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Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 Nigeria after Independence:
Introdu
Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 Nigeria after Independence:
Introdu
Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 Nigeria after Independence:
Introdu
Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 Nigeria after Independence:
Introdu
Nigeria after Independence
Challenges of an African Nation
Karlotta
Englisch Leistungskurs
02. März 2020 Nigeria after Independence:
Introdu

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Nigeria after Independence Challenges of an African Nation Karlotta Englisch Leistungskurs 02. März 2020 Nigeria after Independence: Introduction Challenges and Opportunities of an African Nation ● approx. 190 million citizens ● ● O Africa's most populous country named after the Niger river by British journalist Flora Shaw in the late 19th century often described as the link between west and central Africa divided into 36 states, one federal capital territory for the capital Abuja Lagos (former capital) is the most populous city in all of Africa O continues to be the country's leading commercial and industrial city extremely diverse country 3rd largest English speaking nation (after the USA and India) O English is moreso considered a lingua franca, spoken with a strong dialect with many unique words and phrases Contradictions Nigeria as a nation is full of contradictions O although one of the next big economic powers, many still suffer from poverty notable diversity, minority groups are regularly discriminated against, frequent conflicts federal presidential republic with many tribal kingdoms are still ruled by traditional monarchs → It remains to be seen how the future will evolve while the country tries to find a balance between modern developments and the numerous traditions which characterize the country. O O A Brief Overview of Nigerian History Period of Colonization ● ● ● mid-19th c. until the country's independence in 1960 1807: influence began with prohibition of slave trade millions of Nigerians were forcibly sent to America during the 16th to...

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18th centuries O Gaining independence ● ● 1850s: British presence established around Lagos influence kept increasing O O dominance not officially recognized until 1885 climax of power: Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate were joined as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (1900) 1957: conferences discussing Nigeria's future O Nigerian delegates of each region 1957: Western and Eastern region become independent 1959: Northern region gains independence O all regions equally autonomous with the federal government in Lagos 1960 (Oct 1): 3 regions officially declared independent as a united nation O larger House of Representatives after election in 1959 Nnamdi Azikiwe became the country's first president (representative of the Queen) O most regions adopted the same concept as the federal government O northern region: constitution in line with Islamic law List of contents Personal Foreword 1. Introduction 2. A brief overview of Nigerian history 2.1 Period of colonization 2.2 Gaining independence 2.3 Member of Commonwealth 3. Biafra: Civil War 3.1 Ethnic groups 3.2 Civil War 3.3 Suspension from the Commonwealth 3.4 Situation after the war 4. Politics and terrorism 4.1 Current political situation 4.2 Boko Haram 5. Society 5.1 Sexual violence against women 5.2 Female genital mutilation 5.3 Illiteracy 5.4 Anti-homosexuality laws 5.5 Health and hunger 6. Economy 6.1 Relationship with the BRICS nation 7. Outlook on the future (personal opinion) page 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 Member of the Commonwealth ● ● ● Biafra: Civil War Ethnic Groups ● became a member when gaining independence (1960) Nigerian nation embodied "Wind of Change" as one of the first African nations to gain independence O Prime Minister Macmillan (1969): "The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact." ● ● O Civil War signalling that the UK would not prohibit African nations from seeking independence approx. 250 ethnic groups O each live in their own territory three major groups: Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Igbo O religious differences north-south divide 1966: government overthrown by Chukwuma Nzeogwu, who began setting up a military dictatorship O O thousands of Igbos, who were living as a minority in the northern region, were killed by Northern soldiers republic of Biafra declared independence on the behalf of the Igbo people July 6, 1967: outbreak of the Civil War O O Nzeogwu murdered during a second coup leaders of that coup held power for about a decade over the next three years, approx. one mill. people died 1968: images of the famine published around the world → worldwide protests demanding end of the conflict 1970: Biafran surrender, end of war Suspension from the Commonwealth ● ● years after the war: challenging political situation O ● writer and political activist Ken Saro-Wiwa was executed along with eight other human rights campaigners 1995: Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth O the country no longer received technical assistance from the Commonwealth Nigerian representatives not able to participate in meetings O violation of rights resulted in criticism from numerous other countries Situation after the War O 1999: suspension ended, Nigeria rejoined many European nations withdrew their envoys despite efforts being made, the ethnic division has has not been addressed enough to be resolved O tensions are still high still many pro-Biafra activists O O most are indigenous people of Biafra 2015: leader Nnamdi Kanu arrested for his rhetoric O popularity only kept increasing announced: "Biafra or death, one of the two must happen." Amnesty international claimed: Nigerian army killed 150 unarmed peaceful pro-Biafra activists (May of 2016) it remains to be seen how the conflict will develop and how relationships between the indigenous groups will be affected -3- Personal forword Before I started my research for this paper, the complexity of the Nigerian nation, and especially its society, was not fully apparent to me. Despite being aware of the variety of aspects which heavily influence the country, I felt more and more fascinated by both the broad history and present of the country, the more information I was able to collect. When discussing the paper's topic with other people in my surroundings, it became evident that the vast majority of our society is unaware of Nigeria's importance, whether regarding the mere size and number of population, the value of the Nigerian economy or the ethnic diversity within the country. This same large variety of aspects made it difficult to provide an outline of Nigeria as a whole. However, the general lack of knowledge about Nigeria only made it more interesting to learn about this unique country. I enjoyed feeling like I had the opportunity to portray Nigeria in a realistic way, providing both positive and negative aspects. I believe it is necessary to provide the reader with a fact-based overview of the Nigerian history, politics, economy and society, in order to allow the forming of one's own impression on this country of great significance. 1. Introduction With about 190 million citizens, the Federal Republic of Nigeria is not only Africa's most populous country, but also the continent's largest economy. Named after the Niger river by British journalist Flora Shaw in the late 19th century (cp. source 1), Nigeria is bordered by Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon and often described as the link between west and central Africa. The nation is divided into 36 states and one federal capital territory for the capital Abuja (cp. appendix no. 1). The former capital Lagos is the most populous city in all of Africa (cp. source 2) and continues to be the country's leading commercial and industrial city (cp. source 3). While the country is a federal presidential republic, many tribal kingdoms are still ruled by traditional monarchs. Due to these ethnic groups, each with their own cultures, religions and languages, Nigeria is an Politics and Terrorism Current Political Situation ● major improvement in the country's political development recent national state elections (2019): re-election of Muhammadu Buhari ● ● O highly competitive, mostly peaceful (scattered instances of violence) voter turnout historically low →→signalling distrust Boko Haram ● O Nigeria, as a democracy, still has work to do terrorist group Boko Haram (founded in 2002) O O "Western Education is forbidden" (in Hausa dialect) the name they use to refer to themselves as means: "People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad." committed to Islam and Sharia Law → don't engage with political system Dec 2003: first attack, invasion of various police stations 2009: uprising of the group O Nigeria responded with joint military task force → 700 Boko Haram members killed O Leader Mohammed Yusuf was captured and later died proscribed Boko Haram as a terrorist organization 2014: kidnapping of 276 teenage girls from a boarding school (112 still missing) amount of attacks has not decreased Society Illiteracy ● Female Genital Mutilation ● 35% of the population are illiterate (citizens over the age of 15) women have a higher rate of illiteracy in all areas O northwest: 62.2 % of men and only 25.8 % of women higher rates in the north literacy rate has only slightly increased over the last 30 years O multiple programs have been started by the government many believe not enough is done ● O ● approx. 20 million girls/women have undergone female genital mutilation 85% of those: under the age of 5 FGM was banned in 2015 O Anti-Homosexuality Laws still practiced in many regions → inconsistency between the law and its enforcement Nigeria has a law against homosexuality O same-sex relationships are punishable → jail sentence it has only been used to put pressure on queer people 2019: 47 men went on trial for gay public display of affection O final decision has not been made Health and Hunger 7.1 MM need humanitarian assistance O many areas inaccessible many struggles with the citizens' state of health O O causes of death: respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, HIV other threats: malnutrition, pollution, traffic accidents ● ● major progress since 1950s O polio, malaria, tuberculosis, life expectancy at birth, U5MR Economy Nigeria's economy ● northern Nigeria: 3rd highest level of chronic undernutrition of children O O ● Nigeria has flourished into an economic power 95% of the country's exports: mineral fuels, including oil Relationship with the BRICS Nations result of Boko Haram lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, poor knowledge of healthy food O remaining 5%: mostly ships and cocoa India: largest export partner, China: largest import partner discussions about the relations between Nigeria and the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) 2011: 97 % of Nigeria's crude oil was exported to BRICS nations O O O many experts suggest trade policies to ensure economic growth for Nigeria O classified as an N-11 others believe they should be a part of the BRICS eleven countries that are predicted to become the next big economic powers does not yet meet some of the criteria O O placed 152nd out of 188 countries in the 2016 HDI have only a third of South Africa's GDP per capita lingua franca coup d'état famine envoy voter turnout illiteracy female genital mutilation = a language used for communication between groups of people who speak different languages Putsch Hungersnot Gesandter Wahlbeteiligung Analphabetismus weibliche Genitalverstümmelung respiratory infections Atemwegsinfektionen GDP: gross domestic product Bruttoinlandsprodukt -4- extremely diverse country. Despite it being the third largest English speaking nation, after the United States and India, English is moreso considered a lingua franca and is spoken with a strong dialect with many unique words and phrases (cp. source 4). Nigeria as a nation is full of contradictions. While being viewed as one of the next big economic powers, many of its citizens still suffer from poverty. Despite the notable diversity, minority groups are regularly discriminated against and conflicts occur frequently. It remains to be seen how the future will evolve while the country tries to find a balance between modern developments and the numerous traditions which characterize the country. 2. A brief overview of Nigerian history 2.1. Period of colonization Colonialism took place in Nigeria from the mid-19th century until the country's independence in 1960. British influence began in 1807 with the prohibition of slave trade after millions of Nigerians were forcibly sent to America during the 16th to 18th century. It was in the 1850s that the British established presence around Lagos before the Oil River Protectorate was established in 1884. From that moment on, British influence kept increasing. However, they did not effectively occupy the area until 1885 when Britain's dominance was officially recognized during the Berlin Conference. Great Britain reached their climax of power when the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate were united to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (cp. source 4). 2.2. Gaining independence In 1957, conferences were held in London discussing the future of Nigeria. Nigerian delegates of each region were selected to represent the individual opinions. The Western and Eastern region became officially self-governing in the same year and the Northern region was granted independence two years later. All of them were "equally autonomous in relation to the federal government at Lagos." (source 4). After elections -5- were held for a new, larger House of Representatives in 1959, the three regions were officially declared independent as a united nation on October 1, 1960. Nnamdi Azikiwe became the country's first president, making him the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Nigeria's head of state. While most regional constitutions adopted the same concept as the federal government, the northern region differs by creating a constitution in line with Islamic law. While the autonomy caused enthusiasm in the country, Nigeria faced challenges only shortly after, when growing tensions between the ethnic groups resulted in the outbreak of the Civil War in 1967. It became obvious that self-governance was largely associated with arising issues (ibidem). 2.3. Member of the Commonwealth When gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria automatically became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Established in 1949, the Commonwealth was seen as a replacement of the British Empire after many of the member countries had become increasingly self-sufficient (cp. source 5). As one of the first former British colonies in Africa to become independent, Nigeria led the way for many other countries on the continent. The Nigerian nation embodied the so-called "Wind of Change" even before the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan mentioned it in his speech in 1969. At the time, Macmillan stated: "The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact." (source 6), clearly signalling that the United Kingdom would not prohibit African nations from seeking independence (ibidem). Nigeria was proof of this. 3. Biafra: Civil War 3.1. Ethnic groups There are an estimated 250 ethnic groups within the Nigerian nation. Each of them live in their own territory which belongs to them "by right of first occupancy and inheritance." (source 7). The three major groups are the Hausa-Fulani in the north, the -6- Yoruba in the west and the Igbo in the eastern region (cp. appendix no. 2). The Hausa have been one of the most populous groups in the nation for a long time and have integrated with the smaller Fulani group through intermarriage. The majority of both groups is Muslim (cp. source 7). The country's north-south divide became obvious long before Nigeria's independence. An early example of the separation can be found in the late 19th century when the Royal Niger company declared the northern region separate from the coast area and again, a few years later when the Royal West African Frontier Force formed both a northern and a southern division. Even during this time, the Hausa- Fulani were viewed by Europeans as superior and more civilized than other ethnic groups. In 1904, Frederick Lugard, former governor-general of Nigeria, claimed that the "[...] Protectorate of Northern Nigeria [...] is almost the only part of British tropical Africa which possesses a history extending over many centuries, or a semi-civilization of its own which dates long prior to the advent of Europeans within its borders. These facts give it a unique interest." (source 8). The Eastern Igbo, however, were described by him as "[...] not developed beyond the stage of primitive savagery." (ibidem). 3.2. Civil War Only six years after Nigeria was granted independence by the United Kingdom, the government was overthrown by Chukwuma Nzeogwu who, along with his troops, began setting up a military dictatorship. After Nzeogwu was murdered during a second coup in that same year, the leaders of that coup held power for about a decade (cp. source 19). Thousands of Igbos, who were living as a minority in the northern region, were killed by Northern soldiers. As a reaction, the republic of Biafra declared independence on behalf of the Igbo people a few months later (cp. appendix no. 3). These events resulted in the outbreak of the Civil War on July 6, 1967. Over the next three years, an estimated one million people died, mostly from hunger. In 1968, images of the famine were published around the world to gain empathy, leading to worldwide protests demanding the end of the conflict. The war came to an end in 1970 with the Biafran surrender, as -7- the Nigerian army was far better equipped. However, the end of the war can not be equated with the end of the conflict (cp. source 9). 3.3. Suspension from the Commonwealth In the years after the war, the political situation in Nigeria was challenging and the violation of rights resulted in criticism from numerous other countries. In 1995, Nigeria was suspended from the Commonwealth after writer and political activist Ken Saro- Wiwa was executed along with eight other human rights campaigners. Subsequently, the country no longer received technical assistance from the Commonwealth, nor were Nigerian representatives able to participate in meetings of the federation (cp. source 9). In addition, many European nations withdrew their envoys (cp. source 10). The suspension served as a public declaration from the member countries to the Nigerian government and the rest of the world, showing their disapproval of the nation's violation of human rights and democracy (cp. source 9). Nigeria rejoined the Commonwealth when the suspension ended in 1999 (cp. source 11). 3.4. Situation after the war Despite some efforts being made, the ethnic division in Nigeria has not been addressed enough to be resolved, therefore tensions are still high. Nowadays, there are still many pro-Biafra activists, most of them being indigenous people of Biafra, who are also referred to as IPOB. In 2015, their leader Nnamdi Kanu was arrested for his rhetoric but his popularity only kept increasing. In an interview, he announced: "Biafra or death, one of the two most happen." (source 6). Amnesty international claimed that in May of 2016 the Nigerian army killed 150 unarmed peaceful pro-Biafra activists. It remains to be seen how the conflict will develop and how the relation between the indigenous groups will be affected (ibidem). 4. Politics and Terrorism -8- 4.1 Current political situation There has been major improvement in the political development of Africa's largest democracy. The national and state elections in 2019, in which the current president Muhammadu Buhari was seeking re-election (cp. source 12), were highly competitive and were mostly peaceful aside from scattered instances of violence. While those are positive reports of the election, it is also important to note that voter turnout was historically low which "signals a deepening distrust in government and institutions." (source 13). Despite some improvements, Nigeria as a democracy still has work to do. 4.2 Boko Haram The islamic terrorist group Boko Haram, which means "Western Education is forbidden" in a local Hausa dialect, was founded in Nigeria in 2002. The group, which mainly inhabits northern areas, also refers to itself as "Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad," meaning "People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad." Boko Haram does not engage with Nigeria's political system because of their commitment to Islam and Sharia law. Their first attack took place in December 2003, when 200 of their soldiers invaded various police stations. However, the uprising of the group did not occur until 2009. Nigeria responded with a joint military task force which resulted in the killing of 700 Boko Haram members. Leader Mohammed Yusuf was captured and later died. Between the uprising and the present, numerous attacks have led to the death of thousands of people. Yet, the terrorist group wasn't defined as such until 2013 when Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathan proscribed Boko Haram as a terrorist organization, soon followed by the U.S. Department adding Boko Haram to its own list of terrorist organizations. Global outrage arose in 2014 when 276 teenage girls were kidnapped from a boarding school in the northern city of Chibok. Almost six years after the kidnapping, 112 of the girls are still missing. To this day, the amount of -9- attacks carried out by Boko Haram has not decreased (cp. source 14). 5. Society The Nigerian society is extremely diverse due to its many different languages, landscapes and indigenous peoples. Despite the diversity and Nigeria being one of Africa's most advanced countries, there are still many issues that the nation's minority groups, especially women, face in their daily lives. Nigeria still does not follow all the principles of a democracy even though they define themselves as such. 5.1. Sexual violence against women In the pre-colonial period, there was a specific division of labor, with women usually working in domestic jobs, such as the food processing or pottery making. The land was communally owned, but could only be impacted by women through their husbands or fathers. Although men were always considered the head of the family, older women had control over the labor of younger family members. Some women even earned prestigious chieftaincy titles, due to the power they obtained in the trade industry (cp. source 15). Nowadays, many women still suffer under male supremacy. Research has shown that 23% of women have been victims of physical or sexual violence committed by a (previous) husband (cp. source 16). According to Unicef, one in four girls have experienced sexual violence by the age of 18. It can also be assumed that the actual number is even higher, as women often don't speak up about their experiences since domestic violence is so normalized in the country. As female subjugation is often viewed as a part of the African culture, the women are often blamed for what happened to them. Oluwaseun Ayodeji Osowobi, a Nigerian activist for women's rights, declared that there are cases "where victims are being questioned in front of the perpetrators or in open spaces and criticised by officers for not remembering details like the road where the rape occurred" (cp. source 17). Even if parents find out about the suffering of their abused daughters, they might advise them to stay with their husband because of - 10- financial security. Despite the existence of several non-governmental organizations battling against the issue, women still feel unsafe because they often find no support in their community. Sede Alonge, author of the article discussing why African women are at risk for violence, states that "Domestic abuse now needs to be robustly denormalized" (source 16). In 2019, the government made an attempt of reducing sexual violence when they launched a publicly accessible online register of people prosecuted for sexual violence. Schools and hospitals now have the opportunity of doing background checks, which offer hope for the establishment of more safety (cp. source 17). 5.2. Female genital mutilation However, sexual violence isn't the only challenge that many Nigerian women face. About 20 million girls and women have also undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) in the country, with 85 % of these women affirming that they were cut before the age of five (cp. appendix no. 4). Although President Goodluck Jonathan banned FGM in 2015, it is assumed that it is still practiced in many regions. In their article in the Guardian, Claire Daly and Mary Carlson criticize the "[...] inconsistency between the passing and enforcement of laws across the country." (source 18). 5.3 Illiteracy In addition, Nigerian women also have a higher rate of illiteracy than men in all areas of the nation (cp. source 19, appendix no. 5). According to the NMEC, The National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-formal Education, one third of the citizens over the age of 15 are not able to read and write (cp. source 20). In the northwest, 62.2 % of men and only 25.8 % of women are literate. Generally, illiteracy rates are higher in the north of the country than they are in the south (cp. source 19). Despite multiple programs that have been started by the government, the editorial board of the website "This Day" believes that "[...] authorities are not doing enough to address the situation [...]"(source 20), as the number is still very high (ibidem). - 11- 5.4 Anti-homosexuality laws Queer people are another example of a minority group which experiences discrimination in the African country. Although Nigeria's anti-homosexuality law has historically merely been used to put pressure on queer people or blackmail them into not openly showing their sexuality, there had never been any convictions until recently. In 2019, the law came into force when 47 men went on trial for public display of affection with members of the same sex. While a final decision has not been made, the men would get sentenced to ten years in jail if they are found guilty (cp. source 21). 5.5. Health and Hunger Compared to other countries, Nigeria faces major struggles with its citizens' state of health. Lower respiratory infections, neonatal disorders and HIV remain the topmost causes of death. Other threats to health include malnutrition, pollution and traffic accidents. However, there has been major progress in the improvement of health since the 1950s, specifically with polio, malaria and tuberculosis. The life expectancy at birth is increasing as well as the amount of children living past the age of five. In ten years, the Under-5 mortality rate, also referred to as U5MR, reduced from 145.7 to 100.2 in 1,000 children. While there has been significant progress, it is important to comment on the considerable amount of Nigerians who continue to suffer from hunger and malnutrition (cp. source 22). As a result of the Boko Haram conflict, northern Nigeria experiences the third highest level of chronic undernutrition among children in the world. This is due to a lack of access to save drinking water, sanitation and poor knowledge of healthy food. 7.1 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance but often live in areas that are inaccessible (cp. source 23). 6. Economy 6.1. Relationship with the BRICS nations Nigeria has flourished into an economic power. Mineral fuels, including oil make up nearly 95 % of the country's exports, the remaining five percent being made up of - 12- mostly ships and cocoa (cp. source 24). With India being their largest export partner and China being the country that provides them with the majority of import goods (cp. source 2), there have been discussions about the relations between Nigeria and the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). In 2011, 97 % of Nigeria's crude oil was exported to BRICS nations. Many experts suggest trade policies to ensure that Nigeria will continue to be provided with the import products that assure the country's economic growth (cp. source 25). Others believe that Nigeria itself should be a part of BRICS. They justify this by the fact that Nigeria has a larger economy than South Africa, which is already a member country. In addition, the nation has been classified as one of the N-11; eleven countries that are predicted to become the next big economic powers. However, there is also criteria that Nigeria does not meet. In the 2016 Human Development Index, which measures life expectancy, education and per capita income (cp. source 26), Nigeria was only placed 152nd out of 188 countries. Furthermore, they have only a third of South Africa's GDP per capita. Paragraph 60 of the BRICS Declaration clearly states that, aside from a strong economy, potential members must have other values that will also benefit their citizens, as well as strong technological advances: "We are convinced that trade and technology are vital sources of inclusive growth [...]. Technological progress will have wide ranging implications for production of goods and services as well as incomes of people." (cp. source 27). 7. Outlook on the future (Personal Opinion) It is quite challenging to assume what the future of Nigeria will look like. The following years will show if Nigeria will develop in a positive way, improving the economic situation of their population, allowing the country to form even closer relations with the BRICS nations or possibly even join them. Furthermore, it remains to be seen how the division between the different indigenous groups will evolve and change. It will become apparent if the Nigerian government is successful in reducing tensions, which will be the crucial factor for the overall security - 13- of the country's citizens. One is left to speculate about the future of Biafra and whether or not a breakaway of the region is likely, as well as the government's battle against terrorism. I would argue that the societal improvements will be the determining factors for the future of Nigeria. It will become evident whether the Nigerian people will continue to suffer in the shadows of their flourishing country or if a strengthened, united society will be able to contribute to the advances of the African nation. While I believe that the economy has the potential to further expand, I suppose that this will only be possible if the Nigerian government will make some major changes to support their citizens. This includes ensuring the safety of minority groups by shifting the widely spread perception of women being inferior to men and therefore not offering them enough support. For an increased safety of the Nigerian people, the nation's leaders will also need to alter their way of handling terrorism. While it certainly is not an easy task to take actions against a terrorist group as large as Boko Haram, I believe that the government is still trying to ignore the problem instead of truly addressing it. If Nigeria is able to focus on their responsibility as a democratic nation and commit to improving the situation of all groups of people in their country, I have no doubts that the African country will be fully competent of overcoming the current challenges and utilizing its opportunity to become one of the world's leading nations. Appendix no. 1: Federal States of Nigeria (cp. source 28) TSCHAD Tschad- Niamey FASO BENIN Lagos Novo Oyo Ibadan Osun Ekiti Ogun Ondo 4 nörd. Br 6 Kebbi BENIN Atlantischer Ozean Kwara 50 Lagos Benin-Stadt (Benin City) for. YORUBA Sokoto badan Lagos Niger 100 miles Ibadan Abeokuta keja Zamfara Bight of Benin Ogbomosho Edo Bayelsa Delta KAMBERI UTM projection (WGS84) EDO NUPE Abuja 1 Kogi Morin NIGER OZinder JAW ATLANTIC OCEAN Katsina Jigawa Kaduna Imo Rivers Oshogbo HAUSA and FULANI - 14- Hauptstadt Staatsgrenze Bundesstaatsgrenze no. 2: Ethnic Groups (cp. source 29) Kaduna Nassarawa Ebonyi Abia Cross River Port Harcourt Kaduna, Kano Kano IGALA IGBO Ado-Ekiti Akure Benue Benin City BORIM Makyn NIGERIA enapa TIV EKOI Lokaja Plateau Bauchi Gulf of Guinea Kom Benue Enugu Asaba paka Onitsha Gombe Taraba Bach KAMERUN no. 3: Biafra Region (cp. source 30) JUKON Yobe Chamba Edo Efk-Ibibio Principal linguistic groups Makurdi Aba Uyoo Port Harcourt Umuahia Qu Yobe Adamawa Garoua Bight of Bonny KANURI Ogoja Opbakaliki Borno Maiduguri Lafia Calabar/ 1= Hauptstadterritorium 2=Anambra 4- Akwa Ibom zum Vergleich: Nordrhein- Westfalen Maidugu Hausa/Fulani Nupe TSCHAD 100 Bioko Island Med CAMEROON no. 4: Female Genital Mutilation (cp. source 31) Estimated FGM prevalence by state 0% 10 25 Niger Benin Ibadan JY Lagos Highest: Osun 76.6% Guardian graphic - 15- Abuja >90% 80-90% 70-80% 60-70% 50-60% 35-50% <35% Lowest: Katsina 0.1% Female Literacy Rate in Nigeria by state Cameroon Chad no. 5: Female Literacy Rates (cp. source 32) Source: 28 Too Many List of references - 16- source 1: Wikipedia, (2020). 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Oktober 2016. <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/oct/11/fgm-nigeria-20-million- women-and-girls-undergone-female-genital-mutilation> source 19: Yomi Kazeem, (2013). Literacy rates in Nigeria's north are lower than in the south. 16. Februar 2020. 2019. <https://theatlas.com/charts/Byl1cY_Ox> source 20: This Day Editorial Board, (2019). The challenge of illiteracy in Nigeria. 16. Februar 2020. 01. August 2019. <https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2019/08/01/the-challenge-of- illiteracy-in-nigeria/> source 21: Jason Burke, (2019). First men go on trial under Nigeria's anti- homosexuality laws. 10. Januar 2020. 11. Dezember 2019. <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/11/first-men-go-on-trial- under- nigerias-anti-homosexuality-laws> source 22: Wikipedia, (2020). Health in Nigeria. 24.Februar 2020. 22. Januar 2020. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_in_Nigeria> source 23: Action Against Hunger, Nigeria. 24. 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Oktober 2017. <https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bundesstaaten_Nigerias#/media/Datei:Nigeria- karte-politisch.png > source 29: Wikipedia (2013). Nigeria linguistical map. 27. Februar 2020. 23. März 2013. <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nigeria_linguistical_map_1979.svg> - 18- source 30: Wikipedia, (2019). Biafra independent state. 27. Februar 2020. 31. Dezember 2019. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biafra#/media/File:Biafra independent_state_ma p-en.svg> source 31: 28 Too Many, (2013). Prevalance of FGM. 27. Februar 2020. 2013. <https://www.28toomany.org/country/nigeria/> _state_in_2013.svg > source 32: Wikipedia, (2016). Female literacy rate in Nigeria by state in 2013. 27. Februar 2020. 28. November 2016. <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Female_literacy_rate_in_Nigeria_by - 19- Ich erkläre, dass ich die Facharbeit ohne fremde Hilfe angefertigt und nur die im Literaturverzeichnis angeführten Quellen und Hilfsmittel benutzt habe. Karlotta den 02.03.2020