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Englisch LK Abi 2021

Englisch LK Abi 2021

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Tessa S.

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11/12/13

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Englisch LK Abi 2021

 ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL
Abiturlernzettel 2021
F
LK
GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN)
Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME
 ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL
Abiturlernzettel 2021
F
LK
GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN)
Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME
 ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL
Abiturlernzettel 2021
F
LK
GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN)
Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME
 ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL
Abiturlernzettel 2021
F
LK
GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN)
Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME
 ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL
Abiturlernzettel 2021
F
LK
GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN)
Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME

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Lernzettel Englisch LK 2021/22

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ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL Abiturlernzettel 2021 F LK GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN) Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME GO (KAZUO ISHIGURO) 1.2 DEFINITIONS: SCIENCE FICTION, UTOPIA, DYSTOPIA................ 1.3 ETHNICS OF SCIENCE........ 1.4 NEVER LET ME GO- SUMMARY 1.4.1 SIDE CHARACTER MISS LUCY 2. SHORT STORY: AMI Tan - "Two Kinds" & JULIUS LESTER - "THE CHILD”.. 2.1 AMI TAN- TWO KINDS.. 2.2 SUMMARY SHORT STORY.. 2.3 JING- MEI AND THE AMERICAN DREAM.. 2.4 QUESTIONS OF ETHNIC IDENTITY AND GROWING UP. 2.5 THE AMERICAN DREAM. 2.6 JULIUS LESTER- THE CHILD (1993).. 2.6.1 SUMMARY SHORT STORY. 2.7 TWO GIRLS- ONE DREAM? 3. CRASH- PAUL HAGGIS, 2004. 3.2 CHARACTER MAP. 3.3 ETHNIC & CULTURAL DIVERSITY 4. SHAKESPEARE-RICHARD 3 4.1 SHOULD SHAKESPEARE BE DISCUSSED IN SCHOOL?........ 4.2 HOW DOES SHAKESPEARE INFLUENCE US TODAY? // DOES HE STILL MATTER TODAY?.. 4.3 SHORT SUMMARY // CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER........ 4.4 RICHARD 3- THE CHARACTERS. 4.5 SHAKESPEARE'S USE OF IAMBIC PENTAMETER. 4.6 HOW DID THE ELIZABETHAN AGE INFLUENCE SHAKESPEARE? 4.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RICHARD AND HIS MOTHER 4.8 THE ROLE OF WOMEN.... 4.9 FATE VS. FREE WILL 2 2 2 4 7 8 8 8 9 .9 . 10 || || 13 14 14 15 16 ….... 16 ................ 16 17 17 18 19 19 .20 .20 I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME GO (KAZUO ISHIGURO) * * * * O O O O ■ * * * ◆ ◆ 1.2 DEFINITIONS: SCIENCE FICTION, UTOPIA, DYSTOPIA SCIENCE FICTION Concentrates on scientific/ technological progress and its positive/ negative effects on society Shows overcoming known laws of nature → e.g., time travelling Shows paranormal activities → mind control, telepathy Non-human characters Ideal Society: → education for everyone UTOPIA → equality ➜ high standard of living →...

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no injustice → communal property → little to no crime Usually set on an island Sometimes make fun of the current issues Some include an element of science fiction DYSTOPIA Show a (more) pessimistic view of the future → inequality usually shown in a huge gap between rich & the poor →show collapsed societies / no society →no democracy/ usually dictatorship (or no government) →no privacy but government surveillance → usually portray technology in a negative way → government control, no individuality → written as warnings for readers → caste system 1.3 ETHNICS OF SCIENCE DEFINITION A set of moral obligations that define right and wrong in our practices and decisions Professionals like doctors/ scientists follow an ethnical guide because the reliability of their work and scientific knowledge depends upon adhering to that ethnic Scientific ethnics require honesty and integrity CLONING Producing genetically identical copies of a biological entity Copied material has the same genetic makeup as the original Natural cloning → produce of genetically identical offspring through asexual reproduction (e.g., plants) → twinning ◆ Artificial cloning → reproductive cloning → goal: create a new individual → therapeutic cloning goal: treat diseases THERAPEUTIC CLONING difficulties * higher mortality → die quicker * suffer from deformity benefits * reproduction of endangered animals * treat/ cure diseases HUMAN CLONING advantages designing a "perfect" clone * infertile couples can have children * resource of organs and bone marrow cure diseases with the help of stem cells * perfect organ donator * can be used for scientific research, e.g. studying diseases * maybe at one point we can grow only organs needed for a person → scientific research on clones needed for that cons * safety is not guaranteed * treated as objects or commodities discrimination due being a clone suffer from identity crisis * loss of diversity due to longing of an ideal being * cloning in order to create superior being is eugenics * using clones for malformed genes is unethical would be too expensive →growing gap between rich & poor * diseases defends are cloned too → diseases might multiply * risks in solving crime: clones share some DNA but also some fingerprints *people might become careless with their health * ethnical wrong, not "Gods will" → religion doubts * who decides who is cloned? * risk of overpopulation grows * who cares for all the babies? * decreases in genetic variety → higher risks of mutations * no diversity * higher risks of diseases WHAT MAKES A HUMAN BEING? They die/ survival instincts (have to eat, breathe, drink) Have emotions/ feelings Are self-aware/ critical Look like a human, have human organs Have an identity (make up their own minds and decisions) Processes an individual character → humans have a soul They are able to imagine things → remember their past Are born naturally The story takes place in a dystopian version between the 70s and 80s in England. Kathy, a 31-year- old carer is the main character and as well the first-person narrator. She tells the story by recalling her memories since her loved ones already completed but her memories about them won't fade away. That's why she values her memories. The clones who were created in labs to donate their vital organs to humans who live in the outside world, life in a boarding school in Hailsham and are called "students" by their guardians. Kathy * ? * * Tommy * * * * Ruth * * Carer for Ruth and later on for Tommy Friends with Ruth & Tommy, later on in a relationship with Tommy Restrained, observant, self- conscious An outcast because he lacks creativity Involved in a love triangle with Kathy and Ruth Completes after 4 donations Anxious, violent- tempered, reflective kind/ sympathetic Kathy's childhood friend and Tommy's ex-girlfriend Offers Kathy and Tommy the address of Madame, so they can ask for a deferral Completes after 2nd donation Hot-tempered, controlling, ruthless but not very emotional --> flat 1.4 NEVER LET ME GO- SUMMARY seems to hold back SUBJEKTIVE! OBJECTIVE TONE MAIN CHARACTERS KATHY H; 1ST PERSON NARRATOR rather casual/ neutral/ calm can't remember everything doesn't want to convince the reader not very complex KATHY H. (1ST PERSON NARRATOR) VALIDITY STRUCTURE admits that Ruth & Tommy remember things differenty sometimes she's not sure if she remembers sth. correctly gives a lot of unimportant background info She follows a general structure; but often she tells her story in a unorganized way authentic: tells the story as she remembers in the moment distracting goes back and forth 3. Halbjahr. . ● • Drama: Film: verbindliche Unterrichtsaspekte: the pursuit of power the role(s) of women fate vs. free will O O O should Shakespeare be discussed in school? Shakespeare's characters have flaws and imperfections and therefore the reader is able to identify with them (probably learn from them) Shakespeare shows a variety of different emotions in difficult situations within the life of a human being suspenseful and interesting stories the topics covered in Shakespeare's play can still be relevant in today's societies (ambition, inner conflicts, manipulation etc.) his plays give an inside in the Elizabethan age studying Shakespeare's plays might help to improve one's own literacy & obtain wider educational attainment short summary of the play "Richard III" Richard wants to prove a villain and thus spreads a fake prophecy about Clarence; as a result of one of Richards intrigues, King Edward has his brother the Duke Clarence imprisoned in the Tower Richard has his brother Clarence assassinated • Richard convinces Lady Anne to marry him; Margaret curses Richard King Edward dies .Richard becomes regent (Vertreter des Herrschers) to the sons of his dead brother Richard has the two princes imprisoned in the Tower and spreads the rumor that they are the . illegitimate sons of the dead king Auszüge aus: William Shakespeare, Richard III Richard III (Richard Loncraine, 1995) Richard becomes king the princes are murdered by Tyrell (hired by Richard); Anne is poisoned by Richard and dies • Richard courts Young Elizabeth, the daughter of the dead king • Buckingham gets executed Elizabeth Queen, widow .Richmond raises an army to defeat Richard • Richard is visited by ghosts the night before the battle; in the battle for the crown, Richard is killed, and Richmond becomes King. the play's main characters married to Edward 4 King: brother father of Edward & Richard Princes: nephewes: ghosts confer kingship on Lady Anne Widow: wife: goast woos, then destroys weakens destroys Richmond Becomes Henry 7 Margaret Queen, widow; Lancastrian enemy/ avenger kills in Battle of Bosworth Richard Duke of Gloucester: becomes the Yorkist King Richard 3: defeated by Lancastrian forces Curses stepfather to Shakespeare's language might be too hard to understand for the students his plays are difficult; Shakespeare's works are not easy to fathom out and require a lot of interpretation Shakespeare is also very outdated and confusing to understand. The language is old and no longer understandable. modern writings are easier to understand and relate to daily life for young adults main focus is given to the past and not enough to the future threatens Derby (Lord Stanly) Survior Duchess of York Widow: mother curses destroys helps destroys- grieves for son Clarence Brother: ghost EP Hastings Lord; friend; ghost Buckingham Duke, cousin: ghost Richard Overview of the main character also called the duke of Gloucester and eventually crowned King Richard III. Deformed in body and twisted in mind, Richard is both the central character and the villain of the play. He is evil, corrupt, sadistic, manipulative, and he will stop at nothing to become king. His intelligence, political brilliance and dazzling use of language keep the audience fascinated - and his subjects and rivals under his thumb. Richard's characteristics, attitudes and behavior before becoming king 1. Richard's attitude towards war. In the course of his soliloquy it becomes abundantly clear that Richard favours challenges, fights and ruthless actions being inherent in war over the boredom and effeminate leisure time at court 2. Richard attitude towards the court and the members of his family: his attitude is marked by a high degree of contempt and condescension. It seems that Richard not only sees himself as more determined and intelligent than the rest of the family, but also is eager to convey the impression that they represent an easy prey to the plots he has been hatching. On the other hand, some of his utterances are redolent of bitterness. He certainly is not able to hide the resentment that his "deformity" and his exclusion from "idle pleasures" have aroused in him. 3. Richard's attitude towards women: They are considered to be pawns in a power game/ to be a means to the end when it comes to pursuing specific aims. Women play on men's ingenuousness/guilelessness, they seem to be primitive upstarts who lack in sophistication and Richard represents them as eager to exert power over men in order to enrich themselves or to enhance their status 4. Richard's attitude/opinion towards his brother Edward IV: Even though he praises his oldest brother in the beginning for being a successful and honourable man, Richard feels great dislike for him. He also sees him as a manipulable victim and is sure that he can take advantage of Edward's credulity/naivety to turn him against Clarence. Richards feels superior and underlines Edwards suggestibility by saying, that he would leave too much power to his wife. Towards other noblemen. Nevertheless, towards other noblemen he describes his brother as "wise & virtuous", which is kind of hypocritical. Either way, Richard feigns a close and fraternal relationship with Edward although he puts his desire for power and influence above the well-being of his brother. Vocabulary: effeminacy = Verweiblichung to hatch sth. etw. aushecken, ausbrüten utterance = Äußerung, Bemerkung vice # virtue = Untugend # Tugend multifaceted personality: = facettenreiche Persönlichkeit credulity = Leichtgläubigkeit suggestibility callous = gefühllos, kaltblütig to find/meet one's match in s.o. = sein Gegenstück in jmd. finden to have the gift of the gap = nicht auf den Mund gefallen sein = Beeinflussbarkeit 5. Richard's language (especially in act 1, scene 1) .Richard's frequent use of puns is meant to pander ambiguity, misunderstandings, delusions, false perceptions etc. . Richard intends to lay his interlocutor bare to ridicule and is successful in doing so: using his puns, fabrications and brazen lies, he not only gives evidence of his contempt for them but also of his ingenious command of the English language . while talking with his interlocutors he feign empathy, sympathy and understanding; he lulls them into a false sense of security Richard keeps trying to shed a favorable light on himself and on the other hand, tries to everyone at court against each other; tries to drive a wedge between the factions in some situations (e.g after Lady Anne's refusal) Richard proves to be imperturbable/unflappable Richard sets himself as the menliest of men Richard perceives himself as "the devil" (a diabolical figure) Richard proves to be utterly ruthless when pursuing his aims and does not make allowance for the feelings of those being affected Richard does not recoil from using the Bible for his ends his behavior right before becoming king Richard follows his spin doctor's advice to protest unwillingness to become king Richard exceedingly tries to make it plain that he prefers seclusion and contemplation Richard wants to represent his future kingship with devotion, virtuousness and credibility changes in his attitude and behavior after becoming king Richard starts to go in for introspection Richard seems to be haunted by feelings of insecurity his being suspicious of his social environment might be indicative of his having lost control over present circumstances paying heed to prophesies reveals his growing propensity for subjecting himself to providence Richard is rather explicit about his plans and thus seems to have lost his former verbal dexterity/ his former ease and equanimity Women in Richard III Lady Anne young widow of Prince Edward, who was the son of the former king Henry VI; she hates Richard for the death of her husband but he still wants to marry her for political reasons and sadistic pleasure current scene and what can be said about the characters and the role of women In act 1, scene 2, Richard begins to court Lady Anne. She naturally reacts with anger and horror and reminds Richard repeatedly that she knows he killed her husband and King Henry. Anne remains angry, but her fierceness seems to dwindle gradually in the face of Richard's eloquence and apparent sincerity. •Anne has got a quick temper that might flare up any time • she is perfectly aware of what Richard is getting at and thus cannot be regarded as intellectually inferior to him • although she proves to be resourceful and eloquent as well, the emotional strain that has been put upon her by Richard's glib and insolent statements makes her lose her temper; in this particular situation resorting to violence seems (she spits him in the face) to be her last opportunity, because she is obviously at a loss for words in the face of Richard's brazen assumptions • Lady Anne is angry at being outwitted by Richard and gives vent to her anger by spitting at him • spitting at him is also an indication of her detestation and her utter disgust for Richard Richard manipulates Anne by feigning gentleness and persistently praising her beauty, a technique that he subtly twists later in the scene in order to play upon Anne's sense of guilt and obligation reasons why Lady Anne finally complies .Richard's persuasiveness and eloquence (she caves in to the pressure being exerted on her by his verbal dexterity) • Richard's protestations of remorse and repentance have touched her to the quick This scene demonstrates Richard's brilliance as a manipulator of people. The wooing of Anne shows Richard's persuasive abilities at a whole new level. Richard's ability to persuade the grieving, bitter Anne to accept him as a suitor is surely proof of his ominous skill in playing upon people's emotions and in convincing them that he is sincere when in fact he is lying through his teeth Vocabulary ambiguity = Unklarheit, Mehrdeutigkeit brazen = unverschämt, dreist contest of words = Wortgefecht persuasive/persuasiveness = überzeugend, schlagfertig/Schlagfertigkeit eloquent/eloquence = redegewandt, beredsam/Redegewandtheit equanimity = Gelassenheit, Gleichmut remorse = Reue, Gewissensbisse to placate s.o = jdn. besänftigen, beschwichtigen Queen Margaret widow of dead king Henry VI and mother of slain Prince Edward, who was killed by the family of Richard; she is embittered and hates both king Edward IV and Richard her most striking characteristics in the past she proved to be as diabolical, disrespectful and cynical as Richard • she sees herself as the legitimate queen of England . • she is able to see through Richard's schemes and maneuvers; . • she is obviously not intimidated by the threats that Richard issues against her • she is as eloquent as Richard/possesses an equally impressive verbal dexterity → match for Richard • she turns out to be utterly self-confident; even borders on naughtiness and arrogance • being eager to revenge on those being present, she reveals to be vindictive/vengeful she herself might see her efforts for endeavors as an example of retributive justice • given her powerlessness and lack of support, she is amazingly audacious • she is definitely power-conscious . . similarities between Richard and Margaret both are able to extrapolate future developments from current circumstances • both are advocates of the retributive justice; both feel cheated and deceived by fate and thus are eager to wreak vengeance both are callous and ruthless • defiance of death is one pivotal features they share Queen Elizabeth . . . . her most striking views and traits she is afraid of being unprotected and exposed to her enemies in case of Edward's death she not only perceives Richard as an enemy but is also suspicious of her inner circle • although she is able to perceive the threat that Richard poses to herself as well as her family, • she does not take any concrete measures to get rid of him; instead she tries to placate him and even teams up with him when he is attacked by Margaret it is true that she is not afraid of squaring up to Richard, but nevertheless, she gives to understand that she does not see herself in the position to finally prevail over him wife of king Edward IV and the mother of the two young princes (the heirs to the throne) and their older sister, young Elizabeth. Her kinsmen - Dorset, Rivers and Grey - are her allies at court • in essence she proves to be a saturnine and pessimistic person · she suffers from the intrigues, the slander, the jealousy, insincerity etc. that life at court entails . in essence, they might be seen as symbols of suffering, deprivation and bereavement • women are presented as being on the sidelines to grieve, complain, bury the dead; > helpless, impotent, incapable of stemming the tide of sorrow and suffering because only their voices that represents morality are powerful ➡ the role/function/characteristics of women ! • they lament over their circumstances in an exceedingly emotional manner; it seems that they have a strong desire to give vent to their pent-up grief, anger and frustration they see themselves on the receiving end of Richard's despotism they are far too emotional in order to build a long-term strategy enabling them to change their situation • instead of taking active measures in order to shake the foundations of Richard's power, they content themselves with cursing him/directing vitriol at him but actually many of the curses uttered by the women prove effective and anticipate Richard's death their only "power" are their words Vocabulary verbal dexterity = verbale Gewandtheit vindictive/vengeful = nachtragend, rachsüchtig/rachgierig to wreak vengeance = Vergeltung/Rache anrichten retributive justice = vergeltende/ausgleichende Gerechtigkeit diabolical = teuflisch, dämonisch power-conscious = machtbewusst saturnine = düster, finster slander Verleumdung, Beleidigung (üble Nachrede) despotism = Willkür, Gewaltherrschaft spin doctor - politischer Medienberater seclusion = Abgeschiedenheit, Zurückgezogenheit contemplation = konzentriertes Nachdenken, geistige Versenkung = different approaches to power - Richard's strategies and measures in his struggle for power Richmond • his reign is based on the values and commandments of Christianity . • he is a paternal figure who regards his subjects as children he is prone to making offhand decisions that are not based on law . in times of crisis, he has a strong propensity for shifting the blame for wrong decision onto others he sees God as the only entity being superior to him & takes it that God has invented him with the power that he wields . Richard he usually tries to drive a wedge between the different factions of court in order to stir up trouble and confusing among them he "sows the seeds of discord" at court in order to exploit the ensuing animosities and hostilities for his own political ends he tends to present the factions at court with fait accompli in oder to prevent them from interfering into process that have been set into motion he proves to be utterly ruthless when pursuing his aims he apparently aims at using his power in order to unify and reconcile his subjects ➡pursuit of power ! • every action is calculated by Richard to enable his own rise to the throne rejects peace because for him peace means weakness therefore enjoys suffering ruthless self-empowerment genuine greed for personal power → only pays attention to his own advancement • machiavellian leader who lacks all moral and emotional compunction machiavellianism he does not make allowances for any feelings he does not shrink from use the Bible for his ends = machiavellian ideology is often depicted as "godless, scheming and self-interested expedience (Zweckmäßigkeit) is placed at the centre of politics → expedience permits politicians to engage in devil when wanting to achieve political goals or to impose their will morality is dismissed as superfluous and does not play any role for those adhering to Machiavellianism typical are the uncontrolled use of power and the unlimited acquisition of power the end justifies the means (Der Zweck heiligt die Mittel) stage Machiavel is characterized by an outward show of virtue which is meant to cover up a ruthless and reckless strife for power the stage Machiavel seeks power placating people is indispensable when it comes to keeping one's power, therefore it's expedient to penetrate atrocities quickly, without hesitation and all at once parallels between the Machiavellianism and Richard Richard shamelessly uses his fellow human beings to gain power and finally become king → the common people as well as any noblemen at court are mere pawns in his game of power → he does not shy away from imprisoning and killing people, nor does he find it questionable to brazenly lie to the "survivors" and cleverly manipulates them for his own political ends → becoming king is Richard's top priority - how he achieves this goal is irrelevant; values like morality and virtue are unimportant for him, the main thing is being successful → there are no signs of a bad conscience or remorse although he has destroyed many people's lives → typically, Richard initially keeps his plans secret; instead of revealing his malice, he presents himself in a positive light and even portrays himself as extremely pious and devout, not afraid to use the Bible for his "king-making strategy" parallels between the American Dream and Richard although Richard appears to be physically disadvantaged, he is firmly convinced that he can put his plan to become king into practice; he is strong-willed, smart and takes direct responsibility and fights for his advancement but it contradicts the principles of the American Dream that Richard is satisfied after his coronation; after becoming king he has no further aspirations and thus comes to stagnation → one could say that Richard missed the American Dream; he is content with what he has and does not strive to become better, more powerful or more influential; his life goal is achieved and Richard does not seek a new one fate vs free will • "determinded to prove a villain" . • Richard's physical deformity is the decisive factor for his ambitious pursuits so he can outweigh the disadvantages he was born with • Richard's physical appearance does not match happiness- therefore he believes that the solution of his unfair life is becoming a villain divine right God given power to live it out • fate is predetermined by God and by those who have power • Richard's power provides him with the ability of making own choices • the curses of the female characters come true • the ghosts in Richard's dream foretell the future . accordingly demgemäß, folglich according to gemäß, laut, nach actually tatsächlich after all altogether all in all anyhow, anyway apart from as a matter of fact as far as that goes as if was das anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob was... anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob as to / as for / as regards as though beforehand zuvor, im Voraus meanwhile inzwischen moreover mostly nevertheless not only ... but also once again/more over and over again on the one hand ... on the other hand otherwise particularly provided that recently concerning despite due to even if/even though eventually finally for this reason gradually if so in addition in a way in a nutshell in any case in a sense schließlich, im Grunde, immerhin gänzlich, im Ganzen genommen alles in allem regardless of regarding bezüglich/hinsichtlich respectively beziehungsweise so far both ... and by means of by no means in particular irgendwie, trotzdem, jedenfalls, ohnehin abgesehen von tatsächlich überdies, außerdem größtenteils, hauptsächlich dennoch, trotzdem nicht nur, sondern auch noch einmal immer wieder einerseits ... anderseits sonst, andernfalls besonders, im Besonderen vorausgesetzt, dass kürzlich ungeachtet bisher sowohl als auch mittels, durch keineswegs betreffend, hinsichtlich aus diesem Grund furthermore ferner, überdies, außerdem nach und nach gegebenenfalls, in diesem Fall VOCABULARY trotz infolge, wegen auch wenn, selbst wenn, wenn auch schließlich endlich, zuletzt zusätzlich in gewisser Hinsicht kurzgefasst auf jeden Fall gewissermaßen insbesondere in spite of trotz accordingly demgemäß, folglich according to gemäß, laut, nach actually tatsächlich after all altogether all in all anyhow, anyway apart from as a matter of fact as far as that goes as if was das anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob was... anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob as to / as for / as regards as though beforehand zuvor, im Voraus meanwhile inzwischen moreover mostly nevertheless not only ... but also once again/more over and over again on the one hand ... on the other hand otherwise particularly provided that recently concerning despite due to even if/even though eventually finally for this reason gradually if so in addition in a way in a nutshell in any case in a sense schließlich, im Grunde, immerhin gänzlich, im Ganzen genommen alles in allem regardless of regarding bezüglich/hinsichtlich respectively beziehungsweise so far both ... and by means of by no means in particular irgendwie, trotzdem, jedenfalls, ohnehin abgesehen von tatsächlich überdies, außerdem größtenteils, hauptsächlich dennoch, trotzdem nicht nur, sondern auch noch einmal immer wieder einerseits ... anderseits sonst, andernfalls besonders, im Besonderen vorausgesetzt, dass kürzlich ungeachtet bisher sowohl als auch mittels, durch keineswegs betreffend, hinsichtlich aus diesem Grund furthermore ferner, überdies, außerdem nach und nach gegebenenfalls, in diesem Fall VOCABULARY trotz infolge, wegen auch wenn, selbst wenn, wenn auch schließlich endlich, zuletzt zusätzlich in gewisser Hinsicht kurzgefasst auf jeden Fall gewissermaßen insbesondere in spite of trotz Thesaurus for commonly overused words When you write, try to use the most precise word for what you intend to say, not always the one that comes to your mind first. Consult this thesaurus to find alternatives for some commonly overused words. Keep in mind that the choices offered in a thesaurus do not all mean exactly the same thing. Review all the options first and then select the one that fits best. overused word action end job/work kind part thing answer ask begin bring change choose do feel fight finish get: give go help influence keep know/understand like make Thesaurus for commonly overused words near-synonyms nouns movement, labour, task, project, pursuit, scheme, endeavour finish, limit, boundary, conclusion, resolution, termination task, business, duty, occupation, profession, assignment, chore, vocation sort, form, type, variety detail, element, section, portion, component, segment object, problem, aspect, point, part, issue verbs reply, retort, agree, disagree, respond question, request, nag, pester, beg, plead, grill, interrogate, poll, demand introduce, launch, initiate, originate, commence create, produce, deliver, convey, cause, accompany alter, transform, vary, replace, diversify prefer, select, elect, nominate, identify. plan, execute, perform, carry out, achieve, implement experience, realize, notice, consider struggle, hit, kick, compete, argue, battle complete, conclude, cease, achieve, exhaust, consume, terminate obtain, receive, achieve, acquire, procure, fetch, become deliver, donate, bestow, supply, distribute, impart move, advance, progress, proceed. assist, aid, support, sustain, serve affect, transform, moderate, adjust, motivate, prompt retain, control, possess, maintain, preserve realize, comprehend, perceive, discern enjoy, appreciate, cherish, relish build, construct, produce, assemble, manufacture, fashion, create 353 354 put say Thesaurus for commonly overused words see take think use want bad beautiful big¹ easy fast/quick funny good great happy hard important interesting main nice old regular right small sure about absolutely really sometimes very 1 move, lay, fill, place state, claim, add, maintain, point out, mention regard, witness, gaze at, realize, notice, observe grasp, capture, select, tolerate, endure reflect, imagine, ponder, contemplate, conceive employ, operate, utilize, make use of desire, crave, heed, yearn, long for adjectives poor, inadequate, harmful, defective, corrupt, wicked, naughty, offensive attractive, appealing, handsome, stunning, gorgeous, alluring huge, massive, enormous, extensive, immense, giant natural, pleasant, comfortable, effortless, undemanding, relaxed swift, hasty, instant, accelerated, brisk, prompt, rapid, nimble. amusing, entertaining, unusual, uncommon, comical, ludicrous, humorous striking, competent, virtuous, satisfactory, functional, proper tremendous, superior, remarkable; eminent, proficient, expert pleased, cheerful, delighted, joyous, jubilant, elated S harsh, complex, complicated; formidable, arduous significant, substantial, weighty, meaningful, critical, vital, notable entertaining, absorbing, appealing, fascinating, thought-provoking primary, foremost, major, dominant, principal pleasant, charming, gracious, satisfying aged, mature, used, former, previous, experienced standard, routine, habitual, customary appropriate, proper, suitable, sensible, reasonable minor, miniature, slight, trivial, diminutive, insignificant certain, unmistakable, unquestionable, assured, confident adverbs nearly, almost, approximately, approaching, close to, roughly perfectly, completely, ideally, purely, unconditionally truly, genuinely, extremely, undeniably, definitely occasionally, periodically, sporadically, intermittently unusually, extremely, deeply, profoundly, exceedingly analysis task might be: - show the central idea of a text - present author's attitude towards a certain issue s - analyse the prevailing atmosphere regarding the employed means following aspects are important: central idea/message/ opinion/ atmosphere -style/register (e.g. neutral, formal, colloquial, slang) - tone (e.g. emotional, objective) - rhetorical/stylistic devices (e.g. comparison, contrast, repetition, imagery, etc.) with regard to literary texts also consider: - narrative technique(s) (e.g. point of view, mode of presentation) with regard to non-literary texts also consider: - structure of the text (e.g. order and nature of paragraphs, subheadings, topic sentences, complexity of sentences, graphics) REMEMBER: ● EENGLISCH-KLAUSUR focus on linguistic/ stylistic/ structural means, give examples and explain how it helps to convey meaning of a text & what effect it may have on the reader give lines when quoting or paraphrasing literary (fictional) texts (look at following aspects) genre (e.g. poem, short story, excerpt from a novel) theme(s) (e.g. love, conflict, loneliness) characterisation (direct, indirect, explicit, implicit) setting (e.g. time, place, atmosphere, character's social background,...) action/ plot (internal, external action, rising/ falling action, climax, turning point, surprise, open ending, flashback, foreshadowing) language (wording, register, tone, syntax) point of view mode of presentation rhetorical/ stylistic devices language choice of words/ vocabulary: negatively/ positively connotated vocabulary many adjectives/ adverbs/ verbs/...-> illustrate/ give more details, create specific atmosphere ● register/ style formal neutral difficult/ specialist vocabulary, complex sentence structures, often used for serious purposes e.g. essays, academic publications,... between formal and informal, language used by educated people e.g. informal slang literary ● syntax TIP: newspapers,... fairly simple language, short, abbreviations, colloquial words, used by friends & in relaxed, unofficial situations very informal, swear words, used in dialogue between people with a similar background eloquent/ elevated style, complex sentences, rich vocabulary, stylistic devices long, complex sentences, many different subordinate clauses short, simple sentences, predominantly main clauses incomplete sentences (ellipsis) tone = general mood, feeling or attitude being expressed, it is the emotional content of a text rather that the devices used emotional, critical, ironical, objective, humorous USEFUL PHRASES the author makes us of/ combines... style, tone & register are difficult to separate and are mainly used to note the way a character speaks. Don't forget: form follows function -> explain how the language devices used are helping conveying a specific impression on the reader everyday/ colloquial/ informal/ vulgar language formal/ leterary/ slang expressions a concise/ witty/ eloquent/ clear/ impersonal style depends on context; e.g. more intellectual, complex subject An atmosphere of... is created by using... depends on context; e.g. emotional, dramatic, shows confusion, create suspense depends on context; e.g. emotional, confusion, etc. a humorous/ironic/ serious/ critical/ positive tone vivid/ animated/ exaggerated language a polite/blunt/ rude way of addressing sb point of view The effect of a story is strongly influenced by the point of view, or perspective, from which it is told. Narrative types can be mixed and the point of view can change in the course of the story. first-person: protagonist narrator/ witness-narrator -> subjective, lively, authentic, access to person's mind, understanding and sympathising with the protagonist third-person: objective narrator -> reports from the outside as a "hidden observer", only naming what can be seen, no insight of characters feelings/ thoughts selective narrator -> focuses on feelings/ thoughts/ perspective of one or two persons, apart from that only states what can be seen from the outside, sympathising with these specific characters omniscient narrator -> knows feelings/ thoughts of every character, can be neutral but can also comment on storyline, background knowledge, describes situations USEFUL PHRASES by granting the reader access to the character's mind, the narrator draws attention to/ makes the reader see/ feel due to the first-/ third.person narration (with a limited/ omniscient point of view), it is (not) easy to identify with... as the story is told by... the reader knows more/ does not know more than the characters in the story structure mode of presentation: scenic: much use of dialogue -> lively, close to action, indirect characterization panoramic: mainly description -> direct characterization sentence structure: long, complex, many different subordinate clauses -> intellectual or complex subject short, simple, predominantly main clauses -> sometimes emotional, often dramatic, shows e.g. confusion stylistic devices stylistic device Simile (=Vergleich) Metaphor Personification Synecdoche Symbol Alliteration explanation Imagery (=Verbildlichung) - explicit comparison between two things which are basically quite different using words such as like or as -> enhance expressiveness - comparison between two things which are basically quite different without using like or as. While a simile only says that one thing is like another, a metaphor says that one thing is another -> create picture in reader's mind - kind of metaphor in which animals, plants, inanimate objects or abstract ideas are represented as if they were human beings and possessed human qualities -> illustration, stimulate imagination - a part of something stands for the whole (pars pro toto) or the whole stands for a part (totum pro parte) - something concrete (person, objects, image, word, event,...) stand for something abstract or invisible -> stimulate imagination Sound - repetition of the same consonant sound at example "She walks like an angel." "I wandered lonely as a cloud." "All the world's a stage." "Justice is blind." "Necessity is the mother of invention." "All hands on deck." "Germany lost 1:2" The Cross -> symbol for Christianity The dove -> symbol of peace "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled Onomatopoeia (=Lautmalerei) Rhyme Anaphora Parallelism Repetition Contrast Climax Anticlimax Enumeration (=Aufzählung) Ellipsis Inversion Allusion (=Anspielung) the beginning of neighbouring words -> point out key words/ produce rhythmic effect - use of words which imitate the sound they refer to use of words which end with the same sound, usually at the end of lines Structure - repetition of a word or several words at the beginning of successive lines, clauses or sentences -> emphatic effect (=nachdrücklich) - similarity of syntactical structure in neighbouring phrases, clauses, sentences or paragraphs -> rhythmic effect, intensified clarity of message - single words or whole phrases appear several times in text -> focus attention, emphasize individual sentences - opposing views, words or characters are brought together -> emphasize difference/ to highlight opposing elements series of words or expressions rises step by step, beginning with least important and ending with most important -> emphasize urgency, dramatize sudden fall from an idea of importance or dignity to something unimportant or ridiculous in comparison - listing of words or phrases -> stress a certain aspect and describe it further - incomplete sentences -> e.g. indicate state of confusion/ emotion - change of normal sentence structure -> emphasis on the expression etc. Miscellaneous reference to a person, work of art, event, peppers." "The cuckoo whizzed past the buzzing bees." "Tiger! Tiger! burning bright In the forests of the night." "To raise a happy, healthy child, it takes a family; it takes teachers; it takes clergy; it takes business people,..." "Let every nation know that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." "Down, down, down. Would the fall never come to an end." "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested." "The bomb completely destroyed the cathedral, several dozen houses and my dustbin." "Many workers find their labor mechanical, boring, imprisoning, stultifying and repetitive." "No. This can not be. Real. Why? Oh no. Why?" "Never have i seen something like that"! "The Old Man and the Computer." (allusion to The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway) Euphemism Hyperbole (= Übertreibung) Understatement (=Untertreibung) Irony Satire Paradox Pun (=Wortspiel) Rhetorical question direct speech - hiding the real nature of something unpleasant by using a mild or indirect term for it - deliberate exaggeration -> emphasize something or produce humorous effect - opposite of hyperbole; deliberate presentation of something as being much less important, valuable etc. than it really is - saying the opposite of what you actually mean (sarcasm stronger form) -> humour, criticism, shows speakers wit and superiority, underlines real meaning - criticizing certain conditions, events or people by making them appear ridiculous (often make use of exaggeration, irony, sarcasm) - statement that seems to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, mostly reveals some truth on closer examination - play on words that have same or similar sound but different meanings - a question to which answer is obvious and therefore not expected, in reality they are kind of statements -> interest aroused, get reader thinking - direct quotation of what experts or normal people said -> achieve credibility/ an authentic or more lively effect USEFUL PHRASES (atmosphere/ words/ stylistic devices) "the underprivileged" instead of "the poor" catches the reader's eye by... appeals to the reader's senses "I'm so hungry I could eat a horse". "These figures are a bit disappointing" instead of "... are disastrous (katastrophal)." "You are absolutely the best class I've ever had." Actual meaning: "the worst class" "It is awfully hard work doing nothing. "(Oscar Wilde) "At the drunkard's funeral, four of his friends carried the bier. "(bier Totenbahre vs. beer = Bier) "Shouldn't we try to be friendlier towards each other?" "The emissions have risen to up to 80% last year." the expert Melania Vreghouni said. The author... uses/ utilizes/employs/ makes use of/ includes/... to create/ establish a warm/ cold/ sinister/ hostile/ tense/ repellent atmosphere create/ evoke/ establish a feeling/ atmosphere describes/ stresses... by using... puts emphasis on/ emphasizes/highlights/ underlines... enhances/ strengthens/ amplifies/ intensifies the message... arouses the reader's interest by... attracts/draws the reader's attention by...

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Englisch LK Abi 2021

Englisch LK Abi 2021

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Tessa S.

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Englisch

 

11/12/13

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Englisch LK Abi 2021

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 ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL
Abiturlernzettel 2021
F
LK
GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN)
Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS
I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME

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Lernzettel Englisch LK 2021/22

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ENGLISCH-LK LERNZETTEL Abiturlernzettel 2021 F LK GYMNASIUM (NIEDERSACHSEN) Q1-Q4 INHALTSVERZEICHNIS I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME GO (KAZUO ISHIGURO) 1.2 DEFINITIONS: SCIENCE FICTION, UTOPIA, DYSTOPIA................ 1.3 ETHNICS OF SCIENCE........ 1.4 NEVER LET ME GO- SUMMARY 1.4.1 SIDE CHARACTER MISS LUCY 2. SHORT STORY: AMI Tan - "Two Kinds" & JULIUS LESTER - "THE CHILD”.. 2.1 AMI TAN- TWO KINDS.. 2.2 SUMMARY SHORT STORY.. 2.3 JING- MEI AND THE AMERICAN DREAM.. 2.4 QUESTIONS OF ETHNIC IDENTITY AND GROWING UP. 2.5 THE AMERICAN DREAM. 2.6 JULIUS LESTER- THE CHILD (1993).. 2.6.1 SUMMARY SHORT STORY. 2.7 TWO GIRLS- ONE DREAM? 3. CRASH- PAUL HAGGIS, 2004. 3.2 CHARACTER MAP. 3.3 ETHNIC & CULTURAL DIVERSITY 4. SHAKESPEARE-RICHARD 3 4.1 SHOULD SHAKESPEARE BE DISCUSSED IN SCHOOL?........ 4.2 HOW DOES SHAKESPEARE INFLUENCE US TODAY? // DOES HE STILL MATTER TODAY?.. 4.3 SHORT SUMMARY // CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER........ 4.4 RICHARD 3- THE CHARACTERS. 4.5 SHAKESPEARE'S USE OF IAMBIC PENTAMETER. 4.6 HOW DID THE ELIZABETHAN AGE INFLUENCE SHAKESPEARE? 4.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RICHARD AND HIS MOTHER 4.8 THE ROLE OF WOMEN.... 4.9 FATE VS. FREE WILL 2 2 2 4 7 8 8 8 9 .9 . 10 || || 13 14 14 15 16 ….... 16 ................ 16 17 17 18 19 19 .20 .20 I. DYSTOPIAN LITERATURE - NEVER LET ME GO (KAZUO ISHIGURO) * * * * O O O O ■ * * * ◆ ◆ 1.2 DEFINITIONS: SCIENCE FICTION, UTOPIA, DYSTOPIA SCIENCE FICTION Concentrates on scientific/ technological progress and its positive/ negative effects on society Shows overcoming known laws of nature → e.g., time travelling Shows paranormal activities → mind control, telepathy Non-human characters Ideal Society: → education for everyone UTOPIA → equality ➜ high standard of living →...

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no injustice → communal property → little to no crime Usually set on an island Sometimes make fun of the current issues Some include an element of science fiction DYSTOPIA Show a (more) pessimistic view of the future → inequality usually shown in a huge gap between rich & the poor →show collapsed societies / no society →no democracy/ usually dictatorship (or no government) →no privacy but government surveillance → usually portray technology in a negative way → government control, no individuality → written as warnings for readers → caste system 1.3 ETHNICS OF SCIENCE DEFINITION A set of moral obligations that define right and wrong in our practices and decisions Professionals like doctors/ scientists follow an ethnical guide because the reliability of their work and scientific knowledge depends upon adhering to that ethnic Scientific ethnics require honesty and integrity CLONING Producing genetically identical copies of a biological entity Copied material has the same genetic makeup as the original Natural cloning → produce of genetically identical offspring through asexual reproduction (e.g., plants) → twinning ◆ Artificial cloning → reproductive cloning → goal: create a new individual → therapeutic cloning goal: treat diseases THERAPEUTIC CLONING difficulties * higher mortality → die quicker * suffer from deformity benefits * reproduction of endangered animals * treat/ cure diseases HUMAN CLONING advantages designing a "perfect" clone * infertile couples can have children * resource of organs and bone marrow cure diseases with the help of stem cells * perfect organ donator * can be used for scientific research, e.g. studying diseases * maybe at one point we can grow only organs needed for a person → scientific research on clones needed for that cons * safety is not guaranteed * treated as objects or commodities discrimination due being a clone suffer from identity crisis * loss of diversity due to longing of an ideal being * cloning in order to create superior being is eugenics * using clones for malformed genes is unethical would be too expensive →growing gap between rich & poor * diseases defends are cloned too → diseases might multiply * risks in solving crime: clones share some DNA but also some fingerprints *people might become careless with their health * ethnical wrong, not "Gods will" → religion doubts * who decides who is cloned? * risk of overpopulation grows * who cares for all the babies? * decreases in genetic variety → higher risks of mutations * no diversity * higher risks of diseases WHAT MAKES A HUMAN BEING? They die/ survival instincts (have to eat, breathe, drink) Have emotions/ feelings Are self-aware/ critical Look like a human, have human organs Have an identity (make up their own minds and decisions) Processes an individual character → humans have a soul They are able to imagine things → remember their past Are born naturally The story takes place in a dystopian version between the 70s and 80s in England. Kathy, a 31-year- old carer is the main character and as well the first-person narrator. She tells the story by recalling her memories since her loved ones already completed but her memories about them won't fade away. That's why she values her memories. The clones who were created in labs to donate their vital organs to humans who live in the outside world, life in a boarding school in Hailsham and are called "students" by their guardians. Kathy * ? * * Tommy * * * * Ruth * * Carer for Ruth and later on for Tommy Friends with Ruth & Tommy, later on in a relationship with Tommy Restrained, observant, self- conscious An outcast because he lacks creativity Involved in a love triangle with Kathy and Ruth Completes after 4 donations Anxious, violent- tempered, reflective kind/ sympathetic Kathy's childhood friend and Tommy's ex-girlfriend Offers Kathy and Tommy the address of Madame, so they can ask for a deferral Completes after 2nd donation Hot-tempered, controlling, ruthless but not very emotional --> flat 1.4 NEVER LET ME GO- SUMMARY seems to hold back SUBJEKTIVE! OBJECTIVE TONE MAIN CHARACTERS KATHY H; 1ST PERSON NARRATOR rather casual/ neutral/ calm can't remember everything doesn't want to convince the reader not very complex KATHY H. (1ST PERSON NARRATOR) VALIDITY STRUCTURE admits that Ruth & Tommy remember things differenty sometimes she's not sure if she remembers sth. correctly gives a lot of unimportant background info She follows a general structure; but often she tells her story in a unorganized way authentic: tells the story as she remembers in the moment distracting goes back and forth 3. Halbjahr. . ● • Drama: Film: verbindliche Unterrichtsaspekte: the pursuit of power the role(s) of women fate vs. free will O O O should Shakespeare be discussed in school? Shakespeare's characters have flaws and imperfections and therefore the reader is able to identify with them (probably learn from them) Shakespeare shows a variety of different emotions in difficult situations within the life of a human being suspenseful and interesting stories the topics covered in Shakespeare's play can still be relevant in today's societies (ambition, inner conflicts, manipulation etc.) his plays give an inside in the Elizabethan age studying Shakespeare's plays might help to improve one's own literacy & obtain wider educational attainment short summary of the play "Richard III" Richard wants to prove a villain and thus spreads a fake prophecy about Clarence; as a result of one of Richards intrigues, King Edward has his brother the Duke Clarence imprisoned in the Tower Richard has his brother Clarence assassinated • Richard convinces Lady Anne to marry him; Margaret curses Richard King Edward dies .Richard becomes regent (Vertreter des Herrschers) to the sons of his dead brother Richard has the two princes imprisoned in the Tower and spreads the rumor that they are the . illegitimate sons of the dead king Auszüge aus: William Shakespeare, Richard III Richard III (Richard Loncraine, 1995) Richard becomes king the princes are murdered by Tyrell (hired by Richard); Anne is poisoned by Richard and dies • Richard courts Young Elizabeth, the daughter of the dead king • Buckingham gets executed Elizabeth Queen, widow .Richmond raises an army to defeat Richard • Richard is visited by ghosts the night before the battle; in the battle for the crown, Richard is killed, and Richmond becomes King. the play's main characters married to Edward 4 King: brother father of Edward & Richard Princes: nephewes: ghosts confer kingship on Lady Anne Widow: wife: goast woos, then destroys weakens destroys Richmond Becomes Henry 7 Margaret Queen, widow; Lancastrian enemy/ avenger kills in Battle of Bosworth Richard Duke of Gloucester: becomes the Yorkist King Richard 3: defeated by Lancastrian forces Curses stepfather to Shakespeare's language might be too hard to understand for the students his plays are difficult; Shakespeare's works are not easy to fathom out and require a lot of interpretation Shakespeare is also very outdated and confusing to understand. The language is old and no longer understandable. modern writings are easier to understand and relate to daily life for young adults main focus is given to the past and not enough to the future threatens Derby (Lord Stanly) Survior Duchess of York Widow: mother curses destroys helps destroys- grieves for son Clarence Brother: ghost EP Hastings Lord; friend; ghost Buckingham Duke, cousin: ghost Richard Overview of the main character also called the duke of Gloucester and eventually crowned King Richard III. Deformed in body and twisted in mind, Richard is both the central character and the villain of the play. He is evil, corrupt, sadistic, manipulative, and he will stop at nothing to become king. His intelligence, political brilliance and dazzling use of language keep the audience fascinated - and his subjects and rivals under his thumb. Richard's characteristics, attitudes and behavior before becoming king 1. Richard's attitude towards war. In the course of his soliloquy it becomes abundantly clear that Richard favours challenges, fights and ruthless actions being inherent in war over the boredom and effeminate leisure time at court 2. Richard attitude towards the court and the members of his family: his attitude is marked by a high degree of contempt and condescension. It seems that Richard not only sees himself as more determined and intelligent than the rest of the family, but also is eager to convey the impression that they represent an easy prey to the plots he has been hatching. On the other hand, some of his utterances are redolent of bitterness. He certainly is not able to hide the resentment that his "deformity" and his exclusion from "idle pleasures" have aroused in him. 3. Richard's attitude towards women: They are considered to be pawns in a power game/ to be a means to the end when it comes to pursuing specific aims. Women play on men's ingenuousness/guilelessness, they seem to be primitive upstarts who lack in sophistication and Richard represents them as eager to exert power over men in order to enrich themselves or to enhance their status 4. Richard's attitude/opinion towards his brother Edward IV: Even though he praises his oldest brother in the beginning for being a successful and honourable man, Richard feels great dislike for him. He also sees him as a manipulable victim and is sure that he can take advantage of Edward's credulity/naivety to turn him against Clarence. Richards feels superior and underlines Edwards suggestibility by saying, that he would leave too much power to his wife. Towards other noblemen. Nevertheless, towards other noblemen he describes his brother as "wise & virtuous", which is kind of hypocritical. Either way, Richard feigns a close and fraternal relationship with Edward although he puts his desire for power and influence above the well-being of his brother. Vocabulary: effeminacy = Verweiblichung to hatch sth. etw. aushecken, ausbrüten utterance = Äußerung, Bemerkung vice # virtue = Untugend # Tugend multifaceted personality: = facettenreiche Persönlichkeit credulity = Leichtgläubigkeit suggestibility callous = gefühllos, kaltblütig to find/meet one's match in s.o. = sein Gegenstück in jmd. finden to have the gift of the gap = nicht auf den Mund gefallen sein = Beeinflussbarkeit 5. Richard's language (especially in act 1, scene 1) .Richard's frequent use of puns is meant to pander ambiguity, misunderstandings, delusions, false perceptions etc. . Richard intends to lay his interlocutor bare to ridicule and is successful in doing so: using his puns, fabrications and brazen lies, he not only gives evidence of his contempt for them but also of his ingenious command of the English language . while talking with his interlocutors he feign empathy, sympathy and understanding; he lulls them into a false sense of security Richard keeps trying to shed a favorable light on himself and on the other hand, tries to everyone at court against each other; tries to drive a wedge between the factions in some situations (e.g after Lady Anne's refusal) Richard proves to be imperturbable/unflappable Richard sets himself as the menliest of men Richard perceives himself as "the devil" (a diabolical figure) Richard proves to be utterly ruthless when pursuing his aims and does not make allowance for the feelings of those being affected Richard does not recoil from using the Bible for his ends his behavior right before becoming king Richard follows his spin doctor's advice to protest unwillingness to become king Richard exceedingly tries to make it plain that he prefers seclusion and contemplation Richard wants to represent his future kingship with devotion, virtuousness and credibility changes in his attitude and behavior after becoming king Richard starts to go in for introspection Richard seems to be haunted by feelings of insecurity his being suspicious of his social environment might be indicative of his having lost control over present circumstances paying heed to prophesies reveals his growing propensity for subjecting himself to providence Richard is rather explicit about his plans and thus seems to have lost his former verbal dexterity/ his former ease and equanimity Women in Richard III Lady Anne young widow of Prince Edward, who was the son of the former king Henry VI; she hates Richard for the death of her husband but he still wants to marry her for political reasons and sadistic pleasure current scene and what can be said about the characters and the role of women In act 1, scene 2, Richard begins to court Lady Anne. She naturally reacts with anger and horror and reminds Richard repeatedly that she knows he killed her husband and King Henry. Anne remains angry, but her fierceness seems to dwindle gradually in the face of Richard's eloquence and apparent sincerity. •Anne has got a quick temper that might flare up any time • she is perfectly aware of what Richard is getting at and thus cannot be regarded as intellectually inferior to him • although she proves to be resourceful and eloquent as well, the emotional strain that has been put upon her by Richard's glib and insolent statements makes her lose her temper; in this particular situation resorting to violence seems (she spits him in the face) to be her last opportunity, because she is obviously at a loss for words in the face of Richard's brazen assumptions • Lady Anne is angry at being outwitted by Richard and gives vent to her anger by spitting at him • spitting at him is also an indication of her detestation and her utter disgust for Richard Richard manipulates Anne by feigning gentleness and persistently praising her beauty, a technique that he subtly twists later in the scene in order to play upon Anne's sense of guilt and obligation reasons why Lady Anne finally complies .Richard's persuasiveness and eloquence (she caves in to the pressure being exerted on her by his verbal dexterity) • Richard's protestations of remorse and repentance have touched her to the quick This scene demonstrates Richard's brilliance as a manipulator of people. The wooing of Anne shows Richard's persuasive abilities at a whole new level. Richard's ability to persuade the grieving, bitter Anne to accept him as a suitor is surely proof of his ominous skill in playing upon people's emotions and in convincing them that he is sincere when in fact he is lying through his teeth Vocabulary ambiguity = Unklarheit, Mehrdeutigkeit brazen = unverschämt, dreist contest of words = Wortgefecht persuasive/persuasiveness = überzeugend, schlagfertig/Schlagfertigkeit eloquent/eloquence = redegewandt, beredsam/Redegewandtheit equanimity = Gelassenheit, Gleichmut remorse = Reue, Gewissensbisse to placate s.o = jdn. besänftigen, beschwichtigen Queen Margaret widow of dead king Henry VI and mother of slain Prince Edward, who was killed by the family of Richard; she is embittered and hates both king Edward IV and Richard her most striking characteristics in the past she proved to be as diabolical, disrespectful and cynical as Richard • she sees herself as the legitimate queen of England . • she is able to see through Richard's schemes and maneuvers; . • she is obviously not intimidated by the threats that Richard issues against her • she is as eloquent as Richard/possesses an equally impressive verbal dexterity → match for Richard • she turns out to be utterly self-confident; even borders on naughtiness and arrogance • being eager to revenge on those being present, she reveals to be vindictive/vengeful she herself might see her efforts for endeavors as an example of retributive justice • given her powerlessness and lack of support, she is amazingly audacious • she is definitely power-conscious . . similarities between Richard and Margaret both are able to extrapolate future developments from current circumstances • both are advocates of the retributive justice; both feel cheated and deceived by fate and thus are eager to wreak vengeance both are callous and ruthless • defiance of death is one pivotal features they share Queen Elizabeth . . . . her most striking views and traits she is afraid of being unprotected and exposed to her enemies in case of Edward's death she not only perceives Richard as an enemy but is also suspicious of her inner circle • although she is able to perceive the threat that Richard poses to herself as well as her family, • she does not take any concrete measures to get rid of him; instead she tries to placate him and even teams up with him when he is attacked by Margaret it is true that she is not afraid of squaring up to Richard, but nevertheless, she gives to understand that she does not see herself in the position to finally prevail over him wife of king Edward IV and the mother of the two young princes (the heirs to the throne) and their older sister, young Elizabeth. Her kinsmen - Dorset, Rivers and Grey - are her allies at court • in essence she proves to be a saturnine and pessimistic person · she suffers from the intrigues, the slander, the jealousy, insincerity etc. that life at court entails . in essence, they might be seen as symbols of suffering, deprivation and bereavement • women are presented as being on the sidelines to grieve, complain, bury the dead; > helpless, impotent, incapable of stemming the tide of sorrow and suffering because only their voices that represents morality are powerful ➡ the role/function/characteristics of women ! • they lament over their circumstances in an exceedingly emotional manner; it seems that they have a strong desire to give vent to their pent-up grief, anger and frustration they see themselves on the receiving end of Richard's despotism they are far too emotional in order to build a long-term strategy enabling them to change their situation • instead of taking active measures in order to shake the foundations of Richard's power, they content themselves with cursing him/directing vitriol at him but actually many of the curses uttered by the women prove effective and anticipate Richard's death their only "power" are their words Vocabulary verbal dexterity = verbale Gewandtheit vindictive/vengeful = nachtragend, rachsüchtig/rachgierig to wreak vengeance = Vergeltung/Rache anrichten retributive justice = vergeltende/ausgleichende Gerechtigkeit diabolical = teuflisch, dämonisch power-conscious = machtbewusst saturnine = düster, finster slander Verleumdung, Beleidigung (üble Nachrede) despotism = Willkür, Gewaltherrschaft spin doctor - politischer Medienberater seclusion = Abgeschiedenheit, Zurückgezogenheit contemplation = konzentriertes Nachdenken, geistige Versenkung = different approaches to power - Richard's strategies and measures in his struggle for power Richmond • his reign is based on the values and commandments of Christianity . • he is a paternal figure who regards his subjects as children he is prone to making offhand decisions that are not based on law . in times of crisis, he has a strong propensity for shifting the blame for wrong decision onto others he sees God as the only entity being superior to him & takes it that God has invented him with the power that he wields . Richard he usually tries to drive a wedge between the different factions of court in order to stir up trouble and confusing among them he "sows the seeds of discord" at court in order to exploit the ensuing animosities and hostilities for his own political ends he tends to present the factions at court with fait accompli in oder to prevent them from interfering into process that have been set into motion he proves to be utterly ruthless when pursuing his aims he apparently aims at using his power in order to unify and reconcile his subjects ➡pursuit of power ! • every action is calculated by Richard to enable his own rise to the throne rejects peace because for him peace means weakness therefore enjoys suffering ruthless self-empowerment genuine greed for personal power → only pays attention to his own advancement • machiavellian leader who lacks all moral and emotional compunction machiavellianism he does not make allowances for any feelings he does not shrink from use the Bible for his ends = machiavellian ideology is often depicted as "godless, scheming and self-interested expedience (Zweckmäßigkeit) is placed at the centre of politics → expedience permits politicians to engage in devil when wanting to achieve political goals or to impose their will morality is dismissed as superfluous and does not play any role for those adhering to Machiavellianism typical are the uncontrolled use of power and the unlimited acquisition of power the end justifies the means (Der Zweck heiligt die Mittel) stage Machiavel is characterized by an outward show of virtue which is meant to cover up a ruthless and reckless strife for power the stage Machiavel seeks power placating people is indispensable when it comes to keeping one's power, therefore it's expedient to penetrate atrocities quickly, without hesitation and all at once parallels between the Machiavellianism and Richard Richard shamelessly uses his fellow human beings to gain power and finally become king → the common people as well as any noblemen at court are mere pawns in his game of power → he does not shy away from imprisoning and killing people, nor does he find it questionable to brazenly lie to the "survivors" and cleverly manipulates them for his own political ends → becoming king is Richard's top priority - how he achieves this goal is irrelevant; values like morality and virtue are unimportant for him, the main thing is being successful → there are no signs of a bad conscience or remorse although he has destroyed many people's lives → typically, Richard initially keeps his plans secret; instead of revealing his malice, he presents himself in a positive light and even portrays himself as extremely pious and devout, not afraid to use the Bible for his "king-making strategy" parallels between the American Dream and Richard although Richard appears to be physically disadvantaged, he is firmly convinced that he can put his plan to become king into practice; he is strong-willed, smart and takes direct responsibility and fights for his advancement but it contradicts the principles of the American Dream that Richard is satisfied after his coronation; after becoming king he has no further aspirations and thus comes to stagnation → one could say that Richard missed the American Dream; he is content with what he has and does not strive to become better, more powerful or more influential; his life goal is achieved and Richard does not seek a new one fate vs free will • "determinded to prove a villain" . • Richard's physical deformity is the decisive factor for his ambitious pursuits so he can outweigh the disadvantages he was born with • Richard's physical appearance does not match happiness- therefore he believes that the solution of his unfair life is becoming a villain divine right God given power to live it out • fate is predetermined by God and by those who have power • Richard's power provides him with the ability of making own choices • the curses of the female characters come true • the ghosts in Richard's dream foretell the future . accordingly demgemäß, folglich according to gemäß, laut, nach actually tatsächlich after all altogether all in all anyhow, anyway apart from as a matter of fact as far as that goes as if was das anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob was... anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob as to / as for / as regards as though beforehand zuvor, im Voraus meanwhile inzwischen moreover mostly nevertheless not only ... but also once again/more over and over again on the one hand ... on the other hand otherwise particularly provided that recently concerning despite due to even if/even though eventually finally for this reason gradually if so in addition in a way in a nutshell in any case in a sense schließlich, im Grunde, immerhin gänzlich, im Ganzen genommen alles in allem regardless of regarding bezüglich/hinsichtlich respectively beziehungsweise so far both ... and by means of by no means in particular irgendwie, trotzdem, jedenfalls, ohnehin abgesehen von tatsächlich überdies, außerdem größtenteils, hauptsächlich dennoch, trotzdem nicht nur, sondern auch noch einmal immer wieder einerseits ... anderseits sonst, andernfalls besonders, im Besonderen vorausgesetzt, dass kürzlich ungeachtet bisher sowohl als auch mittels, durch keineswegs betreffend, hinsichtlich aus diesem Grund furthermore ferner, überdies, außerdem nach und nach gegebenenfalls, in diesem Fall VOCABULARY trotz infolge, wegen auch wenn, selbst wenn, wenn auch schließlich endlich, zuletzt zusätzlich in gewisser Hinsicht kurzgefasst auf jeden Fall gewissermaßen insbesondere in spite of trotz accordingly demgemäß, folglich according to gemäß, laut, nach actually tatsächlich after all altogether all in all anyhow, anyway apart from as a matter of fact as far as that goes as if was das anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob was... anbetrifft wie wenn, als ob as to / as for / as regards as though beforehand zuvor, im Voraus meanwhile inzwischen moreover mostly nevertheless not only ... but also once again/more over and over again on the one hand ... on the other hand otherwise particularly provided that recently concerning despite due to even if/even though eventually finally for this reason gradually if so in addition in a way in a nutshell in any case in a sense schließlich, im Grunde, immerhin gänzlich, im Ganzen genommen alles in allem regardless of regarding bezüglich/hinsichtlich respectively beziehungsweise so far both ... and by means of by no means in particular irgendwie, trotzdem, jedenfalls, ohnehin abgesehen von tatsächlich überdies, außerdem größtenteils, hauptsächlich dennoch, trotzdem nicht nur, sondern auch noch einmal immer wieder einerseits ... anderseits sonst, andernfalls besonders, im Besonderen vorausgesetzt, dass kürzlich ungeachtet bisher sowohl als auch mittels, durch keineswegs betreffend, hinsichtlich aus diesem Grund furthermore ferner, überdies, außerdem nach und nach gegebenenfalls, in diesem Fall VOCABULARY trotz infolge, wegen auch wenn, selbst wenn, wenn auch schließlich endlich, zuletzt zusätzlich in gewisser Hinsicht kurzgefasst auf jeden Fall gewissermaßen insbesondere in spite of trotz Thesaurus for commonly overused words When you write, try to use the most precise word for what you intend to say, not always the one that comes to your mind first. Consult this thesaurus to find alternatives for some commonly overused words. Keep in mind that the choices offered in a thesaurus do not all mean exactly the same thing. Review all the options first and then select the one that fits best. overused word action end job/work kind part thing answer ask begin bring change choose do feel fight finish get: give go help influence keep know/understand like make Thesaurus for commonly overused words near-synonyms nouns movement, labour, task, project, pursuit, scheme, endeavour finish, limit, boundary, conclusion, resolution, termination task, business, duty, occupation, profession, assignment, chore, vocation sort, form, type, variety detail, element, section, portion, component, segment object, problem, aspect, point, part, issue verbs reply, retort, agree, disagree, respond question, request, nag, pester, beg, plead, grill, interrogate, poll, demand introduce, launch, initiate, originate, commence create, produce, deliver, convey, cause, accompany alter, transform, vary, replace, diversify prefer, select, elect, nominate, identify. plan, execute, perform, carry out, achieve, implement experience, realize, notice, consider struggle, hit, kick, compete, argue, battle complete, conclude, cease, achieve, exhaust, consume, terminate obtain, receive, achieve, acquire, procure, fetch, become deliver, donate, bestow, supply, distribute, impart move, advance, progress, proceed. assist, aid, support, sustain, serve affect, transform, moderate, adjust, motivate, prompt retain, control, possess, maintain, preserve realize, comprehend, perceive, discern enjoy, appreciate, cherish, relish build, construct, produce, assemble, manufacture, fashion, create 353 354 put say Thesaurus for commonly overused words see take think use want bad beautiful big¹ easy fast/quick funny good great happy hard important interesting main nice old regular right small sure about absolutely really sometimes very 1 move, lay, fill, place state, claim, add, maintain, point out, mention regard, witness, gaze at, realize, notice, observe grasp, capture, select, tolerate, endure reflect, imagine, ponder, contemplate, conceive employ, operate, utilize, make use of desire, crave, heed, yearn, long for adjectives poor, inadequate, harmful, defective, corrupt, wicked, naughty, offensive attractive, appealing, handsome, stunning, gorgeous, alluring huge, massive, enormous, extensive, immense, giant natural, pleasant, comfortable, effortless, undemanding, relaxed swift, hasty, instant, accelerated, brisk, prompt, rapid, nimble. amusing, entertaining, unusual, uncommon, comical, ludicrous, humorous striking, competent, virtuous, satisfactory, functional, proper tremendous, superior, remarkable; eminent, proficient, expert pleased, cheerful, delighted, joyous, jubilant, elated S harsh, complex, complicated; formidable, arduous significant, substantial, weighty, meaningful, critical, vital, notable entertaining, absorbing, appealing, fascinating, thought-provoking primary, foremost, major, dominant, principal pleasant, charming, gracious, satisfying aged, mature, used, former, previous, experienced standard, routine, habitual, customary appropriate, proper, suitable, sensible, reasonable minor, miniature, slight, trivial, diminutive, insignificant certain, unmistakable, unquestionable, assured, confident adverbs nearly, almost, approximately, approaching, close to, roughly perfectly, completely, ideally, purely, unconditionally truly, genuinely, extremely, undeniably, definitely occasionally, periodically, sporadically, intermittently unusually, extremely, deeply, profoundly, exceedingly analysis task might be: - show the central idea of a text - present author's attitude towards a certain issue s - analyse the prevailing atmosphere regarding the employed means following aspects are important: central idea/message/ opinion/ atmosphere -style/register (e.g. neutral, formal, colloquial, slang) - tone (e.g. emotional, objective) - rhetorical/stylistic devices (e.g. comparison, contrast, repetition, imagery, etc.) with regard to literary texts also consider: - narrative technique(s) (e.g. point of view, mode of presentation) with regard to non-literary texts also consider: - structure of the text (e.g. order and nature of paragraphs, subheadings, topic sentences, complexity of sentences, graphics) REMEMBER: ● EENGLISCH-KLAUSUR focus on linguistic/ stylistic/ structural means, give examples and explain how it helps to convey meaning of a text & what effect it may have on the reader give lines when quoting or paraphrasing literary (fictional) texts (look at following aspects) genre (e.g. poem, short story, excerpt from a novel) theme(s) (e.g. love, conflict, loneliness) characterisation (direct, indirect, explicit, implicit) setting (e.g. time, place, atmosphere, character's social background,...) action/ plot (internal, external action, rising/ falling action, climax, turning point, surprise, open ending, flashback, foreshadowing) language (wording, register, tone, syntax) point of view mode of presentation rhetorical/ stylistic devices language choice of words/ vocabulary: negatively/ positively connotated vocabulary many adjectives/ adverbs/ verbs/...-> illustrate/ give more details, create specific atmosphere ● register/ style formal neutral difficult/ specialist vocabulary, complex sentence structures, often used for serious purposes e.g. essays, academic publications,... between formal and informal, language used by educated people e.g. informal slang literary ● syntax TIP: newspapers,... fairly simple language, short, abbreviations, colloquial words, used by friends & in relaxed, unofficial situations very informal, swear words, used in dialogue between people with a similar background eloquent/ elevated style, complex sentences, rich vocabulary, stylistic devices long, complex sentences, many different subordinate clauses short, simple sentences, predominantly main clauses incomplete sentences (ellipsis) tone = general mood, feeling or attitude being expressed, it is the emotional content of a text rather that the devices used emotional, critical, ironical, objective, humorous USEFUL PHRASES the author makes us of/ combines... style, tone & register are difficult to separate and are mainly used to note the way a character speaks. Don't forget: form follows function -> explain how the language devices used are helping conveying a specific impression on the reader everyday/ colloquial/ informal/ vulgar language formal/ leterary/ slang expressions a concise/ witty/ eloquent/ clear/ impersonal style depends on context; e.g. more intellectual, complex subject An atmosphere of... is created by using... depends on context; e.g. emotional, dramatic, shows confusion, create suspense depends on context; e.g. emotional, confusion, etc. a humorous/ironic/ serious/ critical/ positive tone vivid/ animated/ exaggerated language a polite/blunt/ rude way of addressing sb point of view The effect of a story is strongly influenced by the point of view, or perspective, from which it is told. Narrative types can be mixed and the point of view can change in the course of the story. first-person: protagonist narrator/ witness-narrator -> subjective, lively, authentic, access to person's mind, understanding and sympathising with the protagonist third-person: objective narrator -> reports from the outside as a "hidden observer", only naming what can be seen, no insight of characters feelings/ thoughts selective narrator -> focuses on feelings/ thoughts/ perspective of one or two persons, apart from that only states what can be seen from the outside, sympathising with these specific characters omniscient narrator -> knows feelings/ thoughts of every character, can be neutral but can also comment on storyline, background knowledge, describes situations USEFUL PHRASES by granting the reader access to the character's mind, the narrator draws attention to/ makes the reader see/ feel due to the first-/ third.person narration (with a limited/ omniscient point of view), it is (not) easy to identify with... as the story is told by... the reader knows more/ does not know more than the characters in the story structure mode of presentation: scenic: much use of dialogue -> lively, close to action, indirect characterization panoramic: mainly description -> direct characterization sentence structure: long, complex, many different subordinate clauses -> intellectual or complex subject short, simple, predominantly main clauses -> sometimes emotional, often dramatic, shows e.g. confusion stylistic devices stylistic device Simile (=Vergleich) Metaphor Personification Synecdoche Symbol Alliteration explanation Imagery (=Verbildlichung) - explicit comparison between two things which are basically quite different using words such as like or as -> enhance expressiveness - comparison between two things which are basically quite different without using like or as. While a simile only says that one thing is like another, a metaphor says that one thing is another -> create picture in reader's mind - kind of metaphor in which animals, plants, inanimate objects or abstract ideas are represented as if they were human beings and possessed human qualities -> illustration, stimulate imagination - a part of something stands for the whole (pars pro toto) or the whole stands for a part (totum pro parte) - something concrete (person, objects, image, word, event,...) stand for something abstract or invisible -> stimulate imagination Sound - repetition of the same consonant sound at example "She walks like an angel." "I wandered lonely as a cloud." "All the world's a stage." "Justice is blind." "Necessity is the mother of invention." "All hands on deck." "Germany lost 1:2" The Cross -> symbol for Christianity The dove -> symbol of peace "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled Onomatopoeia (=Lautmalerei) Rhyme Anaphora Parallelism Repetition Contrast Climax Anticlimax Enumeration (=Aufzählung) Ellipsis Inversion Allusion (=Anspielung) the beginning of neighbouring words -> point out key words/ produce rhythmic effect - use of words which imitate the sound they refer to use of words which end with the same sound, usually at the end of lines Structure - repetition of a word or several words at the beginning of successive lines, clauses or sentences -> emphatic effect (=nachdrücklich) - similarity of syntactical structure in neighbouring phrases, clauses, sentences or paragraphs -> rhythmic effect, intensified clarity of message - single words or whole phrases appear several times in text -> focus attention, emphasize individual sentences - opposing views, words or characters are brought together -> emphasize difference/ to highlight opposing elements series of words or expressions rises step by step, beginning with least important and ending with most important -> emphasize urgency, dramatize sudden fall from an idea of importance or dignity to something unimportant or ridiculous in comparison - listing of words or phrases -> stress a certain aspect and describe it further - incomplete sentences -> e.g. indicate state of confusion/ emotion - change of normal sentence structure -> emphasis on the expression etc. Miscellaneous reference to a person, work of art, event, peppers." "The cuckoo whizzed past the buzzing bees." "Tiger! Tiger! burning bright In the forests of the night." "To raise a happy, healthy child, it takes a family; it takes teachers; it takes clergy; it takes business people,..." "Let every nation know that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." "Down, down, down. Would the fall never come to an end." "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested." "The bomb completely destroyed the cathedral, several dozen houses and my dustbin." "Many workers find their labor mechanical, boring, imprisoning, stultifying and repetitive." "No. This can not be. Real. Why? Oh no. Why?" "Never have i seen something like that"! "The Old Man and the Computer." (allusion to The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway) Euphemism Hyperbole (= Übertreibung) Understatement (=Untertreibung) Irony Satire Paradox Pun (=Wortspiel) Rhetorical question direct speech - hiding the real nature of something unpleasant by using a mild or indirect term for it - deliberate exaggeration -> emphasize something or produce humorous effect - opposite of hyperbole; deliberate presentation of something as being much less important, valuable etc. than it really is - saying the opposite of what you actually mean (sarcasm stronger form) -> humour, criticism, shows speakers wit and superiority, underlines real meaning - criticizing certain conditions, events or people by making them appear ridiculous (often make use of exaggeration, irony, sarcasm) - statement that seems to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, mostly reveals some truth on closer examination - play on words that have same or similar sound but different meanings - a question to which answer is obvious and therefore not expected, in reality they are kind of statements -> interest aroused, get reader thinking - direct quotation of what experts or normal people said -> achieve credibility/ an authentic or more lively effect USEFUL PHRASES (atmosphere/ words/ stylistic devices) "the underprivileged" instead of "the poor" catches the reader's eye by... appeals to the reader's senses "I'm so hungry I could eat a horse". "These figures are a bit disappointing" instead of "... are disastrous (katastrophal)." "You are absolutely the best class I've ever had." Actual meaning: "the worst class" "It is awfully hard work doing nothing. "(Oscar Wilde) "At the drunkard's funeral, four of his friends carried the bier. "(bier Totenbahre vs. beer = Bier) "Shouldn't we try to be friendlier towards each other?" "The emissions have risen to up to 80% last year." the expert Melania Vreghouni said. The author... uses/ utilizes/employs/ makes use of/ includes/... to create/ establish a warm/ cold/ sinister/ hostile/ tense/ repellent atmosphere create/ evoke/ establish a feeling/ atmosphere describes/ stresses... by using... puts emphasis on/ emphasizes/highlights/ underlines... enhances/ strengthens/ amplifies/ intensifies the message... arouses the reader's interest by... attracts/draws the reader's attention by...