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Korea Krieg | Vietnam Krieg | die Hmong

Korea Krieg | Vietnam Krieg | die Hmong

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Anita

16 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/13

Ausarbeitung

Korea Krieg | Vietnam Krieg | die Hmong

 English
Presentation - Korean War, Vietnam War, The Hmong
The Korean War
General data and information
1950-1953
Korean Peninsula
Proxy war
 English
Presentation - Korean War, Vietnam War, The Hmong
The Korean War
General data and information
1950-1953
Korean Peninsula
Proxy war
 English
Presentation - Korean War, Vietnam War, The Hmong
The Korean War
General data and information
1950-1953
Korean Peninsula
Proxy war

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Präsentation, Handout und Notizen auf Englisch. Ausarbeitung im Hinblick auf den Film „Gran Torino“.

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English Presentation - Korean War, Vietnam War, The Hmong The Korean War General data and information 1950-1953 Korean Peninsula Proxy war in times of the Cold War Conflict parties South Korea Support United Nations (UNO): Australia Belgium Luxemburg Canada Columbia Ethiopia France Greece Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South African Union Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States North Korea People's Republic of China Soviet Union Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North against the Republic of Korea in the South communist China on the side of North Korea and the USA on the side of South Korea The partition of Korea in the beginning, Korea was a divided country Partition had a history: colony of Japan from 1910 to 1945 waged great cruelty claimed several million victims, also on the side of the civilian population division of Korea and the changing course of the Korean War to be understood in the context of the East- West conflict between the Soviet Union and its allies on the one hand and the United States and its allies on the other hand result: Intensification of the arms race in the world, the Cold War grew in intensity 1 after Japan's defeat in World War II, Korea was divided into two occupation zones north and south of the 38th parallel 1948 Creation of two Korean states north and south of this geographical line (demarcation line) division into two states was a direct consequence of the Second World War...

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and the beginning of the Cold War contrasting political and economic developments in both parts of the country due to different social orders of the victorious powers USA established a military government in the south Soviet Union builds a socialist society in the north 1948 free elections only in the south of the country, while in the north elections were held according to single lists 1948 Republic of Korea founded, more often referred to as South Korea September Foundation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea . afterwards, USA and the Soviet Union began to withdraw their troops two independent states on peninsula represented opposing social orders, were integrated into the different opposing state blocs of the Cold War and were enemies from the beginning of their existence The war border between the two states was strictly guarded and almost impermeable will for unity among the population of both states 25 June 1950, North Korean troops crossed the border shortly afterwards, they captured the capital Seoul and occupied large parts of the country An eventful war America called the United Nations (UN) UN immediately condemned North Korea's actions a few days later, it was decided to deploy military forces against the attackers UN troops were recruited from several of its member states largest contingent was sent by the USA North Korea's military units were soon pushed back by the troops UN troops crossed the border and advanced north to the Chinese border of North Korea China felt threatened by this Chinese military units intervened in the war Peace negotiations dragged on until 1953 Peace treaty signed in July 1953 Use of chemical and biological weapons many casualties: estimated at nearly two million civilian deaths; same figure for wounded, missing or killed soldiers 2 International consequences of the Korean War reflections on a policy of strength launching large-scale military programmes arms race To date, the conflict between the two Korean states has not been resolved due to the behaviour of the communist-ruled and internationally almost completely isolated North Korea The Vietnam War General data and information 1955-30. April 1975 Conflict parties Support National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Vietcong) *North Vietnam People's Republic of China Soviet Union South Vietnam United states claimed between two and five million lives most of them were not soldiers but civilians South Korea Thailand Australia Philippines New Zealand Taiwan South Vietnam against Vietcong communist insurgent group North Vietnam later, the USA and other countries fought on the side of the South China and the Soviet Union supported the North, but only with weapons and military advisors also called "proxy war" because it was part of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA not only in Vietnam, but also in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia (= three countries together = Indochina) war ended after USA stopped supporting South Vietnam so strongly 1975 conquest of the South by the North communist state since reunification What happened before? since 1887, Vietnam together with Laos and Cambodia belonged to the colony of French Indochina changed in 1940 because France lost against Nazi Germany in World War II North wanted to become an independent communist state Japanese wanted to take Vietnam after Japan's defeat in World War II, the North became an independent state Winter 1946 first Indochina war 3 France and South Vietnam fought against North Vietnam 1954 End of war because France withdrew from Vietnam under the Geneva Agreement two independent states of North Vietnam and South Vietnam remained How did the Vietnam War come about? . Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem elected first president in the South built up strong army tyrant who favoured Catholics treated other population groups badly In 1955, uprisings led to civil war insurgents called the "National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam" (Vietcong) wanted to overthrow Diem and join the communist North North Vietnam supported these What role did the USA play? American military sent to Vietnam in 1964 American planes bombed Vietcong villages use of napalm bombs and "Agent Orange" which caused forest fires and destruction many civilians died of poisoning Guerrilla tactics: Vietnamese repeatedly attacked from ambush, making it difficult for Americans to win 1973 Peace with North Vietnam protests in USA because many inexperienced young men were sent to war North Vietnamese soldiers moved into South Vietnamese capital Saigon and took power What were the consequences of the war? many millions of victims consequences continue to this day, so that many people die of cancer or mutations 50,000 American soldiers died Vietnam and the neighbouring countries Laos and Cambodia became communist some Vietnamese fled from the communists They mostly went to Malaysia in simple boats and were later taken in as refugees by France and the USA. Some also came to Germany. They are called "boat people". "National trauma" for USA as they lost to small nation American soldiers returned with psychological problems, had difficulty adjusting to normal life again The Hmong ethnic minority that originated in China as early as the third century had to adapt to Chinese customs due to communism majority found peace in Laos and stayed there for years 1960s and 1970s, most Hmong men were secretly recruited by the CIA to defend Laos against communism and support the Americans in their war effort in Southeast Asia 4 1975 American defeat and withdrawal This withdrawal put thousands of Hmong in danger because of their attachment to the United States They were then the target of retaliation and persecution by the new regime Without a safe place to hide or rebuild their lives, the Hmong were forced to migrate across the deep Mekong River to Thailand to reach freedom Beginning of the mass exodus of the Hmong from Laos Once in Thailand, the Hmong were ho sed in refugee camps while they wait for their chance to come to America or other countries From the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, a large proportion of the Hmong resettled in countries such as the United States, Canada, France, and Australia 5 en102 (KEM) Englisch Präsentation - Vietnamkrieg, Koreakrieg, Hmong-Gruppe Einleitung Anita Sinkewitsch Hello everyone, I am giving a presentation today on the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Hmong group. In view of this, one can better understand the attitude of Mr. Kowalski in the film „Gran Torino "towards the Asians or the Hmong. The Korean War Let's start with my outline. First, I will present the Korean War, then the Vietnam War and then the Hmong group. General data and information Started in 1950 on the Korean peninsula and ended in 1953. Can also be described as a proxy war in Cold War times. Conflict parties South Korea Support United Nations (UNO): Australia Belgium Luxemburg Canada Columbia Ethiopia France Greece Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South African Union Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States 27.09.2021 North Korea People's Republic of China Soviet Union The Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North and the Republic of Korea in the South faced each other. In addition, communist China was involved in the war on the side of North Korea and the USA on the side of South Korea. The war was waged with great cruelty and claimed several million victims, including civilians. The division of Korea and the changing course of the Korean War must be understood in the context of the East-West conflict between the Soviet Union and its allies on the one hand and the United States and its allies on the other. As a result of the Korean War, the world's arms race intensified, and the Cold War grew in intensity. 1 en102 (KEM) The Partition of Korea . Anita Sinkewitsch At the beginning of the Korean War, Korea was a divided country. This division had a history: Korea had been a colony of Japan from 1910 to 1945, but after Japan's defeat in the Second World War it was divided into two occupation zones north and south of the 38th parallel in accordance with an agreement between the victorious powers, the USA, and the USSR. Thus, in 1948, two Korean states were created north and south of this geographical laine (demarcation line). The division of Korea into two states was thus a direct consequence of the Second World War and the beginning of the Cold War. The war 27.09.2021 Similar to Germany, the division and military occupation by victorious powers with such different social orders as the Soviet Union on the one hand and the USA on the other also led to opposing political and economic developments in the two parts of Korea. The USA initially established a military government in the south of the country. In the north, on the other hand, the Korean communists began to build a socialist society under the protection of Soviet troops. Under international supervision, free elections could only be held in the south of the country in 1948, while in the north elections were held according to single lists, which only allowed the choice between members of the leading communists. In August 1948, the Republic of Korea, more commonly referred to as South Korea, was established. This was followed in September by the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea. The USA and the Soviet Union then slowly began to withdraw their troops. Two independent states now existed on the Korean peninsula. These represented opposing social orders, were integrated into the different opposing state blocs of the Cold War and were enemies of each other from the beginning of their existence. Conflicts were therefore inevitable. An eventful war The border between the two states was strictly guarded and almost impermeable. Despite the division, however, there was a widespread desire for unity among the population in both parts of the country. On 25 June 1950, North Korean troops crossed the border. A short time later, they captured the capital Seoul and occupied large parts of the country. The Korean War had begun. America, allied with South Korea, convened the United Nations (UN). The UN immediately condemned North Korea's actions and only a few days later it was decided to deploy military forces against the attackers. The UN troops were recruited from several of its member states. By far the largest contingent, however, was sent by the USA. The North Korean military units, which had already advanced to the extreme south of the Korean peninsula, were soon pushed back by the troops. The UN troops crossed the border and advanced north to the Chinese border of North Korea. This in turn led to China, which had only become communist in 1949 and was allied with the Soviet Union, feeling threatened. 2 en102 (KEM) Chinese military units now intervened directly in the war. They quickly moved into North Korea and in January 1951, together with North Koreans, again advanced across the border. In the process, Seoul was again taken. However, a counter-offensive by UN troops in March 1951 soon drove the Chinese and North Korean troops out of the capital again. This time, however, the troops only pursued the enemy to the border. The opposing sides began peace negotiations that dragged on until 1953. In July 1953, a peace treaty was finally signed. By the time the treaty was signed, the war, fought with great cruelty and by both sides with chemical and biological weapons, had claimed many victims. Among the civilian population alone, it is estimated that almost two million people died. About the same number is given for wounded, missing, or killed soldiers. The Vietnam War International consequences of the Korean War The Korean War accelerated the consideration of a policy of strength in both major bloc systems, because of which extensive military programmes were launched on both sides after the end of the war. A development began that is today referred to as the arms race. In the following decades, vast quantities of the most diverse weapons were accumulated in both East and West. Fearing a similar situation in Central Europe, the Western occupying powers agreed to rearm the Federal Republic of Germany by building up the Bundeswehr and joining NATO, contrary to the decisions taken at the Potsdam Conference. This was preceded by an international discussion about the West German military contribution from 1950 onwards. To this day, the conflict between the two Korean states has not been resolved due to the behaviour of the communist-ruled and internationally almost completely isolated North Korea. General data and information Anita Sinkewitsch Started in 1955 and ended on 30 April 1975. Spanned over 20 years. Conflict parties Support National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Vietcong) North Vietnam People's Republic of China Soviet Union South Vietnam United states South Korea Thailand Australia 27.09.2021 Philippines New Zealand Taiwan South Vietnam fought against the Viet Cong insurgent group and the communist North Vietnam. Later, the USA and other countries fought on the side of the South. 3 en102 (KEM) Anita Sinkewitsch . China and the Soviet Union supported the North, but only with weapons and military advisors. Vietnam War is also called the proxy war" because it is actually part of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA. 27.09.2021 The war took place not only in Vietnam, but also in the neighbouring countries of Laos and Cambodia. These three countries together belong to a region called Indochina. The war ended after the USA stopped supporting the South of Vietnam so strongly. In 1975, the North was efore able to conquer the South. Vietnam was reunified and since then the communist party has ruled the whole country. The war claimed between two and five million lives. Most of them were not soldiers, but civilians, i.e., normal people. What happened before? From 1887, Vietnam, together with Laos and Cambodia, belonged to the colony of French Indochina. This changed after 1940, because France initially lost in the Second World War against National Socialist Germany. The colonial rulers in Indochina had to cooperate with Japan. In addition, the Vietnamese saw that France was weakened. A movement arose in the North demanding that Vietnam become an independent communist state. On the other hand, the Japanese also wanted to use the weakness of the French to conquer Vietnam. In 1945, Japanese soldiers occupied Vietnam for a few months. Later, after Japan's defeat in World War II, the North became an independent state. The South initially remained loyal to France. Then, in the winter of 1946, the First Indochina War broke out. France and South Vietnam fought against North Vietnam. How did the Vietnam War come about? The war ended in 1954 when France withdrew from Vietnam based on the Geneva Agreement. What remained were the two independent states of North Vietnam and South Vietnam. From then on, the communist Viet Minh party ruled in the north, and a dictatorship ruled in the south, which thought it was the real Vietnam. In the south, the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem became the first president. He built up a strong army with money he received from the USA. He became a tyrant who was mainly interested in the Catholics doing well in the country. He treated other population groups, such as the Buddhists, badly. For example, he had an old hill tribe resettled so that Catholics could move into their houses. Diem's policies led to uprisings, which turned into a civil war in 1955. The insurgents wanted to overthrow Diem and join the communist north. They called themselves the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam" but were more commonly known as the ,,Viet Cong ". They were supported by North Vietnam and its allies. Therefore, Diem's soldiers soon had to fight in different places. 4 en102 (KEM) What role did the USA play? Anita Sinkewitsch 27.09.2021 Even before 1955, the US was helping the South with money, weapons, and military advisors. When it became more and more likely that the South would lose the war, it was decided in 1964 to also send American military to Vietnam. The US was afraid that if South Vietnam lost, communism would spread to other countries in Asia. American planes bombed Vietcong villages. Because it was difficult to see the enemy because of the dense jungle, they used napalm bombs. These caused large forest fires. The planes also sprayed toxic chemicals such as ,,Agent Orange "so that the leaves in the jungle withered and fell off and the soldiers of the North were easier to recognise. This also caused many civilians to die of poisoning. What were the consequences of the war? Although the Americans were better equipped, they had problems winning the war. The reason for this was that time and again the Vietnamese attacked by surprise from ambush, killed a few US soldiers and then disappeared again into the deep jungle. This kind of warfare is called guerrilla tactics. When the Americans realised that there was no point in continuing to fight, they made peace with North Vietnam in 1973. They did this also because many people in the USA kept protesting the war, among other things because many youths or young men without any experience were sent into the war and had to fight for their survival full of fear. The South was now on its own again. Two years later, the North Vietnamese soldiers marched into the South Vietnamese capital Saigon and took power. Of the millions of victims, the war claimed, most were Vietnamese. Very often, they were not soldiers, but people who were not actually involved in the fighting. To this day, Vietnamese are still dying from the late effects of the Americans' chemical attacks, for example, from cancer. In addition, children are born with genetic defects or mutations, for example, because the chemicals changed the genetic make-up. In addition, about 50,000 American soldiers died. After the war, the whole of Vietnam and the neighbouring countries of Laos and Cambodia became communist. Some Vietnamese fled from the communists. They mostly went to Malaysia in simple boats and were later taken in as refugees by France and the USA. Some also came to Germany. They are called ,,boat people ". For the USA, the Vietnam War was a national trauma": a small Asian nation managed to defeat the superpower for the first time. It was the first ever defeat of the USA. Many American soldiers had experienced the cruelty of war and returned from Vietnam with psychological problems. They had difficulties settling back into normal life. In the end, the costly war also hurt the American economy and many people in the world began to think badly of the USA. 5 Presentation of Korean War Vietnam War | The Hmong Anita Sinkewitsch, en 102 (KEM), 04.10.2021 00002 Table of contents 1. Korean War 1.1 General data and information 1.2 The partition of Korea 1.3 The war 1.4 An eventful war 1.5 International consequences of the Korean War Table of contents 2. The Vietnam War 2.1 General data and information 2.2 What happened before? 2.3 How did the Vietnam War come about? 2.4 What role did the USA play? 2.5 What were the consequences of the war? Table of contents 3. The Hmong List of sources List of illustrations The Korean War Coogan Gist

Englisch /

Korea Krieg | Vietnam Krieg | die Hmong

Korea Krieg | Vietnam Krieg | die Hmong

A

Anita

16 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/13

Ausarbeitung

Korea Krieg | Vietnam Krieg | die Hmong

Dieser Inhalt ist nur in der Knowunity App verfügbar.

 English
Presentation - Korean War, Vietnam War, The Hmong
The Korean War
General data and information
1950-1953
Korean Peninsula
Proxy war

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Vielen Dank, wirklich hilfreich für mich, da wir gerade genau das Thema in der Schule haben 😁

Präsentation, Handout und Notizen auf Englisch. Ausarbeitung im Hinblick auf den Film „Gran Torino“.

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English Presentation - Korean War, Vietnam War, The Hmong The Korean War General data and information 1950-1953 Korean Peninsula Proxy war in times of the Cold War Conflict parties South Korea Support United Nations (UNO): Australia Belgium Luxemburg Canada Columbia Ethiopia France Greece Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South African Union Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States North Korea People's Republic of China Soviet Union Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North against the Republic of Korea in the South communist China on the side of North Korea and the USA on the side of South Korea The partition of Korea in the beginning, Korea was a divided country Partition had a history: colony of Japan from 1910 to 1945 waged great cruelty claimed several million victims, also on the side of the civilian population division of Korea and the changing course of the Korean War to be understood in the context of the East- West conflict between the Soviet Union and its allies on the one hand and the United States and its allies on the other hand result: Intensification of the arms race in the world, the Cold War grew in intensity 1 after Japan's defeat in World War II, Korea was divided into two occupation zones north and south of the 38th parallel 1948 Creation of two Korean states north and south of this geographical line (demarcation line) division into two states was a direct consequence of the Second World War...

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and the beginning of the Cold War contrasting political and economic developments in both parts of the country due to different social orders of the victorious powers USA established a military government in the south Soviet Union builds a socialist society in the north 1948 free elections only in the south of the country, while in the north elections were held according to single lists 1948 Republic of Korea founded, more often referred to as South Korea September Foundation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea . afterwards, USA and the Soviet Union began to withdraw their troops two independent states on peninsula represented opposing social orders, were integrated into the different opposing state blocs of the Cold War and were enemies from the beginning of their existence The war border between the two states was strictly guarded and almost impermeable will for unity among the population of both states 25 June 1950, North Korean troops crossed the border shortly afterwards, they captured the capital Seoul and occupied large parts of the country An eventful war America called the United Nations (UN) UN immediately condemned North Korea's actions a few days later, it was decided to deploy military forces against the attackers UN troops were recruited from several of its member states largest contingent was sent by the USA North Korea's military units were soon pushed back by the troops UN troops crossed the border and advanced north to the Chinese border of North Korea China felt threatened by this Chinese military units intervened in the war Peace negotiations dragged on until 1953 Peace treaty signed in July 1953 Use of chemical and biological weapons many casualties: estimated at nearly two million civilian deaths; same figure for wounded, missing or killed soldiers 2 International consequences of the Korean War reflections on a policy of strength launching large-scale military programmes arms race To date, the conflict between the two Korean states has not been resolved due to the behaviour of the communist-ruled and internationally almost completely isolated North Korea The Vietnam War General data and information 1955-30. April 1975 Conflict parties Support National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Vietcong) *North Vietnam People's Republic of China Soviet Union South Vietnam United states claimed between two and five million lives most of them were not soldiers but civilians South Korea Thailand Australia Philippines New Zealand Taiwan South Vietnam against Vietcong communist insurgent group North Vietnam later, the USA and other countries fought on the side of the South China and the Soviet Union supported the North, but only with weapons and military advisors also called "proxy war" because it was part of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA not only in Vietnam, but also in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia (= three countries together = Indochina) war ended after USA stopped supporting South Vietnam so strongly 1975 conquest of the South by the North communist state since reunification What happened before? since 1887, Vietnam together with Laos and Cambodia belonged to the colony of French Indochina changed in 1940 because France lost against Nazi Germany in World War II North wanted to become an independent communist state Japanese wanted to take Vietnam after Japan's defeat in World War II, the North became an independent state Winter 1946 first Indochina war 3 France and South Vietnam fought against North Vietnam 1954 End of war because France withdrew from Vietnam under the Geneva Agreement two independent states of North Vietnam and South Vietnam remained How did the Vietnam War come about? . Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem elected first president in the South built up strong army tyrant who favoured Catholics treated other population groups badly In 1955, uprisings led to civil war insurgents called the "National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam" (Vietcong) wanted to overthrow Diem and join the communist North North Vietnam supported these What role did the USA play? American military sent to Vietnam in 1964 American planes bombed Vietcong villages use of napalm bombs and "Agent Orange" which caused forest fires and destruction many civilians died of poisoning Guerrilla tactics: Vietnamese repeatedly attacked from ambush, making it difficult for Americans to win 1973 Peace with North Vietnam protests in USA because many inexperienced young men were sent to war North Vietnamese soldiers moved into South Vietnamese capital Saigon and took power What were the consequences of the war? many millions of victims consequences continue to this day, so that many people die of cancer or mutations 50,000 American soldiers died Vietnam and the neighbouring countries Laos and Cambodia became communist some Vietnamese fled from the communists They mostly went to Malaysia in simple boats and were later taken in as refugees by France and the USA. Some also came to Germany. They are called "boat people". "National trauma" for USA as they lost to small nation American soldiers returned with psychological problems, had difficulty adjusting to normal life again The Hmong ethnic minority that originated in China as early as the third century had to adapt to Chinese customs due to communism majority found peace in Laos and stayed there for years 1960s and 1970s, most Hmong men were secretly recruited by the CIA to defend Laos against communism and support the Americans in their war effort in Southeast Asia 4 1975 American defeat and withdrawal This withdrawal put thousands of Hmong in danger because of their attachment to the United States They were then the target of retaliation and persecution by the new regime Without a safe place to hide or rebuild their lives, the Hmong were forced to migrate across the deep Mekong River to Thailand to reach freedom Beginning of the mass exodus of the Hmong from Laos Once in Thailand, the Hmong were ho sed in refugee camps while they wait for their chance to come to America or other countries From the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, a large proportion of the Hmong resettled in countries such as the United States, Canada, France, and Australia 5 en102 (KEM) Englisch Präsentation - Vietnamkrieg, Koreakrieg, Hmong-Gruppe Einleitung Anita Sinkewitsch Hello everyone, I am giving a presentation today on the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Hmong group. In view of this, one can better understand the attitude of Mr. Kowalski in the film „Gran Torino "towards the Asians or the Hmong. The Korean War Let's start with my outline. First, I will present the Korean War, then the Vietnam War and then the Hmong group. General data and information Started in 1950 on the Korean peninsula and ended in 1953. Can also be described as a proxy war in Cold War times. Conflict parties South Korea Support United Nations (UNO): Australia Belgium Luxemburg Canada Columbia Ethiopia France Greece Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South African Union Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States 27.09.2021 North Korea People's Republic of China Soviet Union The Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the North and the Republic of Korea in the South faced each other. In addition, communist China was involved in the war on the side of North Korea and the USA on the side of South Korea. The war was waged with great cruelty and claimed several million victims, including civilians. The division of Korea and the changing course of the Korean War must be understood in the context of the East-West conflict between the Soviet Union and its allies on the one hand and the United States and its allies on the other. As a result of the Korean War, the world's arms race intensified, and the Cold War grew in intensity. 1 en102 (KEM) The Partition of Korea . Anita Sinkewitsch At the beginning of the Korean War, Korea was a divided country. This division had a history: Korea had been a colony of Japan from 1910 to 1945, but after Japan's defeat in the Second World War it was divided into two occupation zones north and south of the 38th parallel in accordance with an agreement between the victorious powers, the USA, and the USSR. Thus, in 1948, two Korean states were created north and south of this geographical laine (demarcation line). The division of Korea into two states was thus a direct consequence of the Second World War and the beginning of the Cold War. The war 27.09.2021 Similar to Germany, the division and military occupation by victorious powers with such different social orders as the Soviet Union on the one hand and the USA on the other also led to opposing political and economic developments in the two parts of Korea. The USA initially established a military government in the south of the country. In the north, on the other hand, the Korean communists began to build a socialist society under the protection of Soviet troops. Under international supervision, free elections could only be held in the south of the country in 1948, while in the north elections were held according to single lists, which only allowed the choice between members of the leading communists. In August 1948, the Republic of Korea, more commonly referred to as South Korea, was established. This was followed in September by the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea. The USA and the Soviet Union then slowly began to withdraw their troops. Two independent states now existed on the Korean peninsula. These represented opposing social orders, were integrated into the different opposing state blocs of the Cold War and were enemies of each other from the beginning of their existence. Conflicts were therefore inevitable. An eventful war The border between the two states was strictly guarded and almost impermeable. Despite the division, however, there was a widespread desire for unity among the population in both parts of the country. On 25 June 1950, North Korean troops crossed the border. A short time later, they captured the capital Seoul and occupied large parts of the country. The Korean War had begun. America, allied with South Korea, convened the United Nations (UN). The UN immediately condemned North Korea's actions and only a few days later it was decided to deploy military forces against the attackers. The UN troops were recruited from several of its member states. By far the largest contingent, however, was sent by the USA. The North Korean military units, which had already advanced to the extreme south of the Korean peninsula, were soon pushed back by the troops. The UN troops crossed the border and advanced north to the Chinese border of North Korea. This in turn led to China, which had only become communist in 1949 and was allied with the Soviet Union, feeling threatened. 2 en102 (KEM) Chinese military units now intervened directly in the war. They quickly moved into North Korea and in January 1951, together with North Koreans, again advanced across the border. In the process, Seoul was again taken. However, a counter-offensive by UN troops in March 1951 soon drove the Chinese and North Korean troops out of the capital again. This time, however, the troops only pursued the enemy to the border. The opposing sides began peace negotiations that dragged on until 1953. In July 1953, a peace treaty was finally signed. By the time the treaty was signed, the war, fought with great cruelty and by both sides with chemical and biological weapons, had claimed many victims. Among the civilian population alone, it is estimated that almost two million people died. About the same number is given for wounded, missing, or killed soldiers. The Vietnam War International consequences of the Korean War The Korean War accelerated the consideration of a policy of strength in both major bloc systems, because of which extensive military programmes were launched on both sides after the end of the war. A development began that is today referred to as the arms race. In the following decades, vast quantities of the most diverse weapons were accumulated in both East and West. Fearing a similar situation in Central Europe, the Western occupying powers agreed to rearm the Federal Republic of Germany by building up the Bundeswehr and joining NATO, contrary to the decisions taken at the Potsdam Conference. This was preceded by an international discussion about the West German military contribution from 1950 onwards. To this day, the conflict between the two Korean states has not been resolved due to the behaviour of the communist-ruled and internationally almost completely isolated North Korea. General data and information Anita Sinkewitsch Started in 1955 and ended on 30 April 1975. Spanned over 20 years. Conflict parties Support National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Vietcong) North Vietnam People's Republic of China Soviet Union South Vietnam United states South Korea Thailand Australia 27.09.2021 Philippines New Zealand Taiwan South Vietnam fought against the Viet Cong insurgent group and the communist North Vietnam. Later, the USA and other countries fought on the side of the South. 3 en102 (KEM) Anita Sinkewitsch . China and the Soviet Union supported the North, but only with weapons and military advisors. Vietnam War is also called the proxy war" because it is actually part of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA. 27.09.2021 The war took place not only in Vietnam, but also in the neighbouring countries of Laos and Cambodia. These three countries together belong to a region called Indochina. The war ended after the USA stopped supporting the South of Vietnam so strongly. In 1975, the North was efore able to conquer the South. Vietnam was reunified and since then the communist party has ruled the whole country. The war claimed between two and five million lives. Most of them were not soldiers, but civilians, i.e., normal people. What happened before? From 1887, Vietnam, together with Laos and Cambodia, belonged to the colony of French Indochina. This changed after 1940, because France initially lost in the Second World War against National Socialist Germany. The colonial rulers in Indochina had to cooperate with Japan. In addition, the Vietnamese saw that France was weakened. A movement arose in the North demanding that Vietnam become an independent communist state. On the other hand, the Japanese also wanted to use the weakness of the French to conquer Vietnam. In 1945, Japanese soldiers occupied Vietnam for a few months. Later, after Japan's defeat in World War II, the North became an independent state. The South initially remained loyal to France. Then, in the winter of 1946, the First Indochina War broke out. France and South Vietnam fought against North Vietnam. How did the Vietnam War come about? The war ended in 1954 when France withdrew from Vietnam based on the Geneva Agreement. What remained were the two independent states of North Vietnam and South Vietnam. From then on, the communist Viet Minh party ruled in the north, and a dictatorship ruled in the south, which thought it was the real Vietnam. In the south, the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem became the first president. He built up a strong army with money he received from the USA. He became a tyrant who was mainly interested in the Catholics doing well in the country. He treated other population groups, such as the Buddhists, badly. For example, he had an old hill tribe resettled so that Catholics could move into their houses. Diem's policies led to uprisings, which turned into a civil war in 1955. The insurgents wanted to overthrow Diem and join the communist north. They called themselves the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam" but were more commonly known as the ,,Viet Cong ". They were supported by North Vietnam and its allies. Therefore, Diem's soldiers soon had to fight in different places. 4 en102 (KEM) What role did the USA play? Anita Sinkewitsch 27.09.2021 Even before 1955, the US was helping the South with money, weapons, and military advisors. When it became more and more likely that the South would lose the war, it was decided in 1964 to also send American military to Vietnam. The US was afraid that if South Vietnam lost, communism would spread to other countries in Asia. American planes bombed Vietcong villages. Because it was difficult to see the enemy because of the dense jungle, they used napalm bombs. These caused large forest fires. The planes also sprayed toxic chemicals such as ,,Agent Orange "so that the leaves in the jungle withered and fell off and the soldiers of the North were easier to recognise. This also caused many civilians to die of poisoning. What were the consequences of the war? Although the Americans were better equipped, they had problems winning the war. The reason for this was that time and again the Vietnamese attacked by surprise from ambush, killed a few US soldiers and then disappeared again into the deep jungle. This kind of warfare is called guerrilla tactics. When the Americans realised that there was no point in continuing to fight, they made peace with North Vietnam in 1973. They did this also because many people in the USA kept protesting the war, among other things because many youths or young men without any experience were sent into the war and had to fight for their survival full of fear. The South was now on its own again. Two years later, the North Vietnamese soldiers marched into the South Vietnamese capital Saigon and took power. Of the millions of victims, the war claimed, most were Vietnamese. Very often, they were not soldiers, but people who were not actually involved in the fighting. To this day, Vietnamese are still dying from the late effects of the Americans' chemical attacks, for example, from cancer. In addition, children are born with genetic defects or mutations, for example, because the chemicals changed the genetic make-up. In addition, about 50,000 American soldiers died. After the war, the whole of Vietnam and the neighbouring countries of Laos and Cambodia became communist. Some Vietnamese fled from the communists. They mostly went to Malaysia in simple boats and were later taken in as refugees by France and the USA. Some also came to Germany. They are called ,,boat people ". For the USA, the Vietnam War was a national trauma": a small Asian nation managed to defeat the superpower for the first time. It was the first ever defeat of the USA. Many American soldiers had experienced the cruelty of war and returned from Vietnam with psychological problems. They had difficulties settling back into normal life. In the end, the costly war also hurt the American economy and many people in the world began to think badly of the USA. 5 Presentation of Korean War Vietnam War | The Hmong Anita Sinkewitsch, en 102 (KEM), 04.10.2021 00002 Table of contents 1. Korean War 1.1 General data and information 1.2 The partition of Korea 1.3 The war 1.4 An eventful war 1.5 International consequences of the Korean War Table of contents 2. The Vietnam War 2.1 General data and information 2.2 What happened before? 2.3 How did the Vietnam War come about? 2.4 What role did the USA play? 2.5 What were the consequences of the war? Table of contents 3. The Hmong List of sources List of illustrations The Korean War Coogan Gist