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Gender issues, gender roles

14.11.2022

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Gender issues
- gender isn't only determined by the sex you were born with -> gender is a social construct being held up by society
and its
Gender issues
- gender isn't only determined by the sex you were born with -> gender is a social construct being held up by society
and its

Gender issues - gender isn't only determined by the sex you were born with -> gender is a social construct being held up by society and its values/ norms - Gender is a construct people try to identify with because they have been taught to do so since they were little - existing attributes for a "typical, good woman" and a "typical man" -> still existing in our minds, we tend to try to fulfil and follow these -> recently radical change in society -gender roles are constantly on a change, especially for woman traditional ideals regarding gender roles Male goes to work - earns the money, successful - family relies on him financially - responsible for upholding economic status of family - powerful - ambitious, hard working - protects wife and family. - no weakness, emotions, feeling Has woman's role changed as much as people believe? YES - are equal before the law, allowed to vote - a lot more stay-at-home- dads - women have successfully started to enter fields of the workforce that was previously occupied by men only female > womens right movements already improved living situation and gender roles of women significantly -> but they are still seen as beneficial and desirable within non- western communities, conservatives, religious households - jobs in higher positions - female quote in sports has grown -stays at home to take care...

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of the children - typical housewife (taking care of cleaning, cooking ironing, washing) -responsible for happiness of husband - pretty, dressed up - loyal, caring - need protection from husband weak, full of feeling, very emotional obedient (gehorsam) NO - in many non-western societies, women have almost no rights at all - women still get paid less for doing the same job - still must do most childcare and household -men occupy most top positions in fields like politics and management Toxic masculinity - Men also suffer under expectations society has for them - social pressure to endorse traditional masculine male models -> if they don't fit the certain ideal of being "masculine" and "muscular" or doing "manly" things or show emotions -> mostly by other male peers Womens suffer - suffer constantly under the ideals of society - even though standards of beauty seem to have changed a lot compared to recent years -> still hard for woman to exist if she dosn't own up to the people on the billboards - don't get harassed and bullied as much by peers but they drown themselves in self-hatred - high expectations on themselves -> ideals of society are harmful to both men and women, wound everyone who doesn't fit the standard - increase in campaigns celebrating peoples bodies/ diversities who don't fit the stereotype of an "ideal body/face". - people who don't fit the standard often feel excluded or self-conscious. Gender on TV, in advertisements gender advertisement: depict stereotypical gender roles -> give a glimpse into a world laden with socially defined gender relations, displays, roles ("commercial realism") -> used to establish the role of one gender in relation with the other - - media and body image closely related - body image advertising portrays. affects our own body image (subconsciously) - advertising is a tool to maintain certain social constructions (gender) - advertisers present advertising world in ways it could be real (they don't look strange to us, when they should) -> hyper ritualisation of the world -> take something that exists already and change it, emphasise and de- emphasise some things - set unrealistic expectations for teens about physical appearances by using idealised models - represented in traditional roles (mothers, nurses, housewives) good women: submissive, sensitive - - bad women: rebellious, independent - less older people shown, losing their looks/ less attractive - certain way of showing the different genders > men with facial shots, detailed hand shots > women with full body shots (objectified) Masculinity in advertising - standing upright - eyes open, looking around - adventurous - mean face expression - gripping things tingly with hands - serious, brave - physically active and strong - mens bodies used more often in advertising representation of bodies are often irrespective of their relevance to the product -> most not ordinary but of strong, bodybuilders -> men as sex objects - Endomorphs (soft and round bodies) are rarely depicted (when then as object of humour). Femininity in advertising - touching self caring - lying on the floor, submissive - powerless sitting on bed/ chair - confused, vulnerable - sexy, sexually available - playful