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Nigeria After Independence (Facharbeit)

Nigeria After Independence (Facharbeit)

 Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 List of contents
Personal Foreword
 Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 List of contents
Personal Foreword

Nigeria After Independence (Facharbeit)

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Karlotta

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Facharbeit Englisch LK (14 Punkte): Entwicklung Nigerias nach der Unabgängigkeit, Chancen und Schwierigkeiten

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Nigeria after Independence Challenges of an African Nation Karlotta Englisch Leistungskurs 02. März 2020 List of contents Personal Foreword 1. Introduction 2. A brief overview of Nigerian history 2.1 Period of colonization 2.2 Gaining independence 2.3 Member of Commonwealth 3. Biafra: Civil War 3.1 Ethnic groups 3.2 Civil War 3.3 Suspension from the Commonwealth 3.4 Situation after the war 4. Politics and terrorism 4.1 Current political situation 4.2 Boko Haram 5. Society 5.1 Sexual violence against women 5.2 Female genital mutilation 5.3 Illiteracy 5.4 Anti-homosexuality laws 5.5 Health and hunger 6. Economy 6.1 Relationship with the BRICS nation 7. Outlook on the future (personal opinion) page 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 - 3- Personal forword Before I started my research for this paper, the complexity of the Nigerian nation, and especially its society, was not fully apparent to me. Despite being aware of the variety of aspects which heavily influence the country, I felt more and more fascinated by both the broad history and present of the country, the more information I was able to collect. When discussing the paper's topic with other people in my surroundings, it became evident that the vast majority of our society is unaware of Nigeria's importance, whether regarding the mere size and number of population, the value of the Nigerian economy or the ethnic diversity within the country. This same large variety of aspects made it difficult to provide an outline of Nigeria as a whole....

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However, the general lack of knowledge about Nigeria only made it more interesting to learn about this unique country. I enjoyed feeling like I had the opportunity to portray Nigeria in a realistic way, providing both positive and negative aspects. I believe it is necessary to provide the reader with a fact-based overview of the Nigerian history, politics, economy and society, in order to allow the forming of one's own impression on this country of great significance. 1. Introduction With about 190 million citizens, the Federal Republic of Nigeria is not only Africa's most populous country, but also the continent's largest economy. Named after the Niger river by British journalist Flora Shaw in the late 19th century (cp. source 1), Nigeria is bordered by Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon and often described as the link between west and central Africa. The nation is divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory for the capital Abuja (cp. appendix no. 1). The former capital Lagos is the most populous city in all of Africa (cp. source 2) and continues to be the country's leading commercial and industrial city (cp. source 3). While the country is a federal presidential republic, many tribal kingdoms are still ruled by traditional monarchs. Due to these ethnic groups, each with their own cultures, religions and languages, Nigeria is an - 4- extremely diverse country. Despite it being the third largest English speaking nation, after the United States and India, English is moreso considered a lingua franca and is spoken with a strong dialect with many unique words and phrases (cp. source 4). Nigeria as a nation is full of contradictions. While being viewed as one of the next big economic powers, many of its citizens still suffer from poverty. Despite the notable diversity, minority groups are regularly discriminated against and conflicts occur frequently. It remains to be seen how the future will evolve while the country tries to find a balance between modern developments and the numerous traditions which characterize the country. 2. A brief overview of Nigerian history 2.1. Period of colonization Colonialism took place in Nigeria from the mid-19th century until the country's independence in 1960. British influence began in 1807 with the prohibition of slave trade after millions of Nigerians were forcibly sent to America during the 16th to 18th century. It was in the 1850s that the British established presence around Lagos before the Oil River Protectorate was established in 1884. From that moment on, British influence kept increasing. However, they did not effectively occupy the area until 1885 when Britain's dominance was officially recognized during the Berlin Conference. Great Britain reached their climax of power when the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate were united to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (cp. source 4). 2.2. Gaining independence In 1957, conferences were held in London discussing the future of Nigeria. Nigerian delegates of each region were selected to represent the individual opinions. The Western and Eastern region became officially self-governing in the same year and the Northern region was granted independence two years later. All of them were "equally autonomous in relation to the federal government at Lagos." (source 4). After elections - 5- were held for a new, larger House of Representatives in 1959, the three regions were officially declared independent as a united nation on October 1, 1960. Nnamdi Azikiwe became the country's first president, making him the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Nigeria's head of state. While most regional constitutions adopted the same concept as the federal government, the northern region differs by creating a constitution in line with Islamic law. While the autonomy caused enthusiasm in the country, Nigeria faced challenges only shortly after, when growing tensions between the ethnic groups resulted in the outbreak of the Civil War in 1967. It became obvious that self-governance was largely associated with arising issues (ibidem). 2.3. Member of the Commonwealth When gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria automatically became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Established in 1949, the Commonwealth was seen as a replacement of the British Empire after many of the member countries had become increasingly self-sufficient (cp. source 5). As one of the first former British colonies in Africa to become independent, Nigeria led the way for many other countries on the continent. The Nigerian nation embodied the so-called "Wind of Change" even before the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan mentioned it in his speech in 1969. At the time, Macmillan stated: "The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact." (source 6), clearly signalling that the United Kingdom would not prohibit African nations from seeking independence (ibidem). Nigeria was proof of this. 3. Biafra: Civil War 3.1. Ethnic groups There are an estimated 250 ethnic groups within the Nigerian nation. Each of them live in their own territory which belongs to them "by right of first occupancy and inheritance." (source 7). The three major groups are the Hausa-Fulani in the north, the Nigeria after Independence: Introduction ● Challenges and Opportunities of an African Nation ● approx. 190 million citizens O Africa's most populous country named after the Niger river by British journalist Flora Shaw in the late 19th century often described as the link between west and central Africa divided into 36 states, one federal capital territory for the capital Abuja Lagos (former capital) is the most populous city in all of Africa O continues to be the country's leading commercial and industrial city extremely diverse country 3rd largest English speaking nation (after the USA and India) O English is moreso considered a lingua franca, spoken with a strong dialect with many unique words and phrases Contradictions Nigeria as a nation is full of contradictions O although one of the next big economic powers, many still suffer from poverty notable diversity, minority groups are regularly discriminated against, frequent conflicts federal presidential republic with many tribal kingdoms are still ruled by traditional monarchs It remains to be seen how the future will evolve while the country tries to find a balance between modern developments and the numerous traditions which characterize the country. A Brief Overview of Nigerian History Period of Colonization mid-19th c. until the country's independence in 1960 1807: influence began with prohibition of slave trade millions of Nigerians were forcibly sent to America during the 16th to 18th centuries O 1850s: British presence established around Lagos influence kept increasing dominance not officially recognized until 1885 climax of power: Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate were joined as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (1900) Gaining independence ● 1957: conferences discussing Nigeria's future O Nigerian delegates of each region 1957: Western and Eastern region become independent 1959: Northern region gains independence O all regions equally autonomous with the federal government in Lagos 1960 (Oct 1): 3 regions officially declared independent as a united nation O O larger House of Representatives after election in 1959 Nnamdi Azikiwe became the country's first president (representative of the Queen) most regions adopted the same concept as the federal government O northern region: constitution in line with Islamic law Member of the Commonwealth became a member when gaining independence (1960) Nigerian nation embodied "Wind of Change" as one of the first African nations to gain independence O ● Biafra: Civil War Ethnic Groups Prime Minister Macmillan (1969): “The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact." ● approx. 250 ethnic groups ● signalling that the UK would not prohibit African nations from seeking independence Civil War O each live in their own territory three major groups: Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo O religious differences north-south divide 1966: government overthrown by Chukwuma Nzeogwu, who began setting up a military dictatorship O Nzeogwu murdered during a second coup O leaders of that coup held power for about a decade thousands of Igbos, who were living as a minority in the northern region, were killed by Northern soldiers republic of Biafra declared independence on the behalf of the Igbo people July 6, 1967: outbreak of the Civil War O O over the next three years, approx. one mill. people died 1968: images of the famine published around the world worldwide protests demanding end of the conflict 1970: Biafran surrender, end of war Suspension from the Commonwealth years after the war: challenging political situation O violation of rights resulted in criticism from numerous other countries writer and political activist Ken Saro-Wiwa was executed along with eight other human rights campaigners 1995: Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth the country no longer received technical assistance from the Commonwealth O Nigerian representatives not able to participate in meetings many European nations withdrew their envoys 1999: suspension ended, Nigeria rejoined Situation after the War despite efforts being made, the ethnic division has has not been addressed enough to be resolved O tensions are still high still many pro-Biafra activists O most are indigenous people of Biafra 2015: leader Nnamdi Kanu arrested for his rhetoric popularity only kept increasing announced: "Biafra or death, one of the two must happen." Amnesty international claimed: Nigerian army killed 150 unarmed peaceful pro-Biafra activists (May of 2016) it remains to be seen how the conflict will develop and how relationships between the indigenous groups will be affected Politics and Terrorism Current Political Situation major improvement in the country's political development recent national state elections (2019): re-election of Muhammadu Buhari ● O highly competitive, mostly peaceful (scattered instances of violence) O voter turnout historically low → signalling distrust Nigeria, as a democracy, still has work to do Boko Haram terrorist group Boko Haram (founded in 2002) O "Western Education is forbidden" (in Hausa dialect) O the name they use to refer to themselves as means: "People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad." committed to Islam and Sharia Law don't engage with political system Dec 2003: first attack, invasion of various police stations 2009: uprising of the group O Nigeria responded with joint military task force → 700 Boko Haram members killed Leader Mohammed Yusuf was captured and later died proscribed Boko Haram as a terrorist organization 2014: kidnapping of 276 teenage girls from a boarding school (112 still missing) amount of attacks has not decreased Society Illiteracy 35% of the population are illiterate (citizens over the age of 15) women have a higher rate of illiteracy in all areas O northwest: 62.2 % of men and only 25.8 % of women higher rates in the north literacy rate has only slightly increased over the last 30 years O multiple programs have been started by the government many believe not enough is done O Female Genital Mutilation approx. 20 million girls/women have undergone female genital mutilation 85% of those: under the age of 5 FGM was banned in 2015 still practiced in many regions → inconsistency between the law and its enforcement Anti-Homosexuality Laws Nigeria has a law against homosexuality O same-sex relationships are punishable → jail sentence it has only been used to put pressure on queer people 2019: 47 men went on trial for gay public display of affection O final decision has not been made Health and Hunger 7.1 MM need humanitarian assistance O many areas inaccessible many struggles with the citizens' state of health O causes of death: respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, HIV other threats: malnutrition, pollution, traffic accidents major progress since 1950s O polio, malaria, tuberculosis, life expectancy at birth, U5MR northern Nigeria: 3rd highest level of chronic undernutrition of children O O result of Boko Haram lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, poor knowledge of healthy food Economy Nigeria's economy Nigeria has flourished into an economic power 95% of the country's exports: mineral fuels, including oil O remaining 5%: mostly ships and cocoa India: largest export partner, China: largest import partner Relationship with the BRICS Nations discussions about the relations between Nigeria and the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) O 2011: 97 % of Nigeria's crude oil was exported to BRICS nations many experts suggest trade policies to ensure economic growth for Nigeria O O classified as an N-11 O eleven countries that are predicted to become the next big economic powers does not yet meet some of the criteria O others believe they should be a part of the BRICS placed 152nd out of 188 countries in the 2016 HDI have only a third of South Africa's GDP per capita lingua franca coup d'état famine envoy voter turnout illiteracy female genital mutilation = a language used for communication between groups of people who speak different languages Putsch Hungersnot Gesandter Wahlbeteiligung Analphabetismus weibliche Genitalverstümmelung respiratory infections Atemwegsinfektionen GDP: gross domestic product Bruttoinlandsprodukt

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Nigeria After Independence (Facharbeit)

Nigeria After Independence (Facharbeit)

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Karlotta

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 Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 List of contents
Personal Foreword

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Facharbeit Englisch LK (14 Punkte): Entwicklung Nigerias nach der Unabgängigkeit, Chancen und Schwierigkeiten

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Nigeria after Independence Challenges of an African Nation Karlotta Englisch Leistungskurs 02. März 2020 List of contents Personal Foreword 1. Introduction 2. A brief overview of Nigerian history 2.1 Period of colonization 2.2 Gaining independence 2.3 Member of Commonwealth 3. Biafra: Civil War 3.1 Ethnic groups 3.2 Civil War 3.3 Suspension from the Commonwealth 3.4 Situation after the war 4. Politics and terrorism 4.1 Current political situation 4.2 Boko Haram 5. Society 5.1 Sexual violence against women 5.2 Female genital mutilation 5.3 Illiteracy 5.4 Anti-homosexuality laws 5.5 Health and hunger 6. Economy 6.1 Relationship with the BRICS nation 7. Outlook on the future (personal opinion) page 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 - 3- Personal forword Before I started my research for this paper, the complexity of the Nigerian nation, and especially its society, was not fully apparent to me. Despite being aware of the variety of aspects which heavily influence the country, I felt more and more fascinated by both the broad history and present of the country, the more information I was able to collect. When discussing the paper's topic with other people in my surroundings, it became evident that the vast majority of our society is unaware of Nigeria's importance, whether regarding the mere size and number of population, the value of the Nigerian economy or the ethnic diversity within the country. This same large variety of aspects made it difficult to provide an outline of Nigeria as a whole....

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However, the general lack of knowledge about Nigeria only made it more interesting to learn about this unique country. I enjoyed feeling like I had the opportunity to portray Nigeria in a realistic way, providing both positive and negative aspects. I believe it is necessary to provide the reader with a fact-based overview of the Nigerian history, politics, economy and society, in order to allow the forming of one's own impression on this country of great significance. 1. Introduction With about 190 million citizens, the Federal Republic of Nigeria is not only Africa's most populous country, but also the continent's largest economy. Named after the Niger river by British journalist Flora Shaw in the late 19th century (cp. source 1), Nigeria is bordered by Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon and often described as the link between west and central Africa. The nation is divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory for the capital Abuja (cp. appendix no. 1). The former capital Lagos is the most populous city in all of Africa (cp. source 2) and continues to be the country's leading commercial and industrial city (cp. source 3). While the country is a federal presidential republic, many tribal kingdoms are still ruled by traditional monarchs. Due to these ethnic groups, each with their own cultures, religions and languages, Nigeria is an - 4- extremely diverse country. Despite it being the third largest English speaking nation, after the United States and India, English is moreso considered a lingua franca and is spoken with a strong dialect with many unique words and phrases (cp. source 4). Nigeria as a nation is full of contradictions. While being viewed as one of the next big economic powers, many of its citizens still suffer from poverty. Despite the notable diversity, minority groups are regularly discriminated against and conflicts occur frequently. It remains to be seen how the future will evolve while the country tries to find a balance between modern developments and the numerous traditions which characterize the country. 2. A brief overview of Nigerian history 2.1. Period of colonization Colonialism took place in Nigeria from the mid-19th century until the country's independence in 1960. British influence began in 1807 with the prohibition of slave trade after millions of Nigerians were forcibly sent to America during the 16th to 18th century. It was in the 1850s that the British established presence around Lagos before the Oil River Protectorate was established in 1884. From that moment on, British influence kept increasing. However, they did not effectively occupy the area until 1885 when Britain's dominance was officially recognized during the Berlin Conference. Great Britain reached their climax of power when the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate were united to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (cp. source 4). 2.2. Gaining independence In 1957, conferences were held in London discussing the future of Nigeria. Nigerian delegates of each region were selected to represent the individual opinions. The Western and Eastern region became officially self-governing in the same year and the Northern region was granted independence two years later. All of them were "equally autonomous in relation to the federal government at Lagos." (source 4). After elections - 5- were held for a new, larger House of Representatives in 1959, the three regions were officially declared independent as a united nation on October 1, 1960. Nnamdi Azikiwe became the country's first president, making him the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Nigeria's head of state. While most regional constitutions adopted the same concept as the federal government, the northern region differs by creating a constitution in line with Islamic law. While the autonomy caused enthusiasm in the country, Nigeria faced challenges only shortly after, when growing tensions between the ethnic groups resulted in the outbreak of the Civil War in 1967. It became obvious that self-governance was largely associated with arising issues (ibidem). 2.3. Member of the Commonwealth When gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria automatically became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Established in 1949, the Commonwealth was seen as a replacement of the British Empire after many of the member countries had become increasingly self-sufficient (cp. source 5). As one of the first former British colonies in Africa to become independent, Nigeria led the way for many other countries on the continent. The Nigerian nation embodied the so-called "Wind of Change" even before the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan mentioned it in his speech in 1969. At the time, Macmillan stated: "The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact." (source 6), clearly signalling that the United Kingdom would not prohibit African nations from seeking independence (ibidem). Nigeria was proof of this. 3. Biafra: Civil War 3.1. Ethnic groups There are an estimated 250 ethnic groups within the Nigerian nation. Each of them live in their own territory which belongs to them "by right of first occupancy and inheritance." (source 7). The three major groups are the Hausa-Fulani in the north, the Nigeria after Independence: Introduction ● Challenges and Opportunities of an African Nation ● approx. 190 million citizens O Africa's most populous country named after the Niger river by British journalist Flora Shaw in the late 19th century often described as the link between west and central Africa divided into 36 states, one federal capital territory for the capital Abuja Lagos (former capital) is the most populous city in all of Africa O continues to be the country's leading commercial and industrial city extremely diverse country 3rd largest English speaking nation (after the USA and India) O English is moreso considered a lingua franca, spoken with a strong dialect with many unique words and phrases Contradictions Nigeria as a nation is full of contradictions O although one of the next big economic powers, many still suffer from poverty notable diversity, minority groups are regularly discriminated against, frequent conflicts federal presidential republic with many tribal kingdoms are still ruled by traditional monarchs It remains to be seen how the future will evolve while the country tries to find a balance between modern developments and the numerous traditions which characterize the country. A Brief Overview of Nigerian History Period of Colonization mid-19th c. until the country's independence in 1960 1807: influence began with prohibition of slave trade millions of Nigerians were forcibly sent to America during the 16th to 18th centuries O 1850s: British presence established around Lagos influence kept increasing dominance not officially recognized until 1885 climax of power: Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate were joined as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (1900) Gaining independence ● 1957: conferences discussing Nigeria's future O Nigerian delegates of each region 1957: Western and Eastern region become independent 1959: Northern region gains independence O all regions equally autonomous with the federal government in Lagos 1960 (Oct 1): 3 regions officially declared independent as a united nation O O larger House of Representatives after election in 1959 Nnamdi Azikiwe became the country's first president (representative of the Queen) most regions adopted the same concept as the federal government O northern region: constitution in line with Islamic law Member of the Commonwealth became a member when gaining independence (1960) Nigerian nation embodied "Wind of Change" as one of the first African nations to gain independence O ● Biafra: Civil War Ethnic Groups Prime Minister Macmillan (1969): “The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact." ● approx. 250 ethnic groups ● signalling that the UK would not prohibit African nations from seeking independence Civil War O each live in their own territory three major groups: Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo O religious differences north-south divide 1966: government overthrown by Chukwuma Nzeogwu, who began setting up a military dictatorship O Nzeogwu murdered during a second coup O leaders of that coup held power for about a decade thousands of Igbos, who were living as a minority in the northern region, were killed by Northern soldiers republic of Biafra declared independence on the behalf of the Igbo people July 6, 1967: outbreak of the Civil War O O over the next three years, approx. one mill. people died 1968: images of the famine published around the world worldwide protests demanding end of the conflict 1970: Biafran surrender, end of war Suspension from the Commonwealth years after the war: challenging political situation O violation of rights resulted in criticism from numerous other countries writer and political activist Ken Saro-Wiwa was executed along with eight other human rights campaigners 1995: Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth the country no longer received technical assistance from the Commonwealth O Nigerian representatives not able to participate in meetings many European nations withdrew their envoys 1999: suspension ended, Nigeria rejoined Situation after the War despite efforts being made, the ethnic division has has not been addressed enough to be resolved O tensions are still high still many pro-Biafra activists O most are indigenous people of Biafra 2015: leader Nnamdi Kanu arrested for his rhetoric popularity only kept increasing announced: "Biafra or death, one of the two must happen." Amnesty international claimed: Nigerian army killed 150 unarmed peaceful pro-Biafra activists (May of 2016) it remains to be seen how the conflict will develop and how relationships between the indigenous groups will be affected Politics and Terrorism Current Political Situation major improvement in the country's political development recent national state elections (2019): re-election of Muhammadu Buhari ● O highly competitive, mostly peaceful (scattered instances of violence) O voter turnout historically low → signalling distrust Nigeria, as a democracy, still has work to do Boko Haram terrorist group Boko Haram (founded in 2002) O "Western Education is forbidden" (in Hausa dialect) O the name they use to refer to themselves as means: "People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad." committed to Islam and Sharia Law don't engage with political system Dec 2003: first attack, invasion of various police stations 2009: uprising of the group O Nigeria responded with joint military task force → 700 Boko Haram members killed Leader Mohammed Yusuf was captured and later died proscribed Boko Haram as a terrorist organization 2014: kidnapping of 276 teenage girls from a boarding school (112 still missing) amount of attacks has not decreased Society Illiteracy 35% of the population are illiterate (citizens over the age of 15) women have a higher rate of illiteracy in all areas O northwest: 62.2 % of men and only 25.8 % of women higher rates in the north literacy rate has only slightly increased over the last 30 years O multiple programs have been started by the government many believe not enough is done O Female Genital Mutilation approx. 20 million girls/women have undergone female genital mutilation 85% of those: under the age of 5 FGM was banned in 2015 still practiced in many regions → inconsistency between the law and its enforcement Anti-Homosexuality Laws Nigeria has a law against homosexuality O same-sex relationships are punishable → jail sentence it has only been used to put pressure on queer people 2019: 47 men went on trial for gay public display of affection O final decision has not been made Health and Hunger 7.1 MM need humanitarian assistance O many areas inaccessible many struggles with the citizens' state of health O causes of death: respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, HIV other threats: malnutrition, pollution, traffic accidents major progress since 1950s O polio, malaria, tuberculosis, life expectancy at birth, U5MR northern Nigeria: 3rd highest level of chronic undernutrition of children O O result of Boko Haram lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, poor knowledge of healthy food Economy Nigeria's economy Nigeria has flourished into an economic power 95% of the country's exports: mineral fuels, including oil O remaining 5%: mostly ships and cocoa India: largest export partner, China: largest import partner Relationship with the BRICS Nations discussions about the relations between Nigeria and the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) O 2011: 97 % of Nigeria's crude oil was exported to BRICS nations many experts suggest trade policies to ensure economic growth for Nigeria O O classified as an N-11 O eleven countries that are predicted to become the next big economic powers does not yet meet some of the criteria O others believe they should be a part of the BRICS placed 152nd out of 188 countries in the 2016 HDI have only a third of South Africa's GDP per capita lingua franca coup d'état famine envoy voter turnout illiteracy female genital mutilation = a language used for communication between groups of people who speak different languages Putsch Hungersnot Gesandter Wahlbeteiligung Analphabetismus weibliche Genitalverstümmelung respiratory infections Atemwegsinfektionen GDP: gross domestic product Bruttoinlandsprodukt