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Nigeria

Nigeria

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Maike

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11/12/13

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Nigeria

 5. Nigeria
General Information
the largest population in Africa, 7th most populated country in the world
→ around 209 million inhabitants
●

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Lernzettel Englisch Nigeria

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5. Nigeria General Information the largest population in Africa, 7th most populated country in the world → around 209 million inhabitants ● ● ● ● History pre-colonial era: ● Nigerian area was populated thousands of years ago large diversity located on the western coast of Africa 36 states capitol: Abuja Lagos largest city (17.5 million) area: 923,769 the largest economy in Africa official language: English religion: 50.5% Muslim; 19.5 % other Christian; 15 % Protestant; 13.7 % Roman Catholic; 1,3% other → rivalries between kingdoms → 3.5 million slaves were traded from Nigeria for over 3 centuries colonial era: ● many different ethnic groups: Yoruba (west), Fulani and Hausa (north), Igbo (south-east) Rise, fall or transformation of territories caused by changes in climate, economic interests or religious or cultural differences unification of Nigeria as a British colony (1914) → rivalry of different ethnic groups because of religious beliefs etc. Christian missionary activity by the British in southern Nigeria (19th century) → Christianisation of large parts of the Igbo and Yoruba → Missionaries imposed language and culture, e.g. by building schools → native social structure was destroyed Various types of crops (yams, corn, nuts, beans or rice) Slave trade in the 15th century "indirect rule": local chiefs maintained a lot of power and appeased the north → direct control in the south ● ⇒ ethno-religious differences (Muslim north, Christian south) ⇒ Hausa and Fulani kept many social structures, Igbo and Yoruba...

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submitted to the British rule discovery of oil in the south-east (1956) ● British reign in the whole Nigerian territory, keeping control was the problem (end of 19th century) → colonial government granted Shell a monopoly to produce oil → oil sector is dominated by British and multinational companies to this day post-colonial era: October 1960 Independence from Britain 1966 massacre of thousands of Igbo people → caused by tension between different ethnic groups 1967-1970 Biafra war (civil war) → Biafra is a new state with most of the oil resources 1983 - 1999 dictatorship 2003 election of Olusegun Obasanjo as President 2003 first attack of the radical Islamic group Boko Haram→ active ever since 2014 kidnapping of 276 teenage girls form a boarding school by the Boko Haram 2019 Republic - → Muhammed Buhari as President Political System constitution (1999): president: head of state, chief of executive directly elected to a four-year term; nominates the vice president and members of the cabinet bicameral National Assembly: House of Representatives, Senate →each state elects ten members to the House of Representatives for four-year terms; three members of the Senate from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory are also elected to four- year terms justice: Survey from Nigerians about the political system: “Nigerians have doubts about their political system" ● customary laws (e.g. family problems such as divorce), Nigerian statute law (following the English law as a result of British colonial legislation and used in higher courts, e.g. defence, foreign policy or mining) and Shari'ah (Islamic law, applies mostly to Muslims but affects non-Muslim population as well, e.g. Christian women must ride on female-only buses or some states banned females in participating in sports) ● Ethnic Groups Elected officials care what ordinary people think → 59% said “not well" The court system treats everyone fairly → 54% said "not well" No matter who wins an election, things do not change very much → 57% said “no” Most politicians are corrupt - 72% said "yes" ● Over 250 different ethnic groups Hausa 25% → some main players in Nigerian politics Yoruba 21% upholds many cultural traditions Igbo 18% non-hierarchical Ijaw 10% Religion ● Before the British colonial politics most people were followers of traditional religions 1960 the great majority identifies as Muslims or Christians Religious freedom is guaranteed →→ Muslims and Christians live and work together Christianity has disallowed polygamy Islam allows men to have up to four wives Economy Oil industry → land is extremely rich in oil oil extraction started 1958 Nigeria heavily depends on the oil industry→ 75% of the revenue The money coming from the oil industry is not reinvested into schools, health or infrastructure mostly used to pay off debts Nigeria does not have the infrastructure to refine the oil themselves → have to export the oil to refine it → have to import the refined oil back at a much higher price Positive Impact Oil and gas industry: more than 60% of Nigeria's economy Shell BP creates workplaces: 6000 directly, 20000 indirectly (90% Nigerian) → Shell reinvested into local infrastructure: healthcare, electricity, education Help people to build their own businesses Negative Impact ● Living conditions do not improve for everyone: bad working conditions Problems to find work for young generations taking profit from Nigeria (recourses) Environmental impact is menacing → Gas is burned (oil flaring) ➜ Oil companies contribute to the country's development and lead to significant income for the local economy and government Nollywood (Nigeria's dream factory) ● ● ● ● Problems ● • poverty, orphans → poverty rate from 27% to 69% in 30 years → 67% live below the poverty line more than 1500 films per year, 50 films per week started in the 1980s, expanded in the 1990s and 2000s to "New Nollywood" with higher quality films and higher budgets second largest film producer → structures about communities, spirituality, identification as Nigerians, morality of the environment, perspective on life and death cinemas were political before → used by colonialists to alter the right behavior (e.g. eating with knives and forks, wearing suits, etc.) ● term "Nollywood” is misleading: great diversity/lots of variation (genres/languages) popular due to familiar pictures of cultural traditions, societal structures, lifestyle, settings first major movie by Kenneth Nnebue special: Nigerian audience accepted it before it even had a definition because they were telling the Nigerian experience style: documentary, answer to colonial narratives, their own voice Life expectancy is 53 years ethno-religious rivalries Boko Haram Chances → Oil spill and leaking pipes cause pollution of the grounds (destroying water and food supply) → damaged local farmers/fishers and their livelihood Most people have no access to: education, internet, Medical treatments sexual transmitted diseases ● ● → Causes environmental damages ● Bunkering: organized criminal gang damage pipes to steal oil ● exploitation corruption →→ political instability police brutality mass unemployment poor infrastructure overdependence on oil revenue Islamist terrorist group in northern Nigeria advocates the introduction of Sharia law across Nigeria and the ban of on Western education known for murdering Christians also, Muslims who do not support them most members to the Kanuri people Government has to fight corruption consistency in government Nigerians have to respect the different cultures investments into infrastructure Young optimistic population

Englisch /

Nigeria

Nigeria

user profile picture

Maike

99 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/13

Lernzettel

Nigeria

Dieser Inhalt ist nur in der Knowunity App verfügbar.

 5. Nigeria
General Information
the largest population in Africa, 7th most populated country in the world
→ around 209 million inhabitants
●

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838

Kommentare (3)

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Cool, mit dem Lernzettel konnte ich mich richtig gut auf meine Klassenarbeit vorbereiten. Danke 👍👍

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5. Nigeria General Information the largest population in Africa, 7th most populated country in the world → around 209 million inhabitants ● ● ● ● History pre-colonial era: ● Nigerian area was populated thousands of years ago large diversity located on the western coast of Africa 36 states capitol: Abuja Lagos largest city (17.5 million) area: 923,769 the largest economy in Africa official language: English religion: 50.5% Muslim; 19.5 % other Christian; 15 % Protestant; 13.7 % Roman Catholic; 1,3% other → rivalries between kingdoms → 3.5 million slaves were traded from Nigeria for over 3 centuries colonial era: ● many different ethnic groups: Yoruba (west), Fulani and Hausa (north), Igbo (south-east) Rise, fall or transformation of territories caused by changes in climate, economic interests or religious or cultural differences unification of Nigeria as a British colony (1914) → rivalry of different ethnic groups because of religious beliefs etc. Christian missionary activity by the British in southern Nigeria (19th century) → Christianisation of large parts of the Igbo and Yoruba → Missionaries imposed language and culture, e.g. by building schools → native social structure was destroyed Various types of crops (yams, corn, nuts, beans or rice) Slave trade in the 15th century "indirect rule": local chiefs maintained a lot of power and appeased the north → direct control in the south ● ⇒ ethno-religious differences (Muslim north, Christian south) ⇒ Hausa and Fulani kept many social structures, Igbo and Yoruba...

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Gemeinsam lernen

Mit Knowunity erhältest du Lerninhalte von anderen Schüler:innen auf eine moderne und gewohnte Art und Weise, um bestmöglich zu lernen. Schüler:innen teilen ihr Wissen, tauschen sich aus und helfen sich gegenseitig.

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Alternativer Bildtext:

submitted to the British rule discovery of oil in the south-east (1956) ● British reign in the whole Nigerian territory, keeping control was the problem (end of 19th century) → colonial government granted Shell a monopoly to produce oil → oil sector is dominated by British and multinational companies to this day post-colonial era: October 1960 Independence from Britain 1966 massacre of thousands of Igbo people → caused by tension between different ethnic groups 1967-1970 Biafra war (civil war) → Biafra is a new state with most of the oil resources 1983 - 1999 dictatorship 2003 election of Olusegun Obasanjo as President 2003 first attack of the radical Islamic group Boko Haram→ active ever since 2014 kidnapping of 276 teenage girls form a boarding school by the Boko Haram 2019 Republic - → Muhammed Buhari as President Political System constitution (1999): president: head of state, chief of executive directly elected to a four-year term; nominates the vice president and members of the cabinet bicameral National Assembly: House of Representatives, Senate →each state elects ten members to the House of Representatives for four-year terms; three members of the Senate from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory are also elected to four- year terms justice: Survey from Nigerians about the political system: “Nigerians have doubts about their political system" ● customary laws (e.g. family problems such as divorce), Nigerian statute law (following the English law as a result of British colonial legislation and used in higher courts, e.g. defence, foreign policy or mining) and Shari'ah (Islamic law, applies mostly to Muslims but affects non-Muslim population as well, e.g. Christian women must ride on female-only buses or some states banned females in participating in sports) ● Ethnic Groups Elected officials care what ordinary people think → 59% said “not well" The court system treats everyone fairly → 54% said "not well" No matter who wins an election, things do not change very much → 57% said “no” Most politicians are corrupt - 72% said "yes" ● Over 250 different ethnic groups Hausa 25% → some main players in Nigerian politics Yoruba 21% upholds many cultural traditions Igbo 18% non-hierarchical Ijaw 10% Religion ● Before the British colonial politics most people were followers of traditional religions 1960 the great majority identifies as Muslims or Christians Religious freedom is guaranteed →→ Muslims and Christians live and work together Christianity has disallowed polygamy Islam allows men to have up to four wives Economy Oil industry → land is extremely rich in oil oil extraction started 1958 Nigeria heavily depends on the oil industry→ 75% of the revenue The money coming from the oil industry is not reinvested into schools, health or infrastructure mostly used to pay off debts Nigeria does not have the infrastructure to refine the oil themselves → have to export the oil to refine it → have to import the refined oil back at a much higher price Positive Impact Oil and gas industry: more than 60% of Nigeria's economy Shell BP creates workplaces: 6000 directly, 20000 indirectly (90% Nigerian) → Shell reinvested into local infrastructure: healthcare, electricity, education Help people to build their own businesses Negative Impact ● Living conditions do not improve for everyone: bad working conditions Problems to find work for young generations taking profit from Nigeria (recourses) Environmental impact is menacing → Gas is burned (oil flaring) ➜ Oil companies contribute to the country's development and lead to significant income for the local economy and government Nollywood (Nigeria's dream factory) ● ● ● ● Problems ● • poverty, orphans → poverty rate from 27% to 69% in 30 years → 67% live below the poverty line more than 1500 films per year, 50 films per week started in the 1980s, expanded in the 1990s and 2000s to "New Nollywood" with higher quality films and higher budgets second largest film producer → structures about communities, spirituality, identification as Nigerians, morality of the environment, perspective on life and death cinemas were political before → used by colonialists to alter the right behavior (e.g. eating with knives and forks, wearing suits, etc.) ● term "Nollywood” is misleading: great diversity/lots of variation (genres/languages) popular due to familiar pictures of cultural traditions, societal structures, lifestyle, settings first major movie by Kenneth Nnebue special: Nigerian audience accepted it before it even had a definition because they were telling the Nigerian experience style: documentary, answer to colonial narratives, their own voice Life expectancy is 53 years ethno-religious rivalries Boko Haram Chances → Oil spill and leaking pipes cause pollution of the grounds (destroying water and food supply) → damaged local farmers/fishers and their livelihood Most people have no access to: education, internet, Medical treatments sexual transmitted diseases ● ● → Causes environmental damages ● Bunkering: organized criminal gang damage pipes to steal oil ● exploitation corruption →→ political instability police brutality mass unemployment poor infrastructure overdependence on oil revenue Islamist terrorist group in northern Nigeria advocates the introduction of Sharia law across Nigeria and the ban of on Western education known for murdering Christians also, Muslims who do not support them most members to the Kanuri people Government has to fight corruption consistency in government Nigerians have to respect the different cultures investments into infrastructure Young optimistic population