Big Brother: - leader/dictator - his eyes follow you (e.g. on posters) - moustache - never appears physically, still omnipresent - worshipped - antagonist: Goldstein O'Brien: -member of the Inner Party - gains Winston's trust - Winston's torturer - friend -> traitor Setting: - (April) 1984 in Oceania, one of three totalitarian states (Oceania, Eurasia, Eastasia), London, Airstrip One Hierarchy: Big Brother Inner Party Outer Party Proles history/past: - constantly rewritten/altered - there is no real past - manipulation of the past to manipulate people - people do not remember their past Winston: - 39 years old, protagonist, member of the Outer Party - health issues (cough, ulcer) - he still has some memories (uncontrollable at the beginning) psychological manipulation: - Thought Police monitor people all the time - thought crime/face crime - telescreens NON-STOP, propaganda - vaporizing of people -> constant fear of misbehaving - children spy on their parents - Two Minutes Hate (daily)/ Hate Week - the altering of history - deliberate use of fear - final destruction/last step of training . Winston's fear: rats - partly a rebel - development from rebel -> tortured to finally love BB works at the Ministry of Truth plot: sex: Room 101: - - place where you are confronted with your worst fear only for procreation for the Party - prostitution (not allowed, but accepted) (-> in the Ministry of Love) - torture Proles: - lower position in the system - do not belong to the Parties they are considered inferior, unworthy - hope lies with them (revolution) - majority (85%) - 'normal' life monitory/surveillance: - telescreens recieve &...
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transmit everything - Thought Police - microphones Newspeak: -> simple, new language -> 1 word = 1 meaning -> to eliminate thought crime, limit free thought -> contains doublethink (=belief in contradictory ideas simultaneously) four ministries: Ministry of... - Love -> law, order, torture - Peace -> war - Plenty -> economic - Truth -> lies, news, change past - Opposites, paradoxes," double thinking" the Party's slogans: "War is peace" "Freedom is slavery" "Ignorance is strength" - intimacy is destroyed - The Party suppresses sex, impulses on purpose -> hate, anti sex league - enjoyment = rebellion O'Brien: -member of the Inner Party - gains Winston's trust - Winston's torturer - friend -> traitor - mysterious, powerful, and sophisticated - watched Winston for 7 years - seen as a father figure & friend to Winston because he is trying, through torture, to make Winston "perfect," to "save" him vaporizes - Winston thinks that he can trust O'Brien at first - Opens up to him about his rebellion plans - Gets betrayed and tortured by O'Brien arrests is an agent of Big Brother (leader of the Party) Winston: - 39 years old - protagonist, member of the Outer Party - health issues (cough, ulcer) - he still has some memories (uncontrollable at the beginning) - partly a rebel - hates Big Brother and the Party - development from rebel -> tortured to finally love BB -works at the Ministry of Truth - thin, frail, contemplative, intellectual O'Brien (the personification of the Party) arrests - embodies the values of a civilized society: democracy, peace, freedom, love, and decency. Syme (Newspeak expert) Parsons (Winston's neighbor) Ampleforth (a poet of sorts who works with Winston) pretends to be, a follower of betrays betrays Julia: - beautiful dark-haired girl - Winston's Lover - works in the Fiction Department in the Ministry of Truth - enjoys sex, optimistic, pragmatic, intuitive, realistic - her rebellion -> small, personal, for own enjoyment - Hates Julia at first - After he gets her note they start a love affair - After the torture in the Ministry of Love they feel nothing for each other anymore Emmanuel Goldstein (leader of the Brotherhood, an anti-Party organization) Julia (Winston's ally who is against the Party's doctrines) Winston Smith (protagonist who is staunchly against the Party) rents a room to loves and ultimately betrays Mr. Charrington (a member of the Thought Police) Utopia utopia = "no place"/ "good place" (greek) Characteristics of a utopia: - imaginary, paradise- like places - model of a better/perfect society that does not exist (=> hypothetical) - reflecting key parts of our modern society - arouse hope, joy, interest activity - criticises tendencies in contemporary society VS. - make us realize that we should be committed to making a better society Dystopia dystopia = 'bad', utopia gone wrong Characteristics of a dystopia: - The world seems hostile, dark, oppressive, cruel and dirty; model of a worse society - written as a warning against inhumane totalitarian states - mirrors societies problems - criticises tendencies in contemporary society - makes us realize that we should be committed to making a better society - to portray images of the future as realistic and threatening possibilities Dystopian Elements in 1984 - brainwashing, propaganda, surveillance all the time - no privacy and intimacy (e.g., diaries, meetings/love) allowed - Newspeak -> limited language to limit expression - no free will, own thoughts and memories - Death sentence for misbehavior -altering of history to the advantage of the government - No one to trust - prohibition of gaining knowledge not coming from Big Brother - constant war, totalitarian state - torture (Room 101) - Unfair division of goods -class system - founded on hatred (- Big Brother = Stalin) Englisch Brief schreiben - Musterlösung Garden House Management 36 Queens Road London W51 7FJ United Kingdom Request concerning broken heater in apartment 2A Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to you in order to request a repair of the heating system in my apartment (2A). Unfortunately, the heater broke yesterday. Now the temperature can no longer be regulated and the heat is unbearable. Would it be possible to get the heater fixed by the end of this week? Please let me know if that is manageable. Linda Baumbach Linda Baumbach Thank you for your understanding and your help. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours faithfully, Sendeadresse formal letter and letter to the editor Anfrage Anliegen Datum Linda Baumbach Blumenallee 1 80797 München Germany 4 March2021 Bitte Betreffzeile Anrede und Schlussformel Dank Empfängeradresse Schlusssatz Letter to the editor Musterlösung Susan Hanson The Sunday Times 1 London Bridge Street London SE1 9GF Great Britain Dear Ms Hanson, I have read your article "No Free Rides" concerning free public transport options for students, which was published in The Sunday Times on 15 February 2021, with great interest. I am writing to you, however, because I disagree with your representation of the issue. Most of all, allowing them to use public transport for free would ensure students' equal access to education. Students from all social backgrounds could participate in school as well as extra-curricular activities, like sports clubs, uninhibited by financial boundaries. It is true, the costs would have to be compensated for by others. Yet, it is clear that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. Therefore, I hope that future discussions on the issue will be more considerate of students' needs. Yours sincerely, Linda Baumbach Titel Thema Veröffentlichungsdatum Linda Baumbach Blumenallee 1 80797 München Germany 17 February 2021 Begründung Argument Gruß- und Schlussformel Name der Zeitung Zweck des Briefs Meinung Wunsch Introduction: - name of the character that is about to be analyzed + its role - main information "obvious", superficial ones - title, author e.g. The eleven-year old boy Harry is the main character in Joanne K. Rowling's novel "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone." Main part: - outward appearance - behaviour - feelings/thoughts - relationships/social background - language (- character development) Conclusion: - evaluation of main part - importance of the character - own opinion Characterization Useful phrases: - Another important fact is (that) ... - Not only does x ...., he,she also ... - Proof can be found in II. .... when X.... - This behavior clearly indicates that X... - This is an example of ... - This reveals/shows that x ... - This very feature becomes apparent in II.... when x ... - To sum up... / Finally ... - x also appears (to be)..., is Giving a reason: - Due to / due to the fact that - Owing to / owing to the fact that - Because/Because of - Since - As Adding information: - And - In addition Giving a result: - As well as - Therefore - Also - Consequently - Too - As a result/the result - Furthermore is - Moreover described/portrayed as..., - Hence represents (the) ..., seems to be... - Thus - Apart from - Besides feelings/ thoughts Outward appearance language => (in)direct characterization Direct or explicit characterization relationships/ social background behaviour - language, adjectives, what figure explicitly tells about themselves/others do (e.g. age, behaviour, outward appearance) Indirect or implicit characterization - One has to observe thought process, behavior, speech, way of talking, appearance,... -> read between the lines (e.g. a figure starts fights often -> belligerent) narrative perspective/point of view: omniscient narrator: - knows everything especially thoughts and feelings of ALL characters - third person selective/limited narrator: - has access to one character's feelings and thoughts first-person narrator: - third person - Uses 'l'-form Useful phrases: Contrasting ideas: - But - However - Although / even though - Despite / despite the fact sum up that - In spite of/ in spite of that in a nutshell fact that - To conclude - In conclusion - All in all - Nevertheless - Nonetheless - While - Unlike - On the one hand... on the other hand... - In contrast - On the contrary Summarizing: - In short/brief/ summary - To summarize/to - In a nutshell/to put Adding information: - And Giving a reason: - Due to / due to the fact that Characterization: - Another important fact is (that) ... - Not only does x ...., he,she also ... - Proof can be found in II. .... when x.... - In addition - As well as - Also - Too - Furthermore - Moreover - Apart from - Besides - Owing to / owing to the fact that - Because/Because of - Since - As - This behavior clearly indicates that x ... - This is an example of ... - This reveals/shows that x ... - This very feature becomes apparent in II.... when x ... - To sum up... / Finally... -x also appears (to be) ..., is described/ portrayed as..., represents (the) ..., seems to be... Giving examples: -For example/ instance - Such as Relating information: - With regard to - With respect to - Referring to - Regarding - According to Sequencing ideas: - The former, ... the latter - Firstly, secondly, finally The first point is - Lastly - The following Giving opinions: - In my/his/her opinion - I think/believe - In my view - From my point of view Emphasizing facts: - For this reason - Again - Fortunately/unfortunately - Indeed Giving a result: - Therefore - Consequently - As a result/the result is - Hence - Thus Analysis: This word/phrase suggests/means that... The meaning of this word/phrase is... This vocabulary is chosen by the writer to suggest... The writer uses (language example) to focus the reader's attention on... This image/idea is reinforced by the writer's use of... The writer repeats (language example) to draw attention to... (Language example) is repeated to emphasise the key idea of... This use of (language example) reminds the reader that... The writer wants the reader to recognise that... Comparing ideas: - Similarly - Equally - Likewise - In the same way Language has been used to persuade the reader to... like/agree... The use of (language example) used to describe (subject) reinforces the reader's awareness of... Through the contrasting use of (language example) the writer is able to reflect the character's... The writer's use of (language example) is further reinforced through the use of (language example)... By using the (language example) and (language example) the writer is able to contrast... Analysis Introduction: The [text type] "[title]," which was written by [author] and published in [date], is about/deals with/addresses/is concerned with [main topic]. Main part: Summary: - own words - no quotations, details! - brief overview of what happens - simple present Analysis: - focus on task! - thesis - proove thesis -> quotations, language + rhethorical figures + effect - rather two precise arguments than 5 rhethorical figures without context - conclusion (answer to your thesis) Useful phrases: This word/phrase suggests that... This word/phrase means that... The meaning of this word/phrase is... This vocabulary is chosen by the writer to suggest.... The writer uses (language example) to focus the reader's attention on... This image/idea is reinforced by the writer's use of... The writer repeats (language example) to draw attention to... (Language example) is repeated to emphasise the key idea of... This use of (language example) reminds the reader that... The writer wants the reader to recognise that... Language has been used to persuade the reader to... like/agree... The use of (language example) used to describe (subject) reinforces the reader's awareness of... Through the contrasting use of (language example) the writer is able to reflect the character's... The writer's use of (language example) is further reinforced through the use of (language example)... By using the (language example) and (language example) the writer is able to contrast...