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mündliche Prüfung: Globalisation (EN), oral exam

12.2.2021

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Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation
1.) Environment:
Pro +
renewable resources
recycling
local food, products
change consumption be
Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation
1.) Environment:
Pro +
renewable resources
recycling
local food, products
change consumption be
Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation
1.) Environment:
Pro +
renewable resources
recycling
local food, products
change consumption be
Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation
1.) Environment:
Pro +
renewable resources
recycling
local food, products
change consumption be
Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation
1.) Environment:
Pro +
renewable resources
recycling
local food, products
change consumption be
Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation
1.) Environment:
Pro +
renewable resources
recycling
local food, products
change consumption be

Englisch mündliche Prüfung Q2: Globalisation 1.) Environment: Pro + renewable resources recycling local food, products change consumption behaviour speaking up about climate change; Friday for Future public transportation systems, car sharing Paris Agreement; reduce emissions, greenhouse gases environmental sustainability already on agenda of many governments triggers environmentally friendly technological innovations transfer green know-how to countries with low environmental standards deglobalization: duplication in production processes; increase local emissions 2.) Economy: Pro + new potential markets, customers outsourcing: maximize quality, revenue and consumer satisfaction TNC: cost savings, better adaptation to local markets new job opportunities for local workers (increasing employment rate) Con - overexploitation of natural resources destruction of the environment, deforestation pollution loss of biodiversity heat waves, extreme weather causing health risks running out of fossil fuels fertilizers and pesticides microbeads loss of landscapes due to urbanisation and industrial agriculture, desertification Con - rising competition increasing dependencies (global); contribution to global financial crisis uncontrolled money flow concentration / gain of power of multinational companies -> monopolies enhancement of export infrastructure development in developing countries (due to investments) trade wars (US + China), imposing border taxes on each others goods leads people in LEDCs out of poverty GDPS have risen in many countries (economic growth) per-person income has increased globally; increasing purchasing power more product variety fair trade 3.) Politics: Pro + cooperation through partnerships better relationships between countries (ex, due to TNCs) peacekeeping forces (UN, Nato); prevent conflicts, protect human rights sustainable development goals NGOS; humanitarian aid countries working together; EU limitation of nationalism smaller countries can partner up: gain more influence globally labour exploitation (sweatshops) outflow of wealth (profits are exported to home country) widening gap between developed and developing...

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countries protecting local firms from global competition, by making domestic produce cheaper in comparison poor people are oppressed only people with some money profit from globalisation (gains from investments), poor people stay poor loss of local businesses Con - growing inequalities widening social gaps degradation of social standards government has less power (power is with corporations) makes terrorism easier refugee crisis State sovereignty is reduced Sometimes countries can veto decisions and slow down decision making processes Coordination is difficult and expensive governments can learn from each other 4.) Culture/society: Pro + developing intercultural competences getting to know new cultures learning more languages travelling, increased mobility spread of democracy access to traditional/cultural products (art, entertainment, education) less stereotyping and fewer misconceptions 5.) Population: Pro + better education gains in life expectancy reduction of mortality, reducing death rates Con - racism, discrimination conflicts between cultures/religions individual cultures will finally blend into one single global culture, thereby losing all their characteristic features (Dangers of cultural homogenization) one handed western point of view forcing western values on foreign nations Con - more migration migrants in qatar: appalling living conditions, passports taken away, salaries are not paid, high death toll, no ID -> no way of getting out of this situation health risks: climate change, spread of diseases, loss of food vitality, intoxication due to gases/pesticides... national happiness is declining; main activities watching TV & shopping overpopulation expected demographic transition: ageing 6.) Technology: media Pro + diffusion of new ideas, technologies increase of communication global information network and exchange inventing new technologies, methods... internet easier networking, developing of virtual communities Facts & Figures: 1.) Fashion industry: reduction in cultural variety -> solutions: Con - more robotized production; loss of jobs media/ advertising make us unhappy with what we have communication between terrorist easier one jeans uses roughly 3480 litres of water, 32 Kg Carbon Dioxide CO2 Emissions collecting and exploiting users data, privacy protection; cybercrime risks spread of hate speech stress of being constantly connected and unable or unwilling to take time away to decompress and relax unsustainable focus on profit, rather than human rights unsafe working conditions; bad construction of factories, low safety standards, unpaid and overworked workers, no minimum wage fast fashion: cheap, low quality, mass production 2.) Outsourcing & Transnational corporations: - buy second-hand - buy fever clothes ("no-spend" months) - serious consequences for companies - raise awareness: buy clothes from companies with a sustainable approach and stronger working protections - but: we should not stop buying clothes from developing countries (jobs...) outsourcing: helps businesses reduce labour costs significantly 3.) Trade: TNC: foreign investments, produces goods and services outside its country of origin, engages in international production avoid trade barriers 5.) Waste: activity of buying and selling, or exchanging goods or services between people or countries (between producers and consumers) international trade allows countries to expand markets 4.) Environment: Climate Change; greenhouse gases: form layer around the earth trapping heat global greenhouse gas emissions projected to increase by 50% temperature projected to increase food miles: distance between the place where food is grown/made and the place where it is eaten by consumer (testing environmental impact of food -> carbon footprint of food). transportation distance multiplied by volume of food transported carbon footprint: total greenhouse gas emissions caused by an individual expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent -> global average of is 4 tons of Co2 (needs to drop under 2 tons avoid more than 2° temperature rise) organic food: environmental and animal friendly farming methods; no pesticides, no fertilizers, no food additions, no antibiotics/hormones, no genetic modification 99% of products become trash in less than 6 months plastic waste: 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic waste since 1950s; doesn't biodegrade; plastic waste is piling up in countries like China (used to buy trash from developed countrie to hand sort them) recycling: only 9% is recycled, only pure plastic can be recycled e-waste: goes to africa; toxic/dangerous for workers (hand sort, extracting valuable materials) -> "planned obsolescence"; electrical devices no longer functional after certain period of time 6.) Politics: NGOS: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation: enhance healthcare, reduce extreme poverty, expand educational opportunities (in U.S.) Red Cross: protect human life and health, ensure respect for all human beings, prevent human suffering United Nations Organisation: stop future wars, world's peacekeeper international court of justice, international monetary fund, security council sustainable development goals also conflicts within UN: ex. rwanda; intervention (distinction between international conflict and domestic dispute), dilemma of limits (civilians become war victims, protection of human rights, influence on other states) 7.) Terrorism: ongoing global threat islamic terrorism; al qaeda, islamic state -> 9/11 series of attacks have been carried out in european countries/US right-wing (ultra-nationalist) extremists sometimes caused by psychologically disturbed persons