Englisch /

Englisch LK Abitur 2021

Englisch LK Abitur 2021

 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic
 -
Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic

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Englisch LK Abitur 2021

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- Cloning therapeutic clon'ing manipulation of stem cells to develop into tissues or whole needed, definition -process of producing genetically identical cells and organisms 9 Organs f.e. for transplants ->in this process an embrye is destroyed books Brave New World (1932): In a futuristic world, inhabited by genetically modified and artificially created humans who are divided into an intelligence based social hierarchy; one person discovers a natural toon human in a reservation and risks the entire social structure. Six Waves (2017): cloning in literature and movies ->has been a popular topic in science-fiction movies in 1979 and books in 1932 play in the future or in a different world is deal with cloning in a dystopian or destructive way ana starship from earth to Artemis six clones who are in charge of overseeing the journey and that are continually reclosed and reimprinted with updated with the memories they make, wake up one day and find the whole crew murdered and the ship off course. Now they have to find the perpetrator. -infertile people or same-sex couples could have children made from clared cells cell cloning could assist scientists in editing and research reproductive cloning transplantation of a cloned embryo into a uterns for development and natural birth -> most countries have forbidder this type of cloning for humans cloning: famous cases and stories! • humans: no solid scientific evidence that anyone has cloned embryos > cases in 1998 and 2002 but never provided movies • The 6th day (2000): In a Suture world...

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a helicopter pilot is being illegally cloned by accident by a shady billionaire businessman. evidence • animals: 1979: 1st genetically identically mice - afterwards even cows, sheeps, chickens 1996: Dolly the 6-year old sheep. ->now: cats, dogs, horses, mules, rabbits, rats + pros деле •Replicas (2018): A neuroscientist tries to bring his family back to life after they died in a car accident by violating the law and bibethics - cons could be a violation of the clone's individual human rights - the negatives of human cloning including the making of designer babies after editing or removing bad genes, cloning - cloning raises ethical and moral issues could lead engineered humans for specific traits raises the question of a human right to an exclusive identity cloning could enhance and advance human development divides society: clones and natural humans -destroyes- uniqueness of an individual Did it fail? jes parallel lives •radicalism .exclusion (no. feel welcome in 6B -british part of their identity • inclusion of first and second generations immigrants History of emigration •19th century: Europeans - Jews, Irish · 1948: non-white emigrants Lship "Empire wind rush" •1962: Commonwealth Act ( definition O -society deals with cultural diversity -members can coexist peacefully -multiculturalism expresses the view that society is enriched by preserving. respecting and encouraging cultural diversity - people from different cultures and countries live together in one society Multiculturalism Yes? •more tolerance, people get more open-minded • economy ->more opinions and perspectives •economic growth → new skills •more innovation and creativity ·more different languages •better education because of more perspectives •can lead to a more peaceful society i more acceptance •ethnic diversity enriches a country variety of culture, food, music, traditions No ? •・inequality for immigrants • cultures are very different, they cannot integrate, only exist side by side parallel Society many migrants do not want to integrate into British society - they create division " ə do not share the same values as the rest of the society I can lead to conflict and racial tension discrimination Cracism positive sides ..creates a great pluralism more open-minded and tolerant A negative side · racial discrimination •problems with illegal immiganty solutions for a multicultural society • integration "everyone should have their own religion (identity / culture •diversity: peaceful co-existance •proud of multicultural society terror attacks emerge because minority of that community do not respect these values • same values: democracy, rules of law, tolerance, equal treatment for all, respect for UK and its shared heritage areas of inequality for people of colory education: less degrees, school dropout healthcare: Less help for mental health issues, get detained more often •Giving standards: overcrowded spaces crime: feel unsafe, higher rate of prosecution employments: eam less, no managing positions higher rate of unemployment surrogate motherhood- → makes it possible for infertile couples, same sex couples or single parents to have biological children definition: a woman (the surrogate mother) bears a child for a couple unable to produce children in the usual way, usually because the wife is infertile or otherwise unable to undergo pregnacy. traditional surrogate Surrogate donates her eggs Surrogate is the biological mother of the child altruistic surrogacy Surrogate does not receive payment surrogate is in most cases a family member or a close friend of the intended parents embryos are created with the egg from the intended mother or surrogate and sperm from the intended father or donor ->parents have full legal custody of the child after birth XX methods gestational surrogate -> eggs are from the biological mother -> more common than traditional surrogacy Commercial surrogacy • Surrogate receives a compensation • intended parents agree to cover medical costs, travel expenses, etc. • Surrogate is usually found through an agency INFORMATION Not all countries allow surrogacy, f.e. Germany, and if they do, they sometimes do not allow every kind of it. For example they allow gestational but not traditional or only allow altruistic but not commercial. In some countries it is only possible for heterosexual couples to have a child through surrogacy while others also allow it for homosexual couples but not for single parents. famous Kim Kardashian and Kanye West Kim and Капус already had two chithren and decided to become parents again. But doctors advised her to not get pregnant because of preeclampsia, so they hired a Surrogate mother. She already had two high-risk-pregnancys, becoming pregnant again would be life threatening for her and her child + pros Jimmy Fallon Jimmy and his wife Nancy do not have children carried out by Nancy. After multiple attempts of trying to become pregnant, they decided to hire a surrogate mother and were so happy with her that they let her carry out a second child for them. - A enables same-sex couples to have children creates a long term happiness Surrogate mother feels good cases or stories for helping someone enables parents to have children even though they naturally could not have any Robbie Williams After becoming parents of two children in the natural way, Robbie and his wife Ayda hired a surrogate mother because Ayola was not able to carry a child anymore becourse of fertility problems. She gave them their 3 and 4th child. cons - child has no clear parents -Surrogate mother may be attracted to the child and wants to keep it - very expensive (why not adopting a child) - complex procedure complicated legal system can create legal and emotional issues - there are parents who do not want the child if it is disabled genetics • Science of genetics aims to identify which features of an organism are inherited and researches how these features pass from generation to generation genetic engineering •direct manipulation of an organism's/genes using biotechnology genetic make-up • helps to prevent/cure illnesses/ diseases, like cancer or diabetes •a new generation with smarter, stronger and better looking humans development in technology and Science 'new ways in recreation of humans 4 •manipulates the human's nature • more risks than chances ·less individuality health and environmental risks Social and economic risks changes in society • creation of biological weapons reduction of biodiversity •against natural balance ↳ ♥ 6 Science • tries to describe and explain phenomena of the natural world and make predictions of future developments • applied Science: concentrates on research which directly leads to new inventions; gains scientific knowledge for developing new devices, machines and innovative technologies L> improving our lives and solving problems science and technology • Savior siblings children who are artificially conceived and selected by their parents in order to help a sick sibling with their appropriate genetic material artificially created embryos from the union of different genetic material => process: 1) women takes medication will be produced 2) several eggs 3) the eggs are fertilized-produce embryjas 4) the embryos will be andysed for genetic defects and tissue compatibility 5) the healthy embryo are then placed in the uterus 6) after Smonths a healthy child is bom 7) as soon as the child is born, the umblicial cord blood can be transfered sick child -> becomes healthy • Simplified everyday life communicate faster and easier • online shopping • payment became much more convenient-> online banking •development in technology medicine to cure diseases • new jobs / professions •reshaping school education becoming environmentally friendly • Lose privacy "no safe place in the internet personal data selled for ads •fake news, sabotages •many jobs will disappear •steal certain properties, replaces humankind-speople get laży climate change • gap between rich and poor will be wider 6 •waste, pollution, unwanted by products ✓ What should not be done: • perfect child •designer babies Lsplay God • healing more than one disease at selecting a child / embryo Lykilling other embryos all have right to live access information Data Ly privacy data protection issue designer babies de finition A designer baby is one whose gename has been selected or altered, often to'indude a specific дече от to remove genes associated with a disease it is legal and officially used in China in America are researches allowed same countries allow only the choice of the gender -> whether it should be a boy or girl other countries do not allow this technology method: →→> woman takes hormones which are responsible for making the egg. during the menstrual cycle, a woman produces one egg per month this egg is removed from the ovary of the woman with the help of a special needle -> the egg is fertilized in the laboratory > Sertilization occurs only when sperm enters the egg →> the fertilized egg is allowed to grow for two days ↳during this time, the fertilized egg divides into 8 cells -> all identical to each other this is the embryo -> Scientists remove one of the fertilized embryo and test it for various diseases 4 if a genetic disorder appears, they get replaced with healthy genes -> through in-vitro-fertilization • famous cases: Chinese twins lulu and Nana were edited as embryos (2019) -> man was HIV-positive and the woman uninfected -> in-vitro fertilization with sperm and eggs from the couples and then introduced a mutation into the genomes of the embryos →> the mutation had integrated into some cells but not all 1) suggesting the offspring wouldn't be entirely protected against HIV pros -preselected features of baby • improvement of special genes " cure hereditary diseases ·battle deadly diseases extend lifespan •decrease rate of birth defects treat genetic disorder •new advancements in medicine /science matches , more отдал parents decision /have a right to choose • will lead to improvement of the whole Species ·moral obligation to give the child the best life possible cons Safety concerns ethiical dilemma reduce diversity •new social classes eventually divides society encourages genetic doping •vidation of the children's rights hamms mother and children human beings should not play God • human seen as products or objects • the human gene pool may be damaged nich people would be at an advantage "Super humans" may look down on normal humans "imperfect humans" would be discriminated • more experiments on human beings •more discrimination and bullying studying abroad • Language learning -improving language skills -daily interactions with native speakers leaming by doing bilingual / multilingual •cultural leaming cultural immersion -toderance becoming open-minded making first hand experiences T •individual growth - overcoming fears -stepping out of one's confort zone -gaining confidence becoming independent /self-reliant -gaining new skills through experiences - possible problems for ethnic minorities. while studying abroad - racism -discrimination -being an attraction due to their ethnicity and looks - not finding a place to live due to prejudices making friends could be difficult - inappropriate comments •making negative experiences Volunteerism & Voluntarism • Volunteerism: a person uses his/her time and skills to contribute a community without receiving any payment has become more popular in the past years > some people combine being a volunteer with spending some time abroad Voluntourism: a combination of volunteering and sightseeing 4) not really beneficial for communities Since "voluntarists" only spend a relatively short time in the communities world of work Gap Year describes the period between two important stages in the life of young people pros:-independence, self-confidence -get more and new skills experiences and memories - becoming flexible -Soft skills will be better - you don't loose time getting a personal insight into other cultures -improving language skills -experience other educational systems new friends ・improving one's career opportunities cons: no difference between someone doing a gap year and someone who didn't challenges women = still disadvantaged •gap between rich and poor Some professions aren't paid well, like farmers in developing countries: working conditions, like mental and physical abuse when they fail, not paid well, too many workers in one room, no access to a toilet or water (food, not enough space, a lot of them aren't even skilled workers, even children work, working many hours a day - bad infrastructure not all transports are possible developed countries only profit from then Hard and Soft Skills •Hard Skills! aquired, leaned abilities or gained knowledge (through practice, education, repetition) - niea sureable and testable, •Specific knowledge in certain qualifications; ability to speak a language Soft Skills: -personal qualities, habits, attitudes, Social graces that make a person compatible to work with ↳f.e. are you adaptable, creative, a beamplayer, etc. GM food definition genetic modified food is grown from genetically modified crops that have undergone a specific change in their genes advantages 6 . cheaper - more and better control over the crop - food can be eliminated successfully that causes allergies / allergic reactions - easier for the farmers because of the natural resistance to pests and insects ·bacteria have been modified to produce insulin for medical use 1st - improve a specific characteristic grow more crops on less land crops are groun for new uses historical background discovery of the DNA was in the early 1900's. 1970's: scientists found out that there are genes in food method/technique ->genes decide on how tall a plant can grow and what it is immuune to • 1994: the first commercialized GM crop. was a tomato called Flaus Saur -> genetic modification changes the gene of the plant (aganism), which changes the characteristics of the plant -> Starts by injecting a different gene from a separate organism into the plant's oungenes Lit was resistant to rotting > was marketed by the US-based company Calgene • 1995: the tomato wasn't a commercial success and its production was stopped legal in: the USA, Brazil, example: com is the most grown crop in the U.S.; most of it is GMO ↳ GMO com is created to resist insect pests or tolerate herbicides Canada, India, etc. illegal in: Germany, France, Greece, etc. disadvantages -could increase the risk of cancer - could cause the development of new diseases -is not tested long enough to prove that there are no harmful side effects -health, environmental, social and ecomical nisks - foreign genes in genetic codes - a gene gun is used to burn the plant -crops are made to get more Money unnatural process characteristics of plants are artificial character map Romeo & Juliet Abraham Balthasar Lady Montague •emotions Montague Romeo Cousins friend House of Mantaguе • House of Capulet uncle/ Mercutio Benvolio / Friend Clove Romed's and Juliet's deep love for each other nephew Servants friends hope the lovers hope that their parents do not Sind out about their relationship Prince Escalus the Prologue Ga Shakespearean somet cousins Pans hatred Montagues and Capulets hate each other Friar Lawrence 1 Friar John "royals" • church (tradegy) the lovers die in the end vengeance Raneo takes revenge for his friend's death by killing Tybalt Samson, Gregory Cord. Capulet 1 -open questions for the audience: Why are the families fighting? How do they die? How do the lovers meet? - details the audience don't know: arranged mamiage Juliets fake death Nurse nephew Juliet om Tybalt /servant Cousins Friend servant Peter Lady Capulet jaunt/ Petruccio ->1st quatrain: families get intraduced, setting is mentioned, background of the tragic love story →> 2nd quatrain: tragic ending of a love story between members of these two families; the children. die and that finally ends the fighting of the two households →> 3rd quatrain the play will show how the death of the Lovers leads to the reconciliation of the two families conclusion: Though the drama was written a long time ago, a modem audience can still understand it as emotions like Love, hatred, etc. seem to belong to human beings, are part of their nature. The audience can feel empathy for the characters, understand them and compare their situation to their own. → rhyming or concluding couplet pair rhyme; audience is now directly addressed; is asked to be patient with the actors, appreciate the actors hard work; asked to give attention to the play don't know about the message Romeo doesn't receive banishment of Romeo •Structure ㅍ II rising action I Exposition • Shakespeare's language ->Prose -> Verse III climax IV falling action I catastrophe happy ending ordinary speech, no metric patter •visual dues printed Lines extend from the left to the right margin -Lines do not start with a capital letter ->denoument •function of prose -often used by low status characters (murderers, servants, etc.) but not as a dogmatic rule -low comedy (especially dirty jokes) often written in prose Suggests a realistic tone -Sometimes indicates madness •Sunction of rhymes - concluding a scene -hammering the point home 6 Rhymes - usually occur as rhymed couplets (aa bb cc) chyme pair in iambic pentameter called "heroic couplet" - used for highly lyrical passages; choruses, prologues, epilogues; romantic passages which are slightly over the top; supernatural beings Blank Verse -an unrhymed lambic pentameter -the standard verse in Shakespeare's plays - resembles prose in that the final words of the lines do not rhyme in any regular pattern -a recognizable metre is there : most lines are in iambic pentameter (alternating syllables: unstressed and stressed) •visual dues -printed lines do not extend from left to right margin - lines start with capital letters •Sunction of blank verse -it makes it sound more elevated, less ordinary - comes close to the natural speaking rhythms of English Timeline of his life ·born in Stratford, April 1564, as the first son of a prominent businessman maried Аппе Hathaway la 26-year old farmer's daughter) in November 1582 L1585: the twins Judith and Hamnet were bom their first child was bom six months later, named Susanna shortly afterwards he leaves his family to disappear for 7 years: the Lost Years" 1592: well established in the London •1593: first publication (a narrative poem) -1594: founding member of an acting company. -1595/96: Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer theatre world as an actor, poet and playuright Night's Dream were published -1599: The Globe Theatre is built in Landon; Shakespeare is part owner 1606: Macbeth is published •1603: Sonnets are published ♥ V 16-16: he dies, having written 38 plays 1623: the first complete collection of Shakespeare's works was published Shakespeare's language form of address: 'thou' L> was used in more informal contexts normally; the more formal wais 'you' -> powerful imagery: his scenes can be visualised easier ->his varied vocabulary + new words and sayings -> the wide range of his allusions to classical, religious and historik al icons, stories and ->he likes to use oxymorons, assonance, alliteration people -> the verb forms are different from today: 'thou art' or 'she knoweth' William Shakespeare Elizabethan theatre -originally plays were written in Latin, based on stories taken from the Bible and performed in church at church festivals Elizabethan Era •the golden age in the history of English literature • Elizabethan theatre grew, William became famous > peace, stability and prosperity + well organized and effective government "Great Chain of Being": everything was connected in a hierarchy everyone knows their duties and keeps their places gender roles and an ideal оба family religion and age were the most important things in a marriage •teenage brides were unusual afterwards theatre productions moved out of church and plays were translated into English - 1576- Landans first theatre -15 90s: going to plays was the best loved form of entertainment in London all social classes went there -acting was only open to boys & men - when Shakespeare arrived: companies wrote their own plays The Shakespearean sonnet - 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter, 1 unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed syllable stimes •3 quatrains + 1 couplet 64+4+4+2 lines •rhyme: abab cdcd •the quatrains and the couplet form dear wits in a line of argument .it contains a " turm" or a change of thought •Sonnets were very popular in the Elizabetan gentlemen used their poetic talent to show their love to their ladies •Shakespeare has written 154 Sonnets ; none of them have titles; they are ordered by numbers •Sonnets 1-126 are written to a young man, who is of high social status, his initials are w.H. (maybe непnу wriothesley) Sonnets 127-154 are about • the "Dark Lady", who causes emotional pain; she is his mistress and unfaithful to him, she is criticised for her lacks & morals geography •250 ethical groups •527 languages official language - English •1150 dialects 20 Lagos-old capital Abuja = capital since 1991 3 largest ethic groups: I Hausas -northern part -Hau Saland (largest city, greatest territory) -historical past: british colonies religion: Islam (against Christianity - Specialised: agriculture, villages colory: easily Laminated -ruler:, Emirs", absolutisin, Sharia law lifestyle: more than one wife - IT Yorubas - woman are second class citizens hierarchial miles conservative -southwestem part - 6 states with the biggest cities -historical past: slave trade religion: Islam, Christianity -values: tradition, Spirits, Gods colony: easy to abuse system -ruler: "Oba", absolute authority -lifestyle: hierarchial rules traditions polygamous model severous wives man=authority problems •poverty, orphans everywhere ->no state for help • regions have own rules, cultures, traditions •corruption, money rules everything, no laws valid colony problems, stolen history active terrorist group, f.e. Boko Haram drug addiction, child labour ·bad living conditions, water shortage • environmental pollutions, agricultural problems •high death toll from malaria industry; no skilled workers, bad working conditions Nigeria III Igbos -southeastem part -5 states -historical past: democratic process, agriculture, business -religion: Christianity -Specialised: agriculture, traids, business -colony: not easily dominated strong independant, self-thinking -values: faimess, honesty -ruler: democratic process -lifestyle: equal gender roles monogam-sone woman woman are independent african traditions Lagos ·largest city in Nigeria - from shum to metropole with education and investments many cultures overpopulation causes Organisation problems, bad infrastructure, traffic, chaos, not enough place prosperity/wealth: dreams come true, rich people, starting a new life city of optimists: work hard to be successful pros: a honest city, feel arrived chance for people who have a vision city that never sleeps •more inspiring than Abuja experience and memories Cons: crimes / criminalists like drug dealers; itual killers; day light robbers; misterious disappearances bad living conditions • a lot of dangers History 1807: slave trade was abolished 1901: Nigeria becomes a British protectorate 1958: oil extraction began in Nigeria 1st October 1960: Independence movements succeeds 1963: Nigeria becames a republic but remains a member of the Commonwealth 1967-1970: Biafra War 1975-1983: first period of Nigerian democracy Fashion industry -> fashion designess: produce expensive, high-level clothing abroad and sell it internationally criticized for the high prices; not well developed; have to produce abrood to get good quality products -> makes it even more expensive, not beneficial for Nigeria -> garment manufacturing: mass production and produce affordable clothing 4 power problems; predominant oil-industry; Lack of investments; no skilled workers; maintaining the machines -> textile industry: provides the basic material for the fashion industry 4 predominant ail-industry; problematic locally produced cotton; imports are expensive le.g. because of taxes) can not compete with other countries like China, who Sload the market Biafra War • also known as the Nigerian Givil War ·began in July 1967; ended in January 1970 •a political and ethic conflict that occurred when the Nigerian Eastem region proclaimed themselves as the Republic of Biafra •main causes: religious, cultural, economic and ethic tensions between the labss and the Hausas • ≈ 500,000 - 2 million people died by Sighting or through starvation religious and ethnic tensions are in the politics of Nigeria present Nigeria the impact of British rule Britain: trade; use of natural resources Niguia: a westem form of education; federal republic after their independence; better infrastructure, transport; new forins об сommunication English as "lingua franca -Britain: oppressed the Nigrians; exploited their natural resources Nigerian: Loss of their own traditions; religion were affected; chief's lost their traditional authority; Loss of tribal, native language; Biafra war after their independence; no trust in the government; not much experience with democratic structures, diversity of the country and tribal structures > Education - only 297. gaduate from Secondary School on time • 10,5 million Nigerian children are out of school • even is they go to school, many do not leam much ·lack of teachers, too many people 449 students per teacher •problem of illiteracy •Young Nigerians struggle with unemployments · Significantly less educated people in the North •government does not spend enough money on education children work with parents oil-industry cil extraction started in 1958 oil fields in Niger Delta Area Nigerians depend on the oil-industry oil prices-crash помер crash eamed mony is used to pay off debts has no infrastructure to refine its aut oil international companies sell it abroad; Nigeria has to import the refined oil back which costs billions of dollars positive: oil & gas industry make more than 60% of the economic capital: more workplaces; international Companies invest in local infrastructure negative: bad working conditions; educational and health Support is limited; environmental impact->pollution, water and food supply are destiayed, organized criminal gangs damage the pipes in order to steal the oil; problems to find work for young generations History of United Kingdom/ • England, Scotland, Wales & Ireland . are independent countries •1301: son of English King becomes Prince of Wales •1535: Kingdom of Ireland was founded by Hering III 1542: wales is fully annexed by England ·1604: King of Scotland is King of England too 1707: Union of Scotland and England • 1801: Founding of "United Kingdom of Great. Britain and Ireland" • 1807: UK abolished slave trade 19# century: UK becomes the most powerful nation Lindustrialisation <colonies -1914-1918: 1st World War Luk is one of the four victorious powers -1919-1924: Irish шат of independence Anglo-irish treaty L 26 of 32 insh countries became independent Lirish free state was founded -1939-1945: 2 nd World War Battle of Britain . 1973: UK joined EU - 20th century: UKs colonies gained independence 1998: Scotland, Wales and Ireland have own Law-making institutions ->devolution -2002: UK refuses to introduce EURO • 2014: Referendum for Scotlands independence (Scotland Stays in ak • 2020: Brexit LUK Leaves EU Brexit -> means that Britain exits from the EU 2016: Brexit begins 2017: Brexit neogotiantions between UK and Ell 2018: Exit agreement is published and endorsed by the EU 2019: UK's Parliament rejects exit delay until 31st October, 2019 and 31st January, 2020 2020: Britain officially leaves the Ell in January 2021: 1) free trade agreements 2) Britain leaves the Ell's regulatory frame- works completely Great Britain monarchy •oldest form of government •tenture lasts a lifetime ↳ last coronation 2nd June 1952 constitutional monarchy is limited monarchy, parlamentary system, must follow constitution monarch is head of Armed Forces I has power to declare was and sign treaties makes and passes legislation with an elected Parliament Lexclusively acts under the advise of Prime Minister + pros •Control about borders Q Migration can be controlled Lless refugees in ak •UK pays 350 million pounds per week to the Ell (more money for Uk ・independence political, economical, social decisions ·more jobs for British people and not for foreigness cons ·less stability and safety collaboration with Ell could be difficult in future possibly losing Scotland less influence on the rest of the world -isolation •expensive goods "Losing jobs because many companies will move to other countries Britishness -national identity of all British countries + successful nation-state Britain is more inclusive than England • Royal family and tradition •no respect for the different cultures .no equality The royals + represent the country has no political power tradition - chooses the Prime Minister only one family has the power expensive lifestyle Stability, safety Supports the country A Commonwealth •54 equal and independent member states 1/4 of the world's masses 2,4 billion citizens • 1/3 of world's population • foundation O - Belfare Declaration 1926 -officially on 11th December 1931 head is the monarch • Commonwealth games every 4 years • interests: free trade equality world peace liberty human rights their lifestyle •no privacy •ruled by family political duties 6 • very high expectations * cannot choose what they want to do monarch head of state with symbolic duties, fe. State opening of Parliament Great Cabinet Prime Minister and about 20 senior ministers Britain appoints •collectively responsible for government policy Social classes ·typical 3-class system now only applies to 39% of the population in GB 67-class system instead •a class is made up of three components: economic, social and cultural capital 1. Elite: most privileged group, wealthy, highest level of all three capitals appoints 2. Established: second wealthiest, largest and most prosperous group f middle class middle class 4. new affluent : workers 3. technical: small but prosperous group, low for social and cultural capital because of its social isolation and cultural apathy young group, socially and culturally active, middling levels of economic capital connected the political system Prime Minister • leader of the Party that won the election •can end a parliament •sets dates of general election connected Parliament I House of Commons about 650 MPS one for each constituency election at least every 5 years makes final decisions about proposed laws II House of Lords second parliament chamber ↳ 4 types of members Law Lords Bishops life queers, elected her ditary peers Tvote All British people over 18 5. traditional: Scores low on all farms of capital, members have high house values though arban group, relatively poor, high social and cultural capital 6. emergent: new and young service workers 7. precarious: most poorest and deprived class proletariat scoring low on all forms of capital American Dream keywords of the American Dream -> success, becoming rich and famous ->slogan: "from rags to riches" > for example: Amdd Schwarzenegger; born in Europe (Austria), emigrated to the US; was good at fitness and body building but after some time he became an actor and a famous celebrity, then he became a politician →equality; personal and religious freedom -> declaration of independence → independence sindividuality -> everyone can achieve his goals with hard work immigration : escaping from poverty and oppression, hope for a better life •→religion: Puritans came to America to live their religion democracy and justice → peace: no difference between people with different skincolour, origin gender or age, religion and culture →liberty; america promises "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness"," Declaration of independence: 3 rights of every person which governments have to protect Keywords of the American Nightmare -> failure, no hard work means failing in reaching your goals -> poverty; a lot of people are poor in America -> inequality: people of poor families can not go to university and do the job they want; mostly people out of academic and rich families get rich and achieve their goats in life ->racism / racial segregation: even though black people have rights because of the civil rights movement, they still live seperated from whites, ghettos and are mostly раёт → Sighting and rioting because of inequality, whites feeling superior than blacks → slavery has a big impact even though it's deep in the history of America, blacks are still fighting for freedom and individuality -> the dream stays a dream, a lot of people live in poverty and nowadays it is much harder to become rich famous persons -> Martin Luther King Jr. -became famous because of the civil rights movement in the 1950'/60's - he was the leader of the Montgovery movement and held one of the most famous speeches with an big impact nowadays - his speech considered the other american dream, namely the Black Dream' and starts with "I have a dream..." - he wanted to make clear that the promised freedan has not been achieved for black americans i references the US constitution and Declaration of Independence which declared America would be a land of freedom where all men are created equal L> was a monumental event in the civil rights movement and one of the largest peaceful protests in the world -> Malcolm X - was bom as Malcolm little but he changed his last name in prison because he started to be a member of the Nation of Islam and they considered little as a slave name is the teachings of the Nation of Islam (Nol) were that white society worked to keep the African Americans from empowering themselves and achieving success I after some difficulties between him and the leader of the Organization, he left and founded his own organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity. •Some members of NOI Girebombed his house and luckily the family escaped -one week later: 3 gunmen rushed Malcolm on stage and killed him with 15 gunshots is the gunmens were identified as members of Nor -after his death he impacted people and is known as one of the most important activists of the civil rights movement famous documents -> Bill of Rights - created in 1789 - makes sure that individual rights are guaranteed in the Constitution (because in 1787 (when the Constitution was written) there was not said much about individual rights - they created 10 amendments to the Constitution 6 that makes 27 amendments but the first 10 are collectively known as the Bill of Rights -> Declaration of Independence - was ratified on the 4th of July 1776 -says that Americans were no longer under British rule - before 1776: USA was not a country; the individeral states were colonies of the British colonies is americans had to pay taxes to Great Britain; they had no one to speak for them in the parliament - they wanted the right of having freedom of speech and equality for men and women - they formed a Continental Congress and chosed one person to write a document that would become the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson was picked to write it Ghis document says what the government should and should not do what people's rights are and lists specific bad things that the British government did to the colonies the document had some changes and was then approved - every 4th of July the americans celebrate the Independence Day says that every person in the US has the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness & that the government has to listen to its own people => this made America a free independent country -it famous monuments -> Statue of Liberty - stands on Liberty Island in New York Harbor -was a gift from France; was dedicated on October 28, 1886 - one of the most iconic symbols of the USA -official name: Liberty Enlightening the world also called Mother of Exiles -represents the freedom and liberty of the US democracy -the torch represent the enlightment of the world; the broken chains symbolize the US breaking free from tyranny; the tablet she is holding represents the law and has 'July 4,1776' inscribed on it; the crown has 7 rays which represent the 7 countries and 7 seas of the world 4 The New Colluses by Emma Lazarus -a poem engraved on a plate and mainted on a wall inside the pedestal а of the Statue of Liberty -it starts with pointing out that in the old world people couldn't live in freedom and were afraid (f.e. the first settlers who came to america for a better life) -it symbolizes trust and power; gives people hope for a better life - welcomes everyone, guides people; open for everyone and embraces immigrants with open arms -gives people the feeling of safety and the ability to live in freedam -feeling to have a perspective in life Civil Rights Movement - is about african americans in the 1950's and 1960's u fought for equality and liberty situation then :- black people hadn't the same rights as whites just because of their skin colour -whites had prejudies against blacks -a lot of discrimination and racial segregation, for example black children couldn't go to university or blacks had to sit at the back of the bus => lived divided /seperated and were seen as the second class citizens -movement started in 1950 61955: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in a bus for a white men is this act of protest started a boykott of the bus system -the leader of the demonstrating movernment was Martin Luther King Jr. -the protest named 'Montgomery boykott was very important for the blacks - a lot of blacks were encouraged to protest for their civil rights but many were put into prison -1963: King hold the most popular speech in history named "I have a dream" Swanted the government to take action against segregation, racial and social discrimination -1964: the government passed a law which gave blacks and whites the same rights => called "Guil Rights Act" 4 gave same opportunities forbade discrimination and protected their nights Black Dream - also known as the "other american dream" -started with the Civil rights movement and especially with the speech "I have a dream" by M.L.King who wished equality in the United States ->Did it came true? there have been a lot of developments after the c.r. movement, like more freedom, less racial segregation, better chances in life and more black-owned businesses still a lot of racism, f.e. the famous case of George Floyd getting killed by white police officers •the biggest group of poverty and prison-inmates are still blacks blacks have lower chances for good jobs because they can't pay university D => a lot of changes are needed in society: whites shouldn't be afraid of blacks blacks should open up and make it possible to interact together M. L. King: "We must leam to live together as brothers or perish together as fools" The American Dream: its origin -started with the first settlers who arrived in North America is group was called 'the Pilgrim Fathers and contained man, woman and children Some of them were members of the English Separatists Church; that's a radical fraction of Puritarism that wished to seperate from Church of England -> the seperation from Church wasn't allowed and the people were put in jail for their beliefs -their reasons for leaving: live their religion freely, have a better life they started to flee because they thought they are "gods chosen people" and guided to the "promised land" the promised land was America: it was seen as beautiful because of the variety, they had fields, normal landscapes, mountains and seas ↳ the fields were furtile => they could plant food - America was a chance to live in peace, harmony, brotherhood, freedom and democracy -> it gave them much more opportunities than they ever had the concept of melting pot and salad baul -> melting pot is like assimilation -> was used first to describe the U.S. -people mix with different persons and their cultures > Loosing own part of identity to build/create a new person is they give up their old identity because they had a bod past, for example lived under oppression -> Salad bowl is like integration->replaces the first idea and describes US nowadays i different people live together in peace without giving up their own identity; they mix their cultures 6 for example New York: people live in different areas with their ethnicities, like Chinatown Immigration Process 1. wave settlers, mostly english colonists, came to the new land to enjoy freedom 2. wave: time of industrial revolution, mostly irish and german people; over 2 million inish people gled to America because of potato famine; germans came to America in search for political freedom and work 3.wave: 20th centung, people glee because of wars (ww I and WWII) -> New immigrants: refugees ->can gain legal status -> Illegal immigrants migration is really expensive, difficult and dangerous undocumented people have no chance for legal entry historical periods - Globalization 1.0 ~1492-1800 - Columbus set sail -opening trade between the Old World and New World -shrank the world from size large to medium driving global integration -dynamic force: countries globalizing by European and American individuals and businesses Globalization 2.0 ~1800 2000 - shrank world from size medium to small -1. half: powered by falling transportation costs - 2. half: pavered by falling telecommunication costs companies globalizing - global market was bor -) by European and American individuals and businesses . Globalization 3.0 entering 2000 -shrinking the world from size Small to tiny and flattering -dynamic force new found poter for individuals to collaborate and compete globally Sempowering individuals -driven by much more diverse groups of individuals - many people are able to plug in and play de finition. -> a process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale -> benefit from one another -> development in economy, politics and culture ->exchange of interests and ideas • aspects: economy, politics, environment, culture, population, education, society, technology, media, relationships and communication Globalization Cons: - bad working conditions changes are too fast speople aren't prepared (0₂ => bad for the environment -flow of activities is so fast that many people suffer from stress and stress-related health problems "flexibility of companies - shining and firing becomes easier global warming weather: world heats up. extreme weather, number of natural disasters has more than doubled up • health: a lot of people die as a direct result of global warming •polarice: shortening of the snow seasory melting of polarice and permafrost -technology replaces humans-ploss of jobs - inequality has grown -> gap between dich and poor gets wider middle class is shrinking > growth of poverty unemployment rise of sea level biodiversity: pushes species out of their habitats destroys diversity of species pros: -connection all over the world through internet & social media -exchange between countries and people -Modem technologies and new inventions development - easy trade, better transport politic cooperations ·more jobs -time and space are no more a barier companies get interlinked and independent -major increase in internaticinal investments - more individualism - good education -cultures become closer -societies benefit from one another -Sight global challenges together -reach goals faster Utopia ft An imaged place or state of things in which everything is perfect. -> definition: everyone has a right for everything nobody is poor -> enough money everything is perfect and the best freedom equality no discrimination, racism, terror Esoptimistic about Suture Society -> examples: equality Freedom wealth healthcare paradise-like education for everyone classless peaceful government nothing is bad and both deal with elements that are not possible today, but they are already imagineable in our everyday life books ->Brave New World -> 1984 -> the Circle -> the Giver -> Utopia -> Fahrenheit 451 what do they have in common? ->characteristics of science- fiction and fantasy ->set in a futuristic world or a whole new world →> technology used to create perfect humans / living conditions -> focus on psychology and emotions Dystopia "An imaged state of society in which there is great suffering or injustice." -> definition: antithesis of the Utopian society control over the society-sabsolutism state no individuality no freedom no equality everything is worse; hopeless pessimistic about Suture society ->examples: Sickness War poverty absolute control by the government. dehumanized world terrorism Cimited freedom no individuality ruled by dictator, military brainwashing, propaganda •by Aldous Leonard Huxley, 1932 •Setting: Set in "Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre" L34 storeys in 632 A.F. (after Ford) • structure of the society: 5 castes ·motto: "Community, identity, stability" • atmosphere: cold, artificial, dead, sterile, scientific, not colourful, grey Brave New World • reproduction: artificial way of reproductial, babies grow in hatcheries •people / students - write everything down they hear -> believe what's said, get convinced •Social life / behaupeople do their jobs, do not stop work → of it -want to develop (example: Mr. Foster) ・relationships: no real love, no deeper relationships, just sex •ways of controlling people: conditioning (achieving stability sleep-teaching or hypnopaedia Social criticism •government: Mustapha Mand -> one of the ten controllers > totalitarian State is difference in intelligence and outward appearance no possibility to change the caste-> embryos are manipulated > people produced to fulfill certain tasks / jobs in the society is can be easily controlled this way religion /belief: they worship Ford •Betas - Gammas the society •Alphas represent the intellectually superior group. who run the factory; the highest social class and are further subdivided into Plus, Minus or Double-Plus ·Deltas Epsilons (black) (Henry Ford → seen as the inventor of mass production) have adequate intelligence living similarly to Alphas but their positions require Less thinking are semi-skilled workers; low-risk professionals or experts at repetitive tasks are mass-produced (literally-genetically. created twins) who lack individurality and tend to menial jobs are mass-produced; can't read or write; work undesireable jobs like and foundry-worker's 'semi-morons jobs like sewage labor. i are referred to as 5 caste system Alphas Betas Gammas Deltas Epsilons Dystopian Elements and Characteristics •Stories are often about survival •primary themes: oppression and rebellion • important role: the environment • takes place in large cities devastated by pollution • there is a back story of war, revolutions, overpopulation, other disasters • features from reality and discusses them, not society in general • takes place in the future, but are about today or yesterday •strict division of the citizens by intellect, ability and class no social group except the State or such social groups are under government control •independent religions don't exist, but there is a personality cult • institution of family has been eradicated->children reproduced artificially A or are to spy on parents powerlessness of the individuals, corutal government run by a totalitarian dictatorship or massive bureaucratic institutions Societies are being monitored, betrayed or manipulated hero alevays questions society although he/she is usually in a high-standing within the social system; sees what is wrong and tries to change the system. •technology to manipulate: sleep teaching, electro shock the apy • the goal: 1) escape 2) destruction of the society's principals is but he/she fails in his intentions to change anything, sometimes they themeles end up changed to conform to the society's mile Compared to BNW •the state's means to make the people happy and avoiding them to question the system. ->conditioning -sleep teaching/hypnopaedia -> soma (drug →>different free-time activities -> sexual recreation -> Satisfaction of basic human desires/needs Consumerism -> work = feeling worthy and useful is keeping them busy →> the caste system = feeling good in your position in the society rde of sex: -> no real relationship between sex and love or any deep emotion → free-thought and fear of death do not exist is sexual and reproductive habits: children play erotic games in the hatchery and ->as adults sex is kind of entertainment conditioning centre > Promiscuity is celebrated in different ways -> in the 'Feelies' and cerenamies they use sex to make people happy -> World State controls everything whether women are sterilized or not women who are not: have to use "contraceptives" to not get pregnant -> they exclude people who get pregnant the natural way sexample: John was born in the reservation, he got a book of Shakespeare's complete works as a young boy and thinks that he has to work for a woman to get her love and have sex with her (f.e. with Lening: he falls in love, but do not want sex, while lening is under influence of soma, which leads her to convince John to have sex with her) Macbeth characters Duncan: King of Scotland 86 Malcolm: Duncan's elder son and his heir en Fleance: Banquo's son Macduff: Thane of Fife The weird Sisters Donalbain: Duncan's younger son Macbeth: general in the Army, Thane of Glamis * Lady Macbeth: Macbeth's wife, later Queen of Scotland consident -> Banque: Macbeth's friend, any general d wbum 2'supro Collabor carejuud their development -> represents orderess -> represents order نے کی روایات سے والا ہے اسے انسان را برتر ده ترین دور سے بات reasonable -> insane consident desperate persecuted persecutor *Later: Thane of Caudor CM Japs of my fusio brsbrist- King of Scotland (ronis) E DAZ- cons:- is a good king and person Plot ->Act 1 (Exposition) devoted -> vengeful الله • The tragedy of Macbeth Macbeth receives a prophecy that he will be king Ls Lady Macbeth encourages him to commit regicide Duncan is killed and his sons flee Macbeth becomes king shines murderers to secure his rule -> goes insane > Macbeth receives another prophecy about his death styramical rule leads to rebellion led by Macduff 4₂ Macbeth is killed by Macduff Susah pon DENDA E • Arguments Macbeth gives for lagainst murdering the king pro: - he wants to be the king, success; has ambitions to be king - his wife supports him is he doesn't kill him, he won't be a man - would be okay if it was without consequences - innocent: the king is invited and isn't expecting to be killed - he should be the one who protects the king and not the one killing him -the experience will haunt him ~will be punished by god after he dies -doesn't know how to cover the murder -the weird Sisters announce Macbeth his prophecy, including becoming king Lady Macbeth Sinds out and tries to convince Macbeth to commit regicide -> Act 2 Inising action) -Macbeth is confronted with the hallucination of a bloody dagger - Lady Macbeth decides to take charge of the deed, Duncan and servants are killed -Duncan's sons flee to England and Theland respectively, Macbeth is crowned king -> Act 3 (climax) - Banquo and Fleance reinvited to a royal banquet in order to be killed Banquo's murder succeeds, Fleance escapes - Macbeth is haunted by visions of Banquo's ghost and suddenly Loses self-control تاكسat مورد Lady Macbeth takes over and tells the guests to leave -> Act 4 (falling action) the Weird Sisters announce Macbeth another prophecy, including warnings - by command of Macbeth, Macduff's wife and children are killed in his castle -> Act 5 (resolution) - Lady Macbeth starts sleepwalking, tries to clear her conscience and commits suicide -Malcolm and Macduff join forces against Macbeth, which concludes in a battle ܐܘܗܘ ܘܠܘ ܟܘܝ ܚܓ ܠܡb ܣܘܢܐ ܛ ܝ ܗܠܥܐ ܕܠܠܘܥܢܐ - اسداران انسان موت اور ان کو ایک ایران برای ما با سر و صریح له ی دوم خود ان ادرار بر روی دریا اور خون ماروك رین استان روانی دانه ای در مرنے کا نام کار لی رات دولة من ديسون برد بالای سایت ایران ب المال رام الات مصرية وادارة وزير العام المقام ای بر سلامت انسانی في الامن والام في الارادة الله البنت استمال لام سات ام انسان کو سر کرنے ارٹ سی اے نے سعودی اروم سے puid sdh at the ے کی انسان ها دار نے اسے lethed ed of persigue turi pas behsal et paid salt wird prillid ene end In bao gut and chustorg انی و مالی اداری است و کار کیا اور اس المودار سازمان را مورد اون بول الحصار انسان الا المطور ام ان را بار اور steiger اباره اولاد و سیاه خار مر الخلافات السير ور در پرست اما الان راام دورتان می نمود و در دوران حال ن روزی خان اور می و ده کی ده ماست برف realing ا و المرور و در

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Englisch LK Abitur 2021

Englisch LK Abitur 2021

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Englisch LK Abitur 2021

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Cloning
therapeutic clon'ing
manipulation of stem cells
to develop into tissues
or whole
needed,
definition
-process of producing
genetic

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- Cloning therapeutic clon'ing manipulation of stem cells to develop into tissues or whole needed, definition -process of producing genetically identical cells and organisms 9 Organs f.e. for transplants ->in this process an embrye is destroyed books Brave New World (1932): In a futuristic world, inhabited by genetically modified and artificially created humans who are divided into an intelligence based social hierarchy; one person discovers a natural toon human in a reservation and risks the entire social structure. Six Waves (2017): cloning in literature and movies ->has been a popular topic in science-fiction movies in 1979 and books in 1932 play in the future or in a different world is deal with cloning in a dystopian or destructive way ana starship from earth to Artemis six clones who are in charge of overseeing the journey and that are continually reclosed and reimprinted with updated with the memories they make, wake up one day and find the whole crew murdered and the ship off course. Now they have to find the perpetrator. -infertile people or same-sex couples could have children made from clared cells cell cloning could assist scientists in editing and research reproductive cloning transplantation of a cloned embryo into a uterns for development and natural birth -> most countries have forbidder this type of cloning for humans cloning: famous cases and stories! • humans: no solid scientific evidence that anyone has cloned embryos > cases in 1998 and 2002 but never provided movies • The 6th day (2000): In a Suture world...

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a helicopter pilot is being illegally cloned by accident by a shady billionaire businessman. evidence • animals: 1979: 1st genetically identically mice - afterwards even cows, sheeps, chickens 1996: Dolly the 6-year old sheep. ->now: cats, dogs, horses, mules, rabbits, rats + pros деле •Replicas (2018): A neuroscientist tries to bring his family back to life after they died in a car accident by violating the law and bibethics - cons could be a violation of the clone's individual human rights - the negatives of human cloning including the making of designer babies after editing or removing bad genes, cloning - cloning raises ethical and moral issues could lead engineered humans for specific traits raises the question of a human right to an exclusive identity cloning could enhance and advance human development divides society: clones and natural humans -destroyes- uniqueness of an individual Did it fail? jes parallel lives •radicalism .exclusion (no. feel welcome in 6B -british part of their identity • inclusion of first and second generations immigrants History of emigration •19th century: Europeans - Jews, Irish · 1948: non-white emigrants Lship "Empire wind rush" •1962: Commonwealth Act ( definition O -society deals with cultural diversity -members can coexist peacefully -multiculturalism expresses the view that society is enriched by preserving. respecting and encouraging cultural diversity - people from different cultures and countries live together in one society Multiculturalism Yes? •more tolerance, people get more open-minded • economy ->more opinions and perspectives •economic growth → new skills •more innovation and creativity ·more different languages •better education because of more perspectives •can lead to a more peaceful society i more acceptance •ethnic diversity enriches a country variety of culture, food, music, traditions No ? •・inequality for immigrants • cultures are very different, they cannot integrate, only exist side by side parallel Society many migrants do not want to integrate into British society - they create division " ə do not share the same values as the rest of the society I can lead to conflict and racial tension discrimination Cracism positive sides ..creates a great pluralism more open-minded and tolerant A negative side · racial discrimination •problems with illegal immiganty solutions for a multicultural society • integration "everyone should have their own religion (identity / culture •diversity: peaceful co-existance •proud of multicultural society terror attacks emerge because minority of that community do not respect these values • same values: democracy, rules of law, tolerance, equal treatment for all, respect for UK and its shared heritage areas of inequality for people of colory education: less degrees, school dropout healthcare: Less help for mental health issues, get detained more often •Giving standards: overcrowded spaces crime: feel unsafe, higher rate of prosecution employments: eam less, no managing positions higher rate of unemployment surrogate motherhood- → makes it possible for infertile couples, same sex couples or single parents to have biological children definition: a woman (the surrogate mother) bears a child for a couple unable to produce children in the usual way, usually because the wife is infertile or otherwise unable to undergo pregnacy. traditional surrogate Surrogate donates her eggs Surrogate is the biological mother of the child altruistic surrogacy Surrogate does not receive payment surrogate is in most cases a family member or a close friend of the intended parents embryos are created with the egg from the intended mother or surrogate and sperm from the intended father or donor ->parents have full legal custody of the child after birth XX methods gestational surrogate -> eggs are from the biological mother -> more common than traditional surrogacy Commercial surrogacy • Surrogate receives a compensation • intended parents agree to cover medical costs, travel expenses, etc. • Surrogate is usually found through an agency INFORMATION Not all countries allow surrogacy, f.e. Germany, and if they do, they sometimes do not allow every kind of it. For example they allow gestational but not traditional or only allow altruistic but not commercial. In some countries it is only possible for heterosexual couples to have a child through surrogacy while others also allow it for homosexual couples but not for single parents. famous Kim Kardashian and Kanye West Kim and Капус already had two chithren and decided to become parents again. But doctors advised her to not get pregnant because of preeclampsia, so they hired a Surrogate mother. She already had two high-risk-pregnancys, becoming pregnant again would be life threatening for her and her child + pros Jimmy Fallon Jimmy and his wife Nancy do not have children carried out by Nancy. After multiple attempts of trying to become pregnant, they decided to hire a surrogate mother and were so happy with her that they let her carry out a second child for them. - A enables same-sex couples to have children creates a long term happiness Surrogate mother feels good cases or stories for helping someone enables parents to have children even though they naturally could not have any Robbie Williams After becoming parents of two children in the natural way, Robbie and his wife Ayda hired a surrogate mother because Ayola was not able to carry a child anymore becourse of fertility problems. She gave them their 3 and 4th child. cons - child has no clear parents -Surrogate mother may be attracted to the child and wants to keep it - very expensive (why not adopting a child) - complex procedure complicated legal system can create legal and emotional issues - there are parents who do not want the child if it is disabled genetics • Science of genetics aims to identify which features of an organism are inherited and researches how these features pass from generation to generation genetic engineering •direct manipulation of an organism's/genes using biotechnology genetic make-up • helps to prevent/cure illnesses/ diseases, like cancer or diabetes •a new generation with smarter, stronger and better looking humans development in technology and Science 'new ways in recreation of humans 4 •manipulates the human's nature • more risks than chances ·less individuality health and environmental risks Social and economic risks changes in society • creation of biological weapons reduction of biodiversity •against natural balance ↳ ♥ 6 Science • tries to describe and explain phenomena of the natural world and make predictions of future developments • applied Science: concentrates on research which directly leads to new inventions; gains scientific knowledge for developing new devices, machines and innovative technologies L> improving our lives and solving problems science and technology • Savior siblings children who are artificially conceived and selected by their parents in order to help a sick sibling with their appropriate genetic material artificially created embryos from the union of different genetic material => process: 1) women takes medication will be produced 2) several eggs 3) the eggs are fertilized-produce embryjas 4) the embryos will be andysed for genetic defects and tissue compatibility 5) the healthy embryo are then placed in the uterus 6) after Smonths a healthy child is bom 7) as soon as the child is born, the umblicial cord blood can be transfered sick child -> becomes healthy • Simplified everyday life communicate faster and easier • online shopping • payment became much more convenient-> online banking •development in technology medicine to cure diseases • new jobs / professions •reshaping school education becoming environmentally friendly • Lose privacy "no safe place in the internet personal data selled for ads •fake news, sabotages •many jobs will disappear •steal certain properties, replaces humankind-speople get laży climate change • gap between rich and poor will be wider 6 •waste, pollution, unwanted by products ✓ What should not be done: • perfect child •designer babies Lsplay God • healing more than one disease at selecting a child / embryo Lykilling other embryos all have right to live access information Data Ly privacy data protection issue designer babies de finition A designer baby is one whose gename has been selected or altered, often to'indude a specific дече от to remove genes associated with a disease it is legal and officially used in China in America are researches allowed same countries allow only the choice of the gender -> whether it should be a boy or girl other countries do not allow this technology method: →→> woman takes hormones which are responsible for making the egg. during the menstrual cycle, a woman produces one egg per month this egg is removed from the ovary of the woman with the help of a special needle -> the egg is fertilized in the laboratory > Sertilization occurs only when sperm enters the egg →> the fertilized egg is allowed to grow for two days ↳during this time, the fertilized egg divides into 8 cells -> all identical to each other this is the embryo -> Scientists remove one of the fertilized embryo and test it for various diseases 4 if a genetic disorder appears, they get replaced with healthy genes -> through in-vitro-fertilization • famous cases: Chinese twins lulu and Nana were edited as embryos (2019) -> man was HIV-positive and the woman uninfected -> in-vitro fertilization with sperm and eggs from the couples and then introduced a mutation into the genomes of the embryos →> the mutation had integrated into some cells but not all 1) suggesting the offspring wouldn't be entirely protected against HIV pros -preselected features of baby • improvement of special genes " cure hereditary diseases ·battle deadly diseases extend lifespan •decrease rate of birth defects treat genetic disorder •new advancements in medicine /science matches , more отдал parents decision /have a right to choose • will lead to improvement of the whole Species ·moral obligation to give the child the best life possible cons Safety concerns ethiical dilemma reduce diversity •new social classes eventually divides society encourages genetic doping •vidation of the children's rights hamms mother and children human beings should not play God • human seen as products or objects • the human gene pool may be damaged nich people would be at an advantage "Super humans" may look down on normal humans "imperfect humans" would be discriminated • more experiments on human beings •more discrimination and bullying studying abroad • Language learning -improving language skills -daily interactions with native speakers leaming by doing bilingual / multilingual •cultural leaming cultural immersion -toderance becoming open-minded making first hand experiences T •individual growth - overcoming fears -stepping out of one's confort zone -gaining confidence becoming independent /self-reliant -gaining new skills through experiences - possible problems for ethnic minorities. while studying abroad - racism -discrimination -being an attraction due to their ethnicity and looks - not finding a place to live due to prejudices making friends could be difficult - inappropriate comments •making negative experiences Volunteerism & Voluntarism • Volunteerism: a person uses his/her time and skills to contribute a community without receiving any payment has become more popular in the past years > some people combine being a volunteer with spending some time abroad Voluntourism: a combination of volunteering and sightseeing 4) not really beneficial for communities Since "voluntarists" only spend a relatively short time in the communities world of work Gap Year describes the period between two important stages in the life of young people pros:-independence, self-confidence -get more and new skills experiences and memories - becoming flexible -Soft skills will be better - you don't loose time getting a personal insight into other cultures -improving language skills -experience other educational systems new friends ・improving one's career opportunities cons: no difference between someone doing a gap year and someone who didn't challenges women = still disadvantaged •gap between rich and poor Some professions aren't paid well, like farmers in developing countries: working conditions, like mental and physical abuse when they fail, not paid well, too many workers in one room, no access to a toilet or water (food, not enough space, a lot of them aren't even skilled workers, even children work, working many hours a day - bad infrastructure not all transports are possible developed countries only profit from then Hard and Soft Skills •Hard Skills! aquired, leaned abilities or gained knowledge (through practice, education, repetition) - niea sureable and testable, •Specific knowledge in certain qualifications; ability to speak a language Soft Skills: -personal qualities, habits, attitudes, Social graces that make a person compatible to work with ↳f.e. are you adaptable, creative, a beamplayer, etc. GM food definition genetic modified food is grown from genetically modified crops that have undergone a specific change in their genes advantages 6 . cheaper - more and better control over the crop - food can be eliminated successfully that causes allergies / allergic reactions - easier for the farmers because of the natural resistance to pests and insects ·bacteria have been modified to produce insulin for medical use 1st - improve a specific characteristic grow more crops on less land crops are groun for new uses historical background discovery of the DNA was in the early 1900's. 1970's: scientists found out that there are genes in food method/technique ->genes decide on how tall a plant can grow and what it is immuune to • 1994: the first commercialized GM crop. was a tomato called Flaus Saur -> genetic modification changes the gene of the plant (aganism), which changes the characteristics of the plant -> Starts by injecting a different gene from a separate organism into the plant's oungenes Lit was resistant to rotting > was marketed by the US-based company Calgene • 1995: the tomato wasn't a commercial success and its production was stopped legal in: the USA, Brazil, example: com is the most grown crop in the U.S.; most of it is GMO ↳ GMO com is created to resist insect pests or tolerate herbicides Canada, India, etc. illegal in: Germany, France, Greece, etc. disadvantages -could increase the risk of cancer - could cause the development of new diseases -is not tested long enough to prove that there are no harmful side effects -health, environmental, social and ecomical nisks - foreign genes in genetic codes - a gene gun is used to burn the plant -crops are made to get more Money unnatural process characteristics of plants are artificial character map Romeo & Juliet Abraham Balthasar Lady Montague •emotions Montague Romeo Cousins friend House of Mantaguе • House of Capulet uncle/ Mercutio Benvolio / Friend Clove Romed's and Juliet's deep love for each other nephew Servants friends hope the lovers hope that their parents do not Sind out about their relationship Prince Escalus the Prologue Ga Shakespearean somet cousins Pans hatred Montagues and Capulets hate each other Friar Lawrence 1 Friar John "royals" • church (tradegy) the lovers die in the end vengeance Raneo takes revenge for his friend's death by killing Tybalt Samson, Gregory Cord. Capulet 1 -open questions for the audience: Why are the families fighting? How do they die? How do the lovers meet? - details the audience don't know: arranged mamiage Juliets fake death Nurse nephew Juliet om Tybalt /servant Cousins Friend servant Peter Lady Capulet jaunt/ Petruccio ->1st quatrain: families get intraduced, setting is mentioned, background of the tragic love story →> 2nd quatrain: tragic ending of a love story between members of these two families; the children. die and that finally ends the fighting of the two households →> 3rd quatrain the play will show how the death of the Lovers leads to the reconciliation of the two families conclusion: Though the drama was written a long time ago, a modem audience can still understand it as emotions like Love, hatred, etc. seem to belong to human beings, are part of their nature. The audience can feel empathy for the characters, understand them and compare their situation to their own. → rhyming or concluding couplet pair rhyme; audience is now directly addressed; is asked to be patient with the actors, appreciate the actors hard work; asked to give attention to the play don't know about the message Romeo doesn't receive banishment of Romeo •Structure ㅍ II rising action I Exposition • Shakespeare's language ->Prose -> Verse III climax IV falling action I catastrophe happy ending ordinary speech, no metric patter •visual dues printed Lines extend from the left to the right margin -Lines do not start with a capital letter ->denoument •function of prose -often used by low status characters (murderers, servants, etc.) but not as a dogmatic rule -low comedy (especially dirty jokes) often written in prose Suggests a realistic tone -Sometimes indicates madness •Sunction of rhymes - concluding a scene -hammering the point home 6 Rhymes - usually occur as rhymed couplets (aa bb cc) chyme pair in iambic pentameter called "heroic couplet" - used for highly lyrical passages; choruses, prologues, epilogues; romantic passages which are slightly over the top; supernatural beings Blank Verse -an unrhymed lambic pentameter -the standard verse in Shakespeare's plays - resembles prose in that the final words of the lines do not rhyme in any regular pattern -a recognizable metre is there : most lines are in iambic pentameter (alternating syllables: unstressed and stressed) •visual dues -printed lines do not extend from left to right margin - lines start with capital letters •Sunction of blank verse -it makes it sound more elevated, less ordinary - comes close to the natural speaking rhythms of English Timeline of his life ·born in Stratford, April 1564, as the first son of a prominent businessman maried Аппе Hathaway la 26-year old farmer's daughter) in November 1582 L1585: the twins Judith and Hamnet were bom their first child was bom six months later, named Susanna shortly afterwards he leaves his family to disappear for 7 years: the Lost Years" 1592: well established in the London •1593: first publication (a narrative poem) -1594: founding member of an acting company. -1595/96: Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer theatre world as an actor, poet and playuright Night's Dream were published -1599: The Globe Theatre is built in Landon; Shakespeare is part owner 1606: Macbeth is published •1603: Sonnets are published ♥ V 16-16: he dies, having written 38 plays 1623: the first complete collection of Shakespeare's works was published Shakespeare's language form of address: 'thou' L> was used in more informal contexts normally; the more formal wais 'you' -> powerful imagery: his scenes can be visualised easier ->his varied vocabulary + new words and sayings -> the wide range of his allusions to classical, religious and historik al icons, stories and ->he likes to use oxymorons, assonance, alliteration people -> the verb forms are different from today: 'thou art' or 'she knoweth' William Shakespeare Elizabethan theatre -originally plays were written in Latin, based on stories taken from the Bible and performed in church at church festivals Elizabethan Era •the golden age in the history of English literature • Elizabethan theatre grew, William became famous > peace, stability and prosperity + well organized and effective government "Great Chain of Being": everything was connected in a hierarchy everyone knows their duties and keeps their places gender roles and an ideal оба family religion and age were the most important things in a marriage •teenage brides were unusual afterwards theatre productions moved out of church and plays were translated into English - 1576- Landans first theatre -15 90s: going to plays was the best loved form of entertainment in London all social classes went there -acting was only open to boys & men - when Shakespeare arrived: companies wrote their own plays The Shakespearean sonnet - 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter, 1 unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed syllable stimes •3 quatrains + 1 couplet 64+4+4+2 lines •rhyme: abab cdcd •the quatrains and the couplet form dear wits in a line of argument .it contains a " turm" or a change of thought •Sonnets were very popular in the Elizabetan gentlemen used their poetic talent to show their love to their ladies •Shakespeare has written 154 Sonnets ; none of them have titles; they are ordered by numbers •Sonnets 1-126 are written to a young man, who is of high social status, his initials are w.H. (maybe непnу wriothesley) Sonnets 127-154 are about • the "Dark Lady", who causes emotional pain; she is his mistress and unfaithful to him, she is criticised for her lacks & morals geography •250 ethical groups •527 languages official language - English •1150 dialects 20 Lagos-old capital Abuja = capital since 1991 3 largest ethic groups: I Hausas -northern part -Hau Saland (largest city, greatest territory) -historical past: british colonies religion: Islam (against Christianity - Specialised: agriculture, villages colory: easily Laminated -ruler:, Emirs", absolutisin, Sharia law lifestyle: more than one wife - IT Yorubas - woman are second class citizens hierarchial miles conservative -southwestem part - 6 states with the biggest cities -historical past: slave trade religion: Islam, Christianity -values: tradition, Spirits, Gods colony: easy to abuse system -ruler: "Oba", absolute authority -lifestyle: hierarchial rules traditions polygamous model severous wives man=authority problems •poverty, orphans everywhere ->no state for help • regions have own rules, cultures, traditions •corruption, money rules everything, no laws valid colony problems, stolen history active terrorist group, f.e. Boko Haram drug addiction, child labour ·bad living conditions, water shortage • environmental pollutions, agricultural problems •high death toll from malaria industry; no skilled workers, bad working conditions Nigeria III Igbos -southeastem part -5 states -historical past: democratic process, agriculture, business -religion: Christianity -Specialised: agriculture, traids, business -colony: not easily dominated strong independant, self-thinking -values: faimess, honesty -ruler: democratic process -lifestyle: equal gender roles monogam-sone woman woman are independent african traditions Lagos ·largest city in Nigeria - from shum to metropole with education and investments many cultures overpopulation causes Organisation problems, bad infrastructure, traffic, chaos, not enough place prosperity/wealth: dreams come true, rich people, starting a new life city of optimists: work hard to be successful pros: a honest city, feel arrived chance for people who have a vision city that never sleeps •more inspiring than Abuja experience and memories Cons: crimes / criminalists like drug dealers; itual killers; day light robbers; misterious disappearances bad living conditions • a lot of dangers History 1807: slave trade was abolished 1901: Nigeria becomes a British protectorate 1958: oil extraction began in Nigeria 1st October 1960: Independence movements succeeds 1963: Nigeria becames a republic but remains a member of the Commonwealth 1967-1970: Biafra War 1975-1983: first period of Nigerian democracy Fashion industry -> fashion designess: produce expensive, high-level clothing abroad and sell it internationally criticized for the high prices; not well developed; have to produce abrood to get good quality products -> makes it even more expensive, not beneficial for Nigeria -> garment manufacturing: mass production and produce affordable clothing 4 power problems; predominant oil-industry; Lack of investments; no skilled workers; maintaining the machines -> textile industry: provides the basic material for the fashion industry 4 predominant ail-industry; problematic locally produced cotton; imports are expensive le.g. because of taxes) can not compete with other countries like China, who Sload the market Biafra War • also known as the Nigerian Givil War ·began in July 1967; ended in January 1970 •a political and ethic conflict that occurred when the Nigerian Eastem region proclaimed themselves as the Republic of Biafra •main causes: religious, cultural, economic and ethic tensions between the labss and the Hausas • ≈ 500,000 - 2 million people died by Sighting or through starvation religious and ethnic tensions are in the politics of Nigeria present Nigeria the impact of British rule Britain: trade; use of natural resources Niguia: a westem form of education; federal republic after their independence; better infrastructure, transport; new forins об сommunication English as "lingua franca -Britain: oppressed the Nigrians; exploited their natural resources Nigerian: Loss of their own traditions; religion were affected; chief's lost their traditional authority; Loss of tribal, native language; Biafra war after their independence; no trust in the government; not much experience with democratic structures, diversity of the country and tribal structures > Education - only 297. gaduate from Secondary School on time • 10,5 million Nigerian children are out of school • even is they go to school, many do not leam much ·lack of teachers, too many people 449 students per teacher •problem of illiteracy •Young Nigerians struggle with unemployments · Significantly less educated people in the North •government does not spend enough money on education children work with parents oil-industry cil extraction started in 1958 oil fields in Niger Delta Area Nigerians depend on the oil-industry oil prices-crash помер crash eamed mony is used to pay off debts has no infrastructure to refine its aut oil international companies sell it abroad; Nigeria has to import the refined oil back which costs billions of dollars positive: oil & gas industry make more than 60% of the economic capital: more workplaces; international Companies invest in local infrastructure negative: bad working conditions; educational and health Support is limited; environmental impact->pollution, water and food supply are destiayed, organized criminal gangs damage the pipes in order to steal the oil; problems to find work for young generations History of United Kingdom/ • England, Scotland, Wales & Ireland . are independent countries •1301: son of English King becomes Prince of Wales •1535: Kingdom of Ireland was founded by Hering III 1542: wales is fully annexed by England ·1604: King of Scotland is King of England too 1707: Union of Scotland and England • 1801: Founding of "United Kingdom of Great. Britain and Ireland" • 1807: UK abolished slave trade 19# century: UK becomes the most powerful nation Lindustrialisation <colonies -1914-1918: 1st World War Luk is one of the four victorious powers -1919-1924: Irish шат of independence Anglo-irish treaty L 26 of 32 insh countries became independent Lirish free state was founded -1939-1945: 2 nd World War Battle of Britain . 1973: UK joined EU - 20th century: UKs colonies gained independence 1998: Scotland, Wales and Ireland have own Law-making institutions ->devolution -2002: UK refuses to introduce EURO • 2014: Referendum for Scotlands independence (Scotland Stays in ak • 2020: Brexit LUK Leaves EU Brexit -> means that Britain exits from the EU 2016: Brexit begins 2017: Brexit neogotiantions between UK and Ell 2018: Exit agreement is published and endorsed by the EU 2019: UK's Parliament rejects exit delay until 31st October, 2019 and 31st January, 2020 2020: Britain officially leaves the Ell in January 2021: 1) free trade agreements 2) Britain leaves the Ell's regulatory frame- works completely Great Britain monarchy •oldest form of government •tenture lasts a lifetime ↳ last coronation 2nd June 1952 constitutional monarchy is limited monarchy, parlamentary system, must follow constitution monarch is head of Armed Forces I has power to declare was and sign treaties makes and passes legislation with an elected Parliament Lexclusively acts under the advise of Prime Minister + pros •Control about borders Q Migration can be controlled Lless refugees in ak •UK pays 350 million pounds per week to the Ell (more money for Uk ・independence political, economical, social decisions ·more jobs for British people and not for foreigness cons ·less stability and safety collaboration with Ell could be difficult in future possibly losing Scotland less influence on the rest of the world -isolation •expensive goods "Losing jobs because many companies will move to other countries Britishness -national identity of all British countries + successful nation-state Britain is more inclusive than England • Royal family and tradition •no respect for the different cultures .no equality The royals + represent the country has no political power tradition - chooses the Prime Minister only one family has the power expensive lifestyle Stability, safety Supports the country A Commonwealth •54 equal and independent member states 1/4 of the world's masses 2,4 billion citizens • 1/3 of world's population • foundation O - Belfare Declaration 1926 -officially on 11th December 1931 head is the monarch • Commonwealth games every 4 years • interests: free trade equality world peace liberty human rights their lifestyle •no privacy •ruled by family political duties 6 • very high expectations * cannot choose what they want to do monarch head of state with symbolic duties, fe. State opening of Parliament Great Cabinet Prime Minister and about 20 senior ministers Britain appoints •collectively responsible for government policy Social classes ·typical 3-class system now only applies to 39% of the population in GB 67-class system instead •a class is made up of three components: economic, social and cultural capital 1. Elite: most privileged group, wealthy, highest level of all three capitals appoints 2. Established: second wealthiest, largest and most prosperous group f middle class middle class 4. new affluent : workers 3. technical: small but prosperous group, low for social and cultural capital because of its social isolation and cultural apathy young group, socially and culturally active, middling levels of economic capital connected the political system Prime Minister • leader of the Party that won the election •can end a parliament •sets dates of general election connected Parliament I House of Commons about 650 MPS one for each constituency election at least every 5 years makes final decisions about proposed laws II House of Lords second parliament chamber ↳ 4 types of members Law Lords Bishops life queers, elected her ditary peers Tvote All British people over 18 5. traditional: Scores low on all farms of capital, members have high house values though arban group, relatively poor, high social and cultural capital 6. emergent: new and young service workers 7. precarious: most poorest and deprived class proletariat scoring low on all forms of capital American Dream keywords of the American Dream -> success, becoming rich and famous ->slogan: "from rags to riches" > for example: Amdd Schwarzenegger; born in Europe (Austria), emigrated to the US; was good at fitness and body building but after some time he became an actor and a famous celebrity, then he became a politician →equality; personal and religious freedom -> declaration of independence → independence sindividuality -> everyone can achieve his goals with hard work immigration : escaping from poverty and oppression, hope for a better life •→religion: Puritans came to America to live their religion democracy and justice → peace: no difference between people with different skincolour, origin gender or age, religion and culture →liberty; america promises "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness"," Declaration of independence: 3 rights of every person which governments have to protect Keywords of the American Nightmare -> failure, no hard work means failing in reaching your goals -> poverty; a lot of people are poor in America -> inequality: people of poor families can not go to university and do the job they want; mostly people out of academic and rich families get rich and achieve their goats in life ->racism / racial segregation: even though black people have rights because of the civil rights movement, they still live seperated from whites, ghettos and are mostly раёт → Sighting and rioting because of inequality, whites feeling superior than blacks → slavery has a big impact even though it's deep in the history of America, blacks are still fighting for freedom and individuality -> the dream stays a dream, a lot of people live in poverty and nowadays it is much harder to become rich famous persons -> Martin Luther King Jr. -became famous because of the civil rights movement in the 1950'/60's - he was the leader of the Montgovery movement and held one of the most famous speeches with an big impact nowadays - his speech considered the other american dream, namely the Black Dream' and starts with "I have a dream..." - he wanted to make clear that the promised freedan has not been achieved for black americans i references the US constitution and Declaration of Independence which declared America would be a land of freedom where all men are created equal L> was a monumental event in the civil rights movement and one of the largest peaceful protests in the world -> Malcolm X - was bom as Malcolm little but he changed his last name in prison because he started to be a member of the Nation of Islam and they considered little as a slave name is the teachings of the Nation of Islam (Nol) were that white society worked to keep the African Americans from empowering themselves and achieving success I after some difficulties between him and the leader of the Organization, he left and founded his own organization called the Organization of Afro-American Unity. •Some members of NOI Girebombed his house and luckily the family escaped -one week later: 3 gunmen rushed Malcolm on stage and killed him with 15 gunshots is the gunmens were identified as members of Nor -after his death he impacted people and is known as one of the most important activists of the civil rights movement famous documents -> Bill of Rights - created in 1789 - makes sure that individual rights are guaranteed in the Constitution (because in 1787 (when the Constitution was written) there was not said much about individual rights - they created 10 amendments to the Constitution 6 that makes 27 amendments but the first 10 are collectively known as the Bill of Rights -> Declaration of Independence - was ratified on the 4th of July 1776 -says that Americans were no longer under British rule - before 1776: USA was not a country; the individeral states were colonies of the British colonies is americans had to pay taxes to Great Britain; they had no one to speak for them in the parliament - they wanted the right of having freedom of speech and equality for men and women - they formed a Continental Congress and chosed one person to write a document that would become the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson was picked to write it Ghis document says what the government should and should not do what people's rights are and lists specific bad things that the British government did to the colonies the document had some changes and was then approved - every 4th of July the americans celebrate the Independence Day says that every person in the US has the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness & that the government has to listen to its own people => this made America a free independent country -it famous monuments -> Statue of Liberty - stands on Liberty Island in New York Harbor -was a gift from France; was dedicated on October 28, 1886 - one of the most iconic symbols of the USA -official name: Liberty Enlightening the world also called Mother of Exiles -represents the freedom and liberty of the US democracy -the torch represent the enlightment of the world; the broken chains symbolize the US breaking free from tyranny; the tablet she is holding represents the law and has 'July 4,1776' inscribed on it; the crown has 7 rays which represent the 7 countries and 7 seas of the world 4 The New Colluses by Emma Lazarus -a poem engraved on a plate and mainted on a wall inside the pedestal а of the Statue of Liberty -it starts with pointing out that in the old world people couldn't live in freedom and were afraid (f.e. the first settlers who came to america for a better life) -it symbolizes trust and power; gives people hope for a better life - welcomes everyone, guides people; open for everyone and embraces immigrants with open arms -gives people the feeling of safety and the ability to live in freedam -feeling to have a perspective in life Civil Rights Movement - is about african americans in the 1950's and 1960's u fought for equality and liberty situation then :- black people hadn't the same rights as whites just because of their skin colour -whites had prejudies against blacks -a lot of discrimination and racial segregation, for example black children couldn't go to university or blacks had to sit at the back of the bus => lived divided /seperated and were seen as the second class citizens -movement started in 1950 61955: Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in a bus for a white men is this act of protest started a boykott of the bus system -the leader of the demonstrating movernment was Martin Luther King Jr. -the protest named 'Montgomery boykott was very important for the blacks - a lot of blacks were encouraged to protest for their civil rights but many were put into prison -1963: King hold the most popular speech in history named "I have a dream" Swanted the government to take action against segregation, racial and social discrimination -1964: the government passed a law which gave blacks and whites the same rights => called "Guil Rights Act" 4 gave same opportunities forbade discrimination and protected their nights Black Dream - also known as the "other american dream" -started with the Civil rights movement and especially with the speech "I have a dream" by M.L.King who wished equality in the United States ->Did it came true? there have been a lot of developments after the c.r. movement, like more freedom, less racial segregation, better chances in life and more black-owned businesses still a lot of racism, f.e. the famous case of George Floyd getting killed by white police officers •the biggest group of poverty and prison-inmates are still blacks blacks have lower chances for good jobs because they can't pay university D => a lot of changes are needed in society: whites shouldn't be afraid of blacks blacks should open up and make it possible to interact together M. L. King: "We must leam to live together as brothers or perish together as fools" The American Dream: its origin -started with the first settlers who arrived in North America is group was called 'the Pilgrim Fathers and contained man, woman and children Some of them were members of the English Separatists Church; that's a radical fraction of Puritarism that wished to seperate from Church of England -> the seperation from Church wasn't allowed and the people were put in jail for their beliefs -their reasons for leaving: live their religion freely, have a better life they started to flee because they thought they are "gods chosen people" and guided to the "promised land" the promised land was America: it was seen as beautiful because of the variety, they had fields, normal landscapes, mountains and seas ↳ the fields were furtile => they could plant food - America was a chance to live in peace, harmony, brotherhood, freedom and democracy -> it gave them much more opportunities than they ever had the concept of melting pot and salad baul -> melting pot is like assimilation -> was used first to describe the U.S. -people mix with different persons and their cultures > Loosing own part of identity to build/create a new person is they give up their old identity because they had a bod past, for example lived under oppression -> Salad bowl is like integration->replaces the first idea and describes US nowadays i different people live together in peace without giving up their own identity; they mix their cultures 6 for example New York: people live in different areas with their ethnicities, like Chinatown Immigration Process 1. wave settlers, mostly english colonists, came to the new land to enjoy freedom 2. wave: time of industrial revolution, mostly irish and german people; over 2 million inish people gled to America because of potato famine; germans came to America in search for political freedom and work 3.wave: 20th centung, people glee because of wars (ww I and WWII) -> New immigrants: refugees ->can gain legal status -> Illegal immigrants migration is really expensive, difficult and dangerous undocumented people have no chance for legal entry historical periods - Globalization 1.0 ~1492-1800 - Columbus set sail -opening trade between the Old World and New World -shrank the world from size large to medium driving global integration -dynamic force: countries globalizing by European and American individuals and businesses Globalization 2.0 ~1800 2000 - shrank world from size medium to small -1. half: powered by falling transportation costs - 2. half: pavered by falling telecommunication costs companies globalizing - global market was bor -) by European and American individuals and businesses . Globalization 3.0 entering 2000 -shrinking the world from size Small to tiny and flattering -dynamic force new found poter for individuals to collaborate and compete globally Sempowering individuals -driven by much more diverse groups of individuals - many people are able to plug in and play de finition. -> a process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale -> benefit from one another -> development in economy, politics and culture ->exchange of interests and ideas • aspects: economy, politics, environment, culture, population, education, society, technology, media, relationships and communication Globalization Cons: - bad working conditions changes are too fast speople aren't prepared (0₂ => bad for the environment -flow of activities is so fast that many people suffer from stress and stress-related health problems "flexibility of companies - shining and firing becomes easier global warming weather: world heats up. extreme weather, number of natural disasters has more than doubled up • health: a lot of people die as a direct result of global warming •polarice: shortening of the snow seasory melting of polarice and permafrost -technology replaces humans-ploss of jobs - inequality has grown -> gap between dich and poor gets wider middle class is shrinking > growth of poverty unemployment rise of sea level biodiversity: pushes species out of their habitats destroys diversity of species pros: -connection all over the world through internet & social media -exchange between countries and people -Modem technologies and new inventions development - easy trade, better transport politic cooperations ·more jobs -time and space are no more a barier companies get interlinked and independent -major increase in internaticinal investments - more individualism - good education -cultures become closer -societies benefit from one another -Sight global challenges together -reach goals faster Utopia ft An imaged place or state of things in which everything is perfect. -> definition: everyone has a right for everything nobody is poor -> enough money everything is perfect and the best freedom equality no discrimination, racism, terror Esoptimistic about Suture Society -> examples: equality Freedom wealth healthcare paradise-like education for everyone classless peaceful government nothing is bad and both deal with elements that are not possible today, but they are already imagineable in our everyday life books ->Brave New World -> 1984 -> the Circle -> the Giver -> Utopia -> Fahrenheit 451 what do they have in common? ->characteristics of science- fiction and fantasy ->set in a futuristic world or a whole new world →> technology used to create perfect humans / living conditions -> focus on psychology and emotions Dystopia "An imaged state of society in which there is great suffering or injustice." -> definition: antithesis of the Utopian society control over the society-sabsolutism state no individuality no freedom no equality everything is worse; hopeless pessimistic about Suture society ->examples: Sickness War poverty absolute control by the government. dehumanized world terrorism Cimited freedom no individuality ruled by dictator, military brainwashing, propaganda •by Aldous Leonard Huxley, 1932 •Setting: Set in "Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre" L34 storeys in 632 A.F. (after Ford) • structure of the society: 5 castes ·motto: "Community, identity, stability" • atmosphere: cold, artificial, dead, sterile, scientific, not colourful, grey Brave New World • reproduction: artificial way of reproductial, babies grow in hatcheries •people / students - write everything down they hear -> believe what's said, get convinced •Social life / behaupeople do their jobs, do not stop work → of it -want to develop (example: Mr. Foster) ・relationships: no real love, no deeper relationships, just sex •ways of controlling people: conditioning (achieving stability sleep-teaching or hypnopaedia Social criticism •government: Mustapha Mand -> one of the ten controllers > totalitarian State is difference in intelligence and outward appearance no possibility to change the caste-> embryos are manipulated > people produced to fulfill certain tasks / jobs in the society is can be easily controlled this way religion /belief: they worship Ford •Betas - Gammas the society •Alphas represent the intellectually superior group. who run the factory; the highest social class and are further subdivided into Plus, Minus or Double-Plus ·Deltas Epsilons (black) (Henry Ford → seen as the inventor of mass production) have adequate intelligence living similarly to Alphas but their positions require Less thinking are semi-skilled workers; low-risk professionals or experts at repetitive tasks are mass-produced (literally-genetically. created twins) who lack individurality and tend to menial jobs are mass-produced; can't read or write; work undesireable jobs like and foundry-worker's 'semi-morons jobs like sewage labor. i are referred to as 5 caste system Alphas Betas Gammas Deltas Epsilons Dystopian Elements and Characteristics •Stories are often about survival •primary themes: oppression and rebellion • important role: the environment • takes place in large cities devastated by pollution • there is a back story of war, revolutions, overpopulation, other disasters • features from reality and discusses them, not society in general • takes place in the future, but are about today or yesterday •strict division of the citizens by intellect, ability and class no social group except the State or such social groups are under government control •independent religions don't exist, but there is a personality cult • institution of family has been eradicated->children reproduced artificially A or are to spy on parents powerlessness of the individuals, corutal government run by a totalitarian dictatorship or massive bureaucratic institutions Societies are being monitored, betrayed or manipulated hero alevays questions society although he/she is usually in a high-standing within the social system; sees what is wrong and tries to change the system. •technology to manipulate: sleep teaching, electro shock the apy • the goal: 1) escape 2) destruction of the society's principals is but he/she fails in his intentions to change anything, sometimes they themeles end up changed to conform to the society's mile Compared to BNW •the state's means to make the people happy and avoiding them to question the system. ->conditioning -sleep teaching/hypnopaedia -> soma (drug →>different free-time activities -> sexual recreation -> Satisfaction of basic human desires/needs Consumerism -> work = feeling worthy and useful is keeping them busy →> the caste system = feeling good in your position in the society rde of sex: -> no real relationship between sex and love or any deep emotion → free-thought and fear of death do not exist is sexual and reproductive habits: children play erotic games in the hatchery and ->as adults sex is kind of entertainment conditioning centre > Promiscuity is celebrated in different ways -> in the 'Feelies' and cerenamies they use sex to make people happy -> World State controls everything whether women are sterilized or not women who are not: have to use "contraceptives" to not get pregnant -> they exclude people who get pregnant the natural way sexample: John was born in the reservation, he got a book of Shakespeare's complete works as a young boy and thinks that he has to work for a woman to get her love and have sex with her (f.e. with Lening: he falls in love, but do not want sex, while lening is under influence of soma, which leads her to convince John to have sex with her) Macbeth characters Duncan: King of Scotland 86 Malcolm: Duncan's elder son and his heir en Fleance: Banquo's son Macduff: Thane of Fife The weird Sisters Donalbain: Duncan's younger son Macbeth: general in the Army, Thane of Glamis * Lady Macbeth: Macbeth's wife, later Queen of Scotland consident -> Banque: Macbeth's friend, any general d wbum 2'supro Collabor carejuud their development -> represents orderess -> represents order نے کی روایات سے والا ہے اسے انسان را برتر ده ترین دور سے بات reasonable -> insane consident desperate persecuted persecutor *Later: Thane of Caudor CM Japs of my fusio brsbrist- King of Scotland (ronis) E DAZ- cons:- is a good king and person Plot ->Act 1 (Exposition) devoted -> vengeful الله • The tragedy of Macbeth Macbeth receives a prophecy that he will be king Ls Lady Macbeth encourages him to commit regicide Duncan is killed and his sons flee Macbeth becomes king shines murderers to secure his rule -> goes insane > Macbeth receives another prophecy about his death styramical rule leads to rebellion led by Macduff 4₂ Macbeth is killed by Macduff Susah pon DENDA E • Arguments Macbeth gives for lagainst murdering the king pro: - he wants to be the king, success; has ambitions to be king - his wife supports him is he doesn't kill him, he won't be a man - would be okay if it was without consequences - innocent: the king is invited and isn't expecting to be killed - he should be the one who protects the king and not the one killing him -the experience will haunt him ~will be punished by god after he dies -doesn't know how to cover the murder -the weird Sisters announce Macbeth his prophecy, including becoming king Lady Macbeth Sinds out and tries to convince Macbeth to commit regicide -> Act 2 Inising action) -Macbeth is confronted with the hallucination of a bloody dagger - Lady Macbeth decides to take charge of the deed, Duncan and servants are killed -Duncan's sons flee to England and Theland respectively, Macbeth is crowned king -> Act 3 (climax) - Banquo and Fleance reinvited to a royal banquet in order to be killed Banquo's murder succeeds, Fleance escapes - Macbeth is haunted by visions of Banquo's ghost and suddenly Loses self-control تاكسat مورد Lady Macbeth takes over and tells the guests to leave -> Act 4 (falling action) the Weird Sisters announce Macbeth another prophecy, including warnings - by command of Macbeth, Macduff's wife and children are killed in his castle -> Act 5 (resolution) - Lady Macbeth starts sleepwalking, tries to clear her conscience and commits suicide -Malcolm and Macduff join forces against Macbeth, which concludes in a battle ܐܘܗܘ ܘܠܘ ܟܘܝ ܚܓ ܠܡb ܣܘܢܐ ܛ ܝ ܗܠܥܐ ܕܠܠܘܥܢܐ - اسداران انسان موت اور ان کو ایک ایران برای ما با سر و صریح له ی دوم خود ان ادرار بر روی دریا اور خون ماروك رین استان روانی دانه ای در مرنے کا نام کار لی رات دولة من ديسون برد بالای سایت ایران ب المال رام الات مصرية وادارة وزير العام المقام ای بر سلامت انسانی في الامن والام في الارادة الله البنت استمال لام سات ام انسان کو سر کرنے ارٹ سی اے نے سعودی اروم سے puid sdh at the ے کی انسان ها دار نے اسے lethed ed of persigue turi pas behsal et paid salt wird prillid ene end In bao gut and chustorg انی و مالی اداری است و کار کیا اور اس المودار سازمان را مورد اون بول الحصار انسان الا المطور ام ان را بار اور steiger اباره اولاد و سیاه خار مر الخلافات السير ور در پرست اما الان راام دورتان می نمود و در دوران حال ن روزی خان اور می و ده کی ده ماست برف realing ا و المرور و در