SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GENETIC ENGINEERING > definition: Genetic engineering is the process to alter the structure and nature of genes in human beings, animals or foods using techniques like molecular cloning and transformation. I other words, it is the process of adding or modifying DNA in an organism to bring about a great deal of transformation. PRO - can lead to crops which have natural pest resistance - an opportunity to begin producing substances that can enter the human food chain - it is a process that could improve human health at the cellular level - can be used to help current food resources to begin producing more of them - it allows patients to be treated with their own cells - improves pharmaceuticals TRANSHUMANISM CON - creates the potential for problematic pathogens - creates a series of unknown hybrids through the natural cross-pollination process that would provide unpredictable results for society - unfavorable level of diversity - unpredictable outcomes, - could create new diseases - puts agricultural workers at risk for financial harm - abusive purpose "designer baby" - creates unwanted side effects Genetic engineering was thought to be a real problem just a few years ago. We feared that soon we would be interfering with nature, trying to play god and cheat him out of his chance to decide whether we were light-haired or dark-haired. The queries and concerns that we have regarding such an intriguing...
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part of science are still alive, although they are less talked about nowadays than they were a few years ago. In fact, they are as relevant today as they ever were. There are a number of very real and very troubling concerns surrounding genetic engineering, although there are also some very real benefits to further genetic engineering. > definition Transhumanism is the theory that science and technology can help human beings develop beyond what is physically and mentally possible at the present time: Transhumanism asserts that with all the new technologies available, mankind will be able to solve every challenge it faces. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE > definition: Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Specific applications of Al include expert systems, natural language processing, speech recognition and machine vision e.g., Siri, Alexa, self-driving cars. PRO - reduction in "human error" (with Al, the decisions are taken from the previously gathered information applying a certain set of algorithms) - we can overcome many risky limitations of humans by developing an Al robot which in turn can do risky things for us - available 24/7 - digital assistance - daily applications CON - Al is making humans lazy with its applications automating the majority of the work -high costs of creation - lacking out of box thinking - humans tend to get addicted - unemployment (Al is replacing repetitive tasks and other works) BIOTECHNOLOGY - human interference is becoming less - no emotions Every new invention or breakthrough will have advantages and disadvantages but we as humans need to take care of that and use the positive sides of the invention to create a better world. The key for humans will ensure the "rise of robots" doesn't get out of hand. CYBORG > definition: A cyborg is a fictional or hypothetical person whose physical abilities are extended beyond normal human limitations by mechanical elements built into the body. DESIGNER BABY > definition: Designer babies are products of genetic engineering. A designer baby is a baby whose genetic makeup has been selected in order to eradicate a particular defect or to ensure that a particular gene is present. > definition: Biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help to improve our lives and the health of our planet. ENERGY TRANSITION > definition: Energy transitions refer to the global energy sector's shift from fossil-based systems of energy production and consumption - including oil, natural gas and coal - to renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The increasing penetration of renewable energy into the energy supply mix, the onset of electrification and improvements in energy storage are all key drivers of the energy transition. GENE PHARMING > definition: Gene pharming is the process of genetically modifying plants and animals so that they produce substances. It refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism. PRO - growing plants is much cheaper than producing vaccines - plants cannot host most human pathogens, so the vaccines will not pose a danger to humans CON - plants are living organisms that change, so the vaccine production might not be guaranteed - the edible vaccines could be mistaken for regular fruits and consumed in larger amounts - if the vaccines were grown in fields or trees, security would become a big issue GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD > definition: Genetically modified foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that doesn't occur naturally e.g., through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. CLONING > definition: Cloning is the process of creating an exact copy of a plant or animal by using it cells. It is a type of genetic engineering that uses cells from one organism to create a second living organism that is genetically identical to the first.