Zusammenfassung über die Globalisation
GLOBALISATION Definition process of increasing increasing global global conformity (bereinstimmung) Lo with with regard to cultural, economical & technical convergences • often seen as an unstoppable process, affecting people all around the globe economic globalization: companies produce in countries where the costs incurred are lowest, focusing on profit, efficiency and speed technological globalization: mobile communication through technological innovations enables international exchange Simplifies communication & interaction With foreign speakers due to the lingua franca English •= Westernisation ? cultural globalization: spreading of cultural characteristics, which are expressed e.g. in sports, fashion, art, food or music; religions also belong to it Lo no matter they live in industrial- ized or developing countries, in big Cities or rural villages internal trade of goods, capital and services Globalisation THERE ARE ALWAYS TWO SIDES TO A COIN * due to increased mobility, diseases (COVID-19) can easily spread all around the globe, developing into a pandemic *the latest financial crisis, starting in USA in 2008, shows that a crisis which starts in one country will ultimately affect other countries as well,, as businesses are linked and global trade is the rule a) "The world until yesterday" an American person shares his experiences with the New Guinea's. lifest le changed from 1931 to 2006). compares it with American Lifestyle America: (beer bellies) time pressure, schedules & a lot of stress. few interactions →→bad social skills New Guinea: no stress, relaxation and peace talkative & good listeners overweight a lot of disease 2006: New Guinea's lifestyl resembles...
Mit uns zu mehr Spaß am Lernen
Lerne mit über 620.000 Lerninhalten von den besten Schüler:innen!
Vernetze dich mit anderen Schüler:innen und helft euch gegenseitig!
Bekomme bessere Noten ohne großen Aufwand!
American lifestyle (beer bellies, internet access results in less social interactions) author complains about New Guinean's life- style resemblence to American lifestyle. Eras of globalization Globalisation 1.0.: • time span: 1492-1800 -> from size large to medium • countries & governments as the dynamic force of global integration : countries globalizing -> the extent of brawn & the use of that breaking down walls & knitting the world together Globalisation 2.0.: • time span: 1800-2000, from size medium to small • Globalisation interrupted by the Great Depression and World War I & 2 multinational companies as the key agent of global integration -> companies globalizing - 2 periods of powering the global integration: 1. by falling transportation costs 2. by falling telecommunication costs Globalisation 3.0.: • time span: 2000 - until now, from size small to tiny • newfound power for individuals & diverse groups as a dynamic force of globalization -> individuals globalizing * collaborating & competing globally * people have more power to go globals as individuals CHANCES • Increased cultural awareness: a globalized society boots the rate at which people are exposed to the culture, attitudes and values of people in other countries. That exposure can inspire artists, strengthen ties between nations and dampen xenophobia ongoing exchange between academics, experts or politically interested people -> easy and effective research and educational activities possible • global togetherness: individual people, groups and nations can find friends and partners with similar interests & ideas all over the globe (hybrid identity) -> this global communication via mobile and internet technology -> hopes of spreading democracy, human rights and universal values while conflicts can be prevented communication network enables to have a voice for everyone & to be up-todate -> Global awareness -> news and instant information can save lives in a crisis or expose crime and propaganda • access to essential products, specialties and medicines • when technological development & progress in raising nations, which promote the need of work capacity -> no need of immigration to USA or Europe • fair trade (its popularity is increasing): can help developing countries to get a fair share of the profits created CHALLENGES • workers can lose jobs to countries with low cost labor: many jobs are being outsourced or off-shored to cut down production costs -> sweatshops in low-wage countries = often cruel working conditions e.g. child labour -> technology can replace people -> loss of jobs it can contribute to cultural homogeneity -> people's preferences' converge • exploitation of poor countries: (globalization makes it really easy) " the survival of the fittest" could be seen as a caricatured representation of an unfair distribution of power on earth (economically strong countries such as USA can misuse poorer countries for their own benefit) • destruction of local economy (especially smaller companies) massive illegal immigrations • clash of cultures • environmental pollution due to exhaust fumes from factories, and increased number of vehicles on the roads, food miles (many foods are air- freighted), carbon footprint (emission of greenhouse gases in- or directly) => global warming -> climate change • no sustainability due to overgrazing, unwise use of water resources (for human overconsumption), deforestation, ... WESTERNIZATION/AMERICANIZATION -> the influence, the western world (especially America) has on other countries (especially in developing countries) with brands, culture, movies, music, clothes, food and language e.g. With multinational companies and brands like McDonald's, Subway, Coca- Cola, H&M, Nike, Adidas, etc. Pro: * spread of cultures and languages Massive US-hardware support Purchase opportunities of the best military, etc. technologies more democracy * better education * more jobs * better international communication. * more entertainment (music, movies, books, games,...) adaption to the local culture (no complete destruction of the local culture) Con: * destruction of cultural diversity * US aims on taking advantage of people and resources no real economic advantage for developing countries import of harmful things (drugs, cigarettes, alcohol,etc.) replacement of local traditions: American steamroll other cultures * countries become dependent to the US or other western countries *loss of jobs * destruction of local economy (especially smaller companies) * exploitation, low pay jobs, child labour, bad working conditions * outsourcing * Globalization has empowering and disempowering, homogenizing and particularizing, democratizing and authoritarian tendencies all built into it! Commodification, goods desertification debt relief developing countries. emerging markets industrial nations driving forces of globalization drought elevelopment aid economic growth environmental commitement environmentally friendly expansion of capitalism fair trade floods global interconnection. global super power human-generated carbon dioxide interdependence of economy lecology international stock markets. investment climate labour laws long-range goals. -wage countries low mass tourism melting of glaciers NGO (non-governmental organization) Waren / Guter Wüstenbildung Entwicklungslander Schwellenlander Industrielander Antriebskräfte der Globalisierung Durre (Dunfruchtbarer Boden) Entwicklungshilfe Wirtschaftswachstum Umwelteinsatz umweltfreundlich freier Handel Hochwasser globale Quervernetzung eine globale Supermacht durch Menschen produziertes CO₂ gegenseitige Abhängigkeit /Verflechtung von Õko... internationale Börsenmärkte Investitionsbedingungen Arbeitsgesetze langfristige ziele Niedriglohnlander Massen tourismus das Schmelzen von Gletschern Nichtregierungsorganisation. outsourcing (offshore political turmoil pollution overpopulation, population overshoot Poverty rise in global temperature robotized production short-haul flights surface transport (with vehicles...) supremacy malnutrition unemployment employee preservation (prese -vation) fungus to differ according to time frame Produktionsverlagerung politische Turbulenzen Verschmutzung Überbevölkerung Armut ein weltweiter Temperaturanstieg Computergesteuerte Produktion Kurzstreckentlige Bodentransport Vormactit stellung ; überlegenheit Mangelernährung Arbeitslosigkeit Arbeiter Erhaltung Pilz unterscheiden. je nach / gemäß Zeitfenster