own voices when feeling they can't/shouldn't act according to own convictions but rather according to unspoken rules of (a dominant section of) society → are enslaved in that sense "I (or We) Shall Not Be Moved" = African American spiritual used as protest song during civil rights movement in USA Qaisra Shahraz: The Escape (2009) Summary About Samir, 73-year old Pakistani man who reassesses his life after his wife's death → searches for a home + sense of belonging Starts with Samir praying at the mosque in old neighbourhood Gets lift home from son, waits to be picked up Family celebrates Eid at Samir's eldest daughter's house During celebration: Samir reveals decision to travel to Pakistan for a few months Tells family that he wants to visit places from his past + reconnect with old friends + family but doesn't mention his desire to escape life in England Arrival in Lahore: Samir doesn't experience feeling of homecoming he expected Horrified by poverty → realisation that he has become unfamiliar with life in Pakistan Visits parents' graves and remembers his life's path from being young Pakistani immigrant in England to retirement Visits family whom wife used to support (widowed mother + three daughters) Witnesses their poverty + generosity → decides to take over late wife's role + to support family in need for rest of his life Contrary to initial plans: leaves Pakistan after just a week Realisation: home is in England where his family lives + where he spent most of his adult life Back home: arranges for poor family's continued support Moves to an old people's home, keeping only what's necessary to support himself + his family is happy + enjoys life there Displacement: questions of identity and belonging Samir: has spent most of adult life in England while always maintaining close link to country of origin O E.g. keeps up Pakistani traditions, annually returning "home" to visit family + parents' graves in Pakistan Fostered belief that Pakistan is place where he truly belongs O Wife: seems to have been fundamental to Samir's sense of belonging, identity + home O Her death: Samir feels unmoored O O O Longs for "escape" from England + wants to reconnect with his origins, plans to go "home" In Pakistan: feels displaced in former home country Search for home + attempt to redefine identity → lead to realisation that Pakistan is no longer the place he belongs to + that England has become his home O Discovers new purpose in life + a new facet of his identity: desire to help people poorer than himself 19 Postcolonial experience Region of today's Pakistan was under British colonial rule for ninety years; nowadays a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations Pakistan's colonial link to Britain: many Pakistani immigrants to UK to help solve labour shortage and/or improve personal prospects Main character Samir: first-generation immigrant from Pakistan Story: personal story of Samir's search for identity + belonging as well as the story of his family's migration and acculturation Samir: O Lived most of his adult life in England but continues to view country of birth as place he belongs O Loss of wife + brief return to Pakistan: realisation + acceptance that country he migrated to has become his home Samir's children and grandchildren: O Born in England + naturally feel at home there O Don't seem to experience any confusion regarding the question of where home is O Due to upbringing: have not completely lost connection to their origins → cook + eat Pakistani food, wear traditional Pakistani clothing (on special occasions), observe Muslims holidays This British-Pakistani family: lives mostly positive postcolonial experience Have adopted British customs + seem to be familiar with British culture without having lost their link to their ancestral roots O Samir + family have benefitted from opportunities made possible by immigration to England → economically + in terms of education 19 O Jhumpa Lahiri: The Third and Final Continent (2005) Summary Additionally: poor family in Pakistan supported by Samir + wife benefit directly from the two countries' link Narrator: Bengali man who leaves India for Britain in 1965, migrates to London + later to Boston, arranged marriage First: narrator lives in London with other Bengalis, studies, begins career as librarian 5 years later: offered a job at prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston + accepts + moves there Same time: arranged marriage arranged by brother + brother's wife Bride: Mala, barely knows her, will join him in Boston a few weeks later First stays at YMCA in Boston, then moves to private house owned by century-old, eccentric lady, Mrs. Croft Share mutual respect for each other + narrator begins to feel protective of her 6 weeks later: Mala arrives, both move into small apartment together At first: living together uncomfortable bc they're practically strangers Visit Mrs. Croft + share first small moment of warmth → begin to grow closer Following weeks feel like a honeymoon period to them Shortly after, Mrs. Croft dies → narrator = very sad, Mala consoles him + further strengthens their bond Ending: happily married, son studying at Harvard, narrator still remembers Mrs. Croft + six weeks he lived there (first American home) Displacement: questions of identity and belonging London: narrator lives exclusively with other Bengalis O He + flatmates have little responsibility + simply enjoy their lives Narrator doesn't make effort to fit in or understand British culture content in home + feels sense of belonging → feels no great need to change + adjust Moves to Boston: O O wife Mala: joins 6 weeks later O Contrast: systemically + purposely learns about + adjusts to American life e.g.: eats American food, wears American clothes, reads newspaper to grow familiar with how things are done in the USA O similarly keen to learn + adapt her behaviour O sharing life: initially difficult (bc they barely know each other), but try their best + eventually adjust + grow happy together no experience of displacement + lack of belonging don't reject culture they live in + have each other to turn to (with same experiences) open to adopt American customs, but don't turn backs on roots altogether + strive to instil an appreciation of Bengali culture in their son Postcolonial experience story gives no information on political/economical conditions in India after imperialist rule story doesn't look on effects of decolonisation on Britain or USA story focuses on main character's personal migration history O O London: narrator lives among fellow Bengalis + is generally relatively isolated from British culture Doesn't report discrimination or feeling of being threatened by British discontent about immigration in late 1960s 20 O USA: people he meets there appear generally welcoming + open-minded. Narrator's migration experience: positive 20 Loose Change The Third and Final Continent The Escape Identity and belonging Narrator feels need to conform to stereotypes of Londoners in order to fit in Narrator seems to lack true sense of belonging → struggles with her identity Laylor: strong in her identity despite difficulties she + brother are in → appears to be due to her sense of belonging, both in national + familial sense Narrator feels at home in both places he migrates to London: living with other Bengalis provides sense of belonging (same lifestyle, home) USA: quickly becomes accustomed to culture, wife joins him → have each other to turn to Both times purpose: 1. Education, 2. work + family Doesn't seem to struggle with identity or lack of belonging because of migration at any point Living with wife Mala + being married takes some getting used to →Mala a little bit like a foreign country for narrator Samir's identity + sense of belonging: have depended greatly on his wife Feels unmoored after her death + wants to go back "home" Realises that living in different country reshapes one's identity considerably No longer feels at home in Pakistan. Return to England: moves to old people's home, calling himself "English babu" Finds a new sense of Experience of migration Narrator: no experience with migration, but familiar with grandmother's experience → appears to have been difficult Laylor + brother have recently fled from Uzbekistan; England - safe place for them Laylor + brother sleep rough on London's streets seems like Laylor draws strength from her sense of belonging (no displacement) Narrator's experience with migration altogether positive London: life with other Bengali men, relatively free of responsibility USA: manages to fit in, grow accustomed to culture, make home together with wife for family Seems more disoriented by arrival of his wife than migration Migrated to England; determined to find respectable trade Samir + family find support within their ethnic group + keep up certain Pakistani traditions Samir struggles with his sense of belonging, his children see England as their home Revisits Pakistan after wife's death Experience makes it possible to accept his integration into British Experience of discrimination, prejudice and racism Laylor met with concealed hostility + mistrust when she explains she's a refugee Narrator expects her to be scheming rather than really in need of help Narrator recalls her grandmother's experiences as a migrant with implied prejudice + racism Narrators grandmother nowadays: xenophobic herself Narrator doesn't seem to experience discrimination, prejudice or racism based on being a migrant Neither in UK nor in USA Doesn't recall instances of direct discrimination when reminiscing about his life in Pakistan References to systemic racism → Remembers fear Enoch Powell's speech caused among immigrants Experience of cultural differences 21 Laylor + brother seem lost in london's vastness Laylor unfamiliar with currency and norms in the UK (e.g. doesn't know that sugar is free in cafes) Narrator thinks behaviour is odd: drinking tea with hair in it, dropping all her coins in the lavatory Other than that: Laylor unperturbed by any cultural differences When migrating to UK: doesn't attempt to adjust/adopt British culture Lives happy but culturally isolated life. among other Bengalis When moving to the USA: purposely learns about + adopts American lifestyle from the beginning Perceives cultural differences + appreciates verything being new to him but doesn't reject host culture Doesn't turn his back on heritage culture either Wife (whom he barely knows on her arrival) almost seems like a different culture he has to get used to first Holds on to Pakistani traditions Raised his children to be familiar. with ancestral roots Children don't close themselves off from ppl + culture around them Children = multicultural. Respecting parents' background while also adopting aspects of British culture Samir expresses + gives a term to his 21 She Shall Not Be Moved belonging + identity Narrator: sees herself as someone with strong sense of right/wrong + thinks that she knows herself well Associates herself with home country, but normally feels some degree of belonging in England Incident on the bus: uses "us" and "them" pronouns implies that she experiences a division Fails to act in line with her own values → forced to deal with fact that she behaved in al way she disapproves of (not being anti-racist, outspoken against injustice, decent + straightforward) Reacts to this by making excuses, internally expressing regret + hoping her daughter will forget incident Narrators failure= unsettling for both her + daughter bc their identities are in part built on their idea of right/wrong Contrast: Somali woman seems to have strong sense of self + belonging culture + changes that. go with it Unnamed narrator fled political persecution in her country of origin Important to her, because eof her activism, to ingrain values like uprightness + integrity in her daughter Reader learns nothing about migration experience of character referred to as "Somali woman" Possible that she's not a migrant at all "Somali woman" experiences discrimination by 2 other passengers based on her skin colour 2 white women refuse to give up seats for her pram+ insult her Bus driver verbally attacks her as well even though the 2 women are cause of the problem + Somali woman does nothing wrong Narrator herself is discriminated against by 2 white women when she doesn't give up her seat for a frail-looking middle-aged white woman. 22 own multiculturalism by becoming an "English babu" Narrator lives in England to avoid political persecution in her country of origin Seems to be well- adjusted to culture but is (silently) critical of the racism she encounters in the UK 22 GRAN TORINO Summary: 2008 drama film, directed by + starring Clint Eastwood Story of recently widowed Clint Eastwood: gruff, embittered, taciturn war veteran Walt = racist, but befriends his new Asian neighbours + develops mentor relationship with youngest son Thao The Lors = Hmong people (ethnic group originally from parts of Southern China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand + Burma)→ were exiled due to cooperation with CIA during Vietnam War Walt = former Ford factory worker, keeps 1972 Ford Gran Torino in his garage Thao attempts to steal Gran Torino as initiation ritual to local gang Thao unsuccessful, makes amends by working for Walt Grudgingly form a bond Walt helps Thao get a job + develops into father figure for him Walt = alienated from his sons, doesn't tell anyone when he receives a serious diagnosis Gang meanwhile continues to threaten Thao + assault him Walt beats up member of gang → retaliation: gang shoots at Lor house, injure Thao + rape Thao's sister Sue No witnesses, so police can's arrest them Thao turns to Walt for help Walt prepares by: getting his hair cut, mowing his lawn, going to confession Walt locks Thao in basement, tells him that he's haunted by having killed in the war + gives him his Silver Star Medal Walt leaves to confront gang Berates gang loudly → neighbourhood watches + witnesses his sacrifice Gang shoots Walt in the street + dies unarmed, thus causing the arrest of gang Thao inherits Walt's car (Gran Torino) + Walt's house is donated to church Traditional values and changing culture: Wald = embodiment of old-fashioned American values Gran Torino functions as symbol: represents America's successes in auto industry, its wealth + history Walt like his car an old timer, outdated model, relic of a long-gone era O Epitome of certain type of man from his generation O O O Defined by conservatism, patriotism, racism Expects young ppl to treat older people with respect → displeased about his grandchildren dressing + behaving in disrespectful manner at his wife's funeral Values hard work, independence, self-reliance, self defence O O Violence as an emblem of masculinity → response to violence is violence Walt thinks that traditional American values are threatened by immigration + foreign influence on the culture + economy O Critical of son's preference for Toyota → Japanese make of car O Regards influx of immigrants in the area with great suspicion + resentment O 23 Used to live next to ppl with same ethnic + cultural background now he's almost the only white American left in the area New neighbours the Lors = Hmong people → ethnic minority of Asian origin → treats them with extreme hostility Upset that his neighbourhood has become increasingly run-down O Clashes with his values O Sense of duty to keep his property well-maintained O Focus on keeping things in order = statement against state of neighbourhood + in favour of conservatism Defends his house like a fortress against changing culture → defends it thereby against the present + future Walt gradually opens up + learns about Hmong culture + customs over the course of the story O O Also loves their food O Feels welcome in the Lor family 23 Gender-related conflicts: Walt conforms to masculine stereotypes Notion of how a man should behave + talk e.g. defending himself + others using force, talking "like a man" (with insults + racial slurs) O influences Thao, whose role model Walt has become Thao + Sue's mother + grandmother believe in similarly clear-cut gender roles Men need to be head of household, Men should be strong + protective, Men should show no "female" characteristics (shyness + sensitivity) Thao: Sue: O O O Thao: O masculinity repeatedly questioned by family, gang members + Walt O regularly insulted on account of not being "man enough" O Walt's principal lesson when taking Thao under his wing: how to "man up" O Many qualities that family + Walt consider male → confidence + assertiveness To a degree: both children redefine gender roles Family and belonging: Walt: O Estranged from his two grown sons + families O Disappointed in sons + his grandchildren's behaviours + attitudes O Feels misunderstood + rejected by his family Walt unwilling + unable to try + improve their relationship Rude + hostile + cannot properly express his feelings Deliberately isolates himself from his family O Deliberately isolates himself from his family Walt + Thao: O O O O Lor family: O O O o In the beginning: both lack a sense of belonging + ability to communicate their emotions Both struggle to fit in In the course of the story: build a father-son relationship Open up to each other + both eventually find purpose and a sense of belonging Thao Sue's mother doesn't speak English, only their native language They are prejudiced against Americans + American culture + don't seek integration Feel like they belong with their own ethnic group Sue: has adopted western lifestyle + seems well-integrated into American society Sue: easy to move back + forth between the two cultures, experiences sense of belonging to both Walt and the Lor's: O Initial prejudice, but W. learns that Lor family's values are much closer to his own than his son's O Both value tradition, show respect to older members of the family, have similar conservative notions of gender + appreciate coming together to eat + drink → W. realises that he has more in common with Thao + Sue's family + Hmong culture than with his own family Criticism: Racist slurs and the "white saviour” trope: Racist slurs = part of Walt's everyday language Explanation, but not excuse: involvement in Korean War His racism remains problematic → his language must be seen as very problematic Anti-Asian racism persists + has been an issue in American history since arrival of first Chinese migrant in the Us in 1850s Covid-19 pandemic: significant increase of hate crimes against Asian Americans → Walt's racist language comparable to Donald Trump's use of term "China Virus" that fuelled anti-Asian xenophobia + racism Film = clearly intended as statement against racism O O Walt gradually opens up + tries to get to know a different culture + becomes a better person because of learning that his assumptions are wrong → overcomes stereotypes + prejudices Some aspects have come into criticism → use of racist slurs as comic elements in the scenes; use of "white savior" trope 24 24 The role of gang culture and violence: Detroit: O O Walt: O Gangs in the movie: O Three rivalling neighbourhood gangs O Latino/Mexican gang O African-American gang O O Where film takes place Rife youth violence in Detroit Causes: economic + social issues → teenagers lack prospects + opportunities, low education levels, high unemployment rates Especially young ppl with difficult family backgrounds search for sense of belonging → easily fall prey to gangs that offer surrogate structures O O O O Hmong gang Control neighbourhood, intimidate rivals, instil fear into the residents Repeated intervention when Lor children are threatened always leads to retaliation His response to violence: violence, just as the gang's → fails to see this vicious cycle for a long time Has never learnt to de-escalate conflicts 25 Eventually understands that his actions never solve problems, but make them worse Breaks cycle of violence: provokes gang members into shooting him → face arrest, can no longer threaten the Lor family good luck, you can do it <3 25