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Shakespeare Abiturzusammenfassung

23.3.2023

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the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith
the mo
another to perform some criminal
DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate
,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing
wherewith

the mo another to perform some criminal DETTOR, a law term ng one watigate ,,Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing wherewith we fly to heaven." - William Shakespeare Shakespeare Abiturzusammenfassung 1) Important facts about William Shakespeare: The Globe 2) Elizabethan time + Society + Role of Women 3) Shakespearean motifs 4) Shakespeare's plays + Macbeth + Othello + A Midsummer Night's Dream Romeo and Juliet + The Tempest 5) Shakespeare's sonnets + Form and structure Content/motifs + Heroic couplet Help for interpretation + Analysis example 6) Relevance & arguments 7) Assignments + Text analysis: excerpt of Othello ✦ Susan Banett: "Shakespeare's in danger" (Abiturprüfung 2011 GK) + Branndon Robshaw: "Why it's time to give the Bard the heave ho" (Abiturprüfung 2010 LK) 8) Connections to other topics Important facts about William Shakespeare: ✦ regarded as one of the greatest playwrights in history and his works are still performed and studied around the world. born in 1564, died in 1616 + wrote 28 plays, 154 sonnets and some other poetry + wrote 2 kinds of literature: poetry & drama →➜ divided into 3 categories: history plays, tragedies & comedies > supernatural + worked as an actor and later as a writer, mostly in The Globe The Globe: + a theatre in London associated with Shakespeare constructed in 1599 ✦ served as the primary venue for Shakespeare's plays for several years. an open-air theatre with a circular or octagonal shape could hold up to...

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3,000 spectators offered cushioned seats the stage was equipped with various special effects: cannon for sound effects & balcony scenes that requireda higher elevation large/expanded stage area → enabled a more immersive theatre experience trap doors for actors to enter and exit from below added an element of surprise and a sense of magic provides a venue for the performance of plays + important cultural and social life of Elizabethan England ✦ attracted audiences from everywhere including royalty, nobility and commoners ✦ popular gathering place for entertainment of English drama and theatre relationship between the audience and the actors was highly interactive and collaborative Elizabethan Time: ✦ named after Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) affected by astronomy, witchery and other early modern changes + historical term: Early Modern Period → refers to England's success: Society: Seamen Sir Francis Drake and Sir Martin Frobisher contributed to England's navy becoming the world's number one sea power which defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588 The East India Company, founded in 1600, colonized large parts of Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent, which increased England's wealth and initiated the building of the British Empire church: main factor in the city >religious class oriented society > most people belonged to peasantry (lower class) contemporary beliefs: superstition & witchery; science was less common, limited knowledge → as a result, people started to question these beliefs but found no answers which led to chaos. Role of women: couldn't decide about their lives + weren't allowed to act on stage getting married was an economic proposition + were seen as "objects for trade" + had to be submissive, fertile, reserved, modest, obedient, beautiful + were always someone's property & couldn't own property of their own Shakespearean motifs ambition & greed: treason: Othello: lago's thirst for power; Macbeth: Macbeth's thirst for power; his ambition to become king Tempest: Prospero's will to be the Duke of Milan again Today: society's ambition & for e.g. money + financial/political power +influence: + love: Tempest: Duke of Milan & Prospero gets deposed by his brother (political and brotherly betrayal) Macbeth: Macbeth's greed for power + illusion vs. reality: (reality depends on perception & is open to interpretation > ambiguity) Othello: lago creates fictional stories for the characters, which become their personal realit Macbeth: "Fair is foul, foul is fair" Macbeth's hallucinations ▶ Midsummer Night's: love as a dream/illusion: absurd, irrational, delusional; disorientation of the lovers after waking ► Today: fake news, social media, government, ... Othello: lago influences many characters because of his ambition. Macbeth: Lady Macbeth influences and controls Macbeth (→ intriguing plot through manipulation) Today: influence of social media, politics etc. on society + supernatural + religion: + hatred: Othello: the concept of devil (→ religion); lago controls the plot, influences the characters, creates different realities for the characters →godlike powers; Othello is Muslim (+ faces racism) Tempest: magician Prospero's magic and spells drive the plot; Ariel manipulates people Macbeth: three witches (+ number 3 as a symbol); the witches control the plot by influencing Macbeth Romeo & Juliet: are in love; symbols of light & darkness, sun & moon Midsummer Night's: many different love stories, reference to Romeo & Juliet (young love) Today: typical human emotion + envy & jealousy: Othello: Othello envies Cassio because of Desdemona; lago envies Cassio because he wants his position Today: typical human emotion Romeo & Juliet: hatred between the families Montague vs. Capulet; weapons and violence emphasizes the manifestation of hate Today: political opponents... Short summary of the plays: Macbeth: Macbeth is a tragedy play written by William Shakespeare that explores the corrupting influence of power and ambition. The play tells the story of Macbeth, a Scottish general, who is told by three witches that he will become king. Driven by his ambition and encouraged by his wife, Lady Macbeth, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the throne. However, his guilt and paranoia lead him to commit more murders, including those of his friend Banquo and Macduff's family. As the play progresses, Macbeth becomes more ruthless and paranoid, and his rule becomes increasingly tyrannical. Eventually, Macbeth is defeated in battle by Macduff and is killed. The play is known for its themes of ambition, guilt, betrayal, and the supernatural, including the witches' prophesies and the appearance of Banquo's ghost. Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's most famous plays and is widely studied and performed today. Othello: Othello is a tragedy play written by William Shakespeare in the early 17th century. The play tells the story of Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army who falls in love with Desdemona, a wealthy and beautiful woman. However, Othello's ensign, lago, becomes jealous of Othello's success and sets out to destroy him. lago manipulates Othello into believing that Desdemona has been unfaithful to him with his own lieutenant, Cassio. Consumed by jealousy and rage, Othello murders Desdemona and then takes his own life when he learns the truth about lago's deceit. Along with its exploration of jealousy, betrayal, and racism, the play also features complex characters, intricate plotting, and powerful language. Othello is one of Shakespeare's most famous and frequently performed plays, and it continues to be studied and adapted today. A Midsummer Night's Dream: A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy play written by William Shakespeare in the late 16th century. The play follows the lives and loves of several characters, including the Duke of Athens, Theseus, and his bride-to-be, Hippolyta, as well as a group of amateur actors, a fairy king and queen, and a group of young lovers. The plot revolves around the various characters and their interactions with one another, which are often influenced by the magical intervention of the fairy king, Oberon, and his mischievous servant, Puck. The play features mistaken identities, misunderstandings, and romantic entanglements, as the characters fall in and out of love with each other. Eventually, everything is resolved in a joyful and humorous ending, as the various couples are reunited and the amateur actors perform a comical play to entertain the Duke and his guests. A Midsummer Night's Dream is known for its witty dialogue, whimsical plot, and memorable characters, including the mischievous Puck and the vain actor, Bottom. The play is one of Shakespeare's most popular and frequently performed works and is often studied for its exploration of love, fantasy, and the power of the imagination. Romeo & Juliet: Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy play written by William Shakespeare in the late 16th century. The play tells the story of two young lovers from feuding families in Verona, Italy, who are desperate to be together. Romeo, a member of the Montague family, falls in love with Juliet, a member of the Capulet family, at a masquerade ball. Despite their families' hatred for each other, Romeo and Juliet secretly marry with the help of Friar Lawrence. As the play progresses, a series of misunderstandings and unfortunate events lead to the tragic deaths of Romeo and Juliet. Juliet's father insists that she marry the County Paris, causing her to seek out Friar Lawrence's help once again. The friar gives her a potion that will make her appear dead, so she can be reunited with Romeo once he comes to take her away. However, Romeo believes Juliet is truly dead and takes his own life, prompting Juliet to also take her own life upon waking to find him dead. The play is known for its exploration of love, fate, and the destructive nature of family feuds. Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeare's most popular and frequently performed plays, and it has been adapted into numerous films, ballets, and operas. The play's memorable characters, such as the tragic lovers Romeo and Juliet, their witty and loyal friends Mercutio and Benvolio, and the fiery Tybalt, continue to captivate audiences today. The Tempest: The Tempest is a play written by William Shakespeare in the early 17th century. The play is set on a remote island, where Prospero, a sorcerer and the rightful Duke of Milan, has been stranded with his daughter, Miranda, for twelve years. Prospero has used his magical powers to control the island's spirits and creatures, including the spirit Ariel and the monstrous Caliban. The play follows the story of Prospero's plan to bring his enemies to the island and seek revenge on them. His enemies include his brother Antonio, who usurped his position as Duke of Milan, and Alonso, the King of Naples, who helped Antonio in his plot. With the help of Ariel, Prospero creates a storm that shipwrecks his enemies on the island. There, they encounter various magical creatures and spirits, including Caliban, who plots to kill Prospero and take control of the island. Throughout the play, Prospero manipulates events to bring his enemies to justice, while also teaching them lessons about forgiveness and redemption. In the end, Prospero forgives his enemies, gives up his magical powers, and returns to Milan with Miranda. The Tempest is known for its exploration of themes such as forgiveness, redemption, and the power of nature. It is also known for its memorable characters, including the wise and powerful Prospero, the mischievous Ariel, and the grotesque yet sympathetic Caliban. The play continues to be studied and performed today for its intricate plotting, poetic language, and timeless themes. Shakespeare's sonnets (154) Form and structure three quatrains (four-line stanzas) followed by a final couplet/heroic couplet ► 14 lines rhyme scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GG (alternate rhyme + rhyming couplet) iambic pentameter (XX XX XX XX XX) ➤ exceptions e. g. Sonnets 99 (15 lines), 126 (six couplets), and 145 (in iambic tetrameters) Content/motifs Love as a common theme > Power of time (only love and poetry/another type of writing can counter time) ➤ Beauty (rather physical than intellectual) ➤ Infidelity ➤ Jealousy ➤ Mortality, aging Nature-oriented metaphors Unnamed young man "fair boy" ("Fair Youth") (sonnets 1-126) ● e. g. the urge to marry and father children (sonnets 1-17) ● handsome, self-centred, universally admired ➤ The Dark Lady sequence/Lady sonnets (sonnets 127-152) black hair and "dun" skin appears suddenly (Sonnet 127) she and the speaker of the sonnets are in a sexual relationship She is not aristocratic, young, beautiful, intelligent or chaste Her complexion is muddy, her breath "reeks", and she is ungainly when she walks overt sexuality (Sonnet 151) ● ● ● ● Heroic couplet ➤ Shakespeare also uses heroic couplets at the end of scenes (e. g. in Romeo and Juliet), such as when Juliet says goodbye to Romeo at the end of Act Two scene two: "Good night! Good night! Parting is such sweet sorrow That I shall say goodnight till it be morrow." ➤ Final two lines of Shakespeare's sonnets are heroic couplets that often summarize the poem as a whole ➤ Sums up the ideas presented in the poem/... sizza1 stanza 2 auxplora stanza 3 Sonnet 18: Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? (William Shakespeare) rhetorical question metaphor Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, a And summer's lease hath all too short a date; b Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; d And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; d But thy eternal summer shall not fade, < Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;/ Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st: / So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. repitition Ĵ bereic couplet alliteration e e. g. rhetorical question (1. 1) addresses the reader emphasises the admiration by the lyrical I • summer's day: usually positive connotation (warmth, sun, light etc.) typical form and structure three quatrains & one couplet rhyme scheme Analysis example The sonnet "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day" by William Shakespeare published in 1609, focuses on the loveliness of a friend or lover, with the speaker initially asking a rhetorical question about comparing their subject to a summer's day. The speaker then continues by pointing out positive and negative observations concerning the weather, mentioning both an idyllic English summer's day and the less-welcome dim sun and rough winds of autumn. In the end, it is insinuated that this very piece of poetry will keep the lover who is the poem's subject alive forever and allow them to defy even death. The sonnet is devoted to praising a friend or lover, traditionally known as the "fair youth." The sonnet itself serves as a guarantee that this person's beauty will be sustained. Even death will be silenced because the lines of the poem will be read by future generations, when speaker/poet and lover are no more, keeping their fair image alive through the power of verse. Line-by-Line Analysis Line 1 The opening line is almost a tease, reflecting the speaker's uncertainty as he attempts to compare his lover to a summer's day. The rhetorical question is posed for both speaker and reader, and even the metrical stance of this first line is open to conjecture. Is it pure iambic pentameter? This comparison will not be straightforward. This image of the perfect English summer's day is then surpassed as the second line reveals that the lover is more lovely and more temperate. Lovely is still quite commonly used in England and carries the same meaning then as it does now (attractive, nice, beautiful), while temperate, in Shakespeare's time, meant gentle-natured, restrained, moderate and composed. Line 2 The second line refers directly to the lover with the use of the second-person pronoun "Thou", which is now archaic. Lines 3-8 As the sonnet progresses, lines three through eight concentrate on the ups and downs of the weather and are distanced, taken along on a steady iambic rhythm (except for line five as discussed later). Summertime in England is a hit-and-miss affair weather-wise. Winds blow, rainclouds gather and before you know where you are, summer has come and gone in a week. The season seems all too short-that's as true today as it was in Shakespeare's time-and people tend to moan when it's too hot and grumble when it's overcast. The speaker is suggesting that for most people, summer will pass all too quickly, and they will grow old, as is natural, their beauty fading with the passing of the season. Lines 9-12 Lines nine through twelve turn the argument for aging on its head. The speaker states with a renewed assurance that "thy eternal summer shall not fade" and that his lover shall stay fair and even cheat death and time by becoming eternal. Lines 13 and 14 Lines 13 and 14 reinforce the idea that the speaker's (poet's) poem will guarantee that the lover remains young, the written word becoming their breath and vital energy and ensuring their life continues. Literary Devices Between repetition, assonance, alliteration and internal and end rhyme, readers of "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" are certainly treated to a range of devices that create texture, music, and interest. Assonance and Repetition Note the language of these lines: rough, shake, too short, Sometimes, too hot, often, dimmed, declines, chance, changing, untrimmed. There are interesting combinations within each line that add to the texture and soundscape: Rough/buds, shake/May, hot/heaven, eye/shines, often/gold/complexion, fair from fair, sometimes/declines, chance/nature/changing, nature/course. Metaphor Life is not an easy passage through time for most (if not all) people. Random events can radically alter who we are, and we are all subject to time's effects. In the meantime, the vagaries of the English summer weather are called up again and again as the speaker attempts to put everything into perspective. Finally, the lover's beauty, metaphorically an eternal summer, will be preserved forever in the poet's immortal lines. Heroic couplet And those final two lines, 13 and 14, are harmony itself. Following 12 lines without any punctuated caesura (a pause or break in the delivery of the line), line 13 has a 6/4 caesura, and the last line a 4/6. The humble comma sorts out the syntax, leaving everything in balance and giving life. Perhaps only someone of genius could claim to have such literary powers, strong enough to preserve the beauty of a lover beyond even death. Language and Tone in Sonnet 18 Note the use of the verb shall and the different tones it brings to different lines. In the first line, it refers to the uncertainty the speaker feels. In line nine, there is a sense of some kind of definite promise, while line eleven conveys the idea of a command for death to remain silent. The word "beauty" does not appear in this sonnet. Both "summer" and "fair" are used instead. "Thou", "thee" and "thy" are used throughout and refer directly to the lover-the fair youth. The words "and", "nor" and "so long" serve to repeat and reinforce the poem's ideas. Rhyme Scheme and Metre of Sonnet 18 It's important to be aware that not every line of every one of Shakespeare's sonnets is written in pure iambic pentameter as is assumed by many a supposed authority. There may be metrical variations, but the form of "Sonnet 18" is that of a classic English or Shakespearean sonnet- three quatrains (four-line stanzas) rounded off with a rhyming couplet (the final two lines), adding up to 14 lines in total. Rhyme Scheme The sonnet has the regular rhyme scheme ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. All of the end-of-line rhymes are full with the exception of temperate/date. lambic Pentameter "Sonnet 18" is written in traditional iambic pentameter, but it has to be remembered that this is the overall dominant metre (meter in the USA). Certain lines contain trochees, spondees and possibly anapaests. While some lines are pure iambic, following the pattern of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, others are not. Relevance & arguments Arguments in favour of Shakespeare Several motifs are still relevant today > Relatability e. g. perception of reality (Macbeth/witches...) Fast Fashion (ignore the consequences for your own goods) Questionability of gender roles Masculinity and its consequences (influences by the "real man") ➤ Or in "A Midsummer Night's Dream" Connection to topic that dominate today's reality "social media" & illusion, influenceability Fake news and illusion →Trump connection Racism in today's society is still an issue ➤ E. g. compare "Othello" Many other motifs e. g. sight vs. blindness Arguments against Shakespeare Shakespeare deals with outdated values (weak argument) E. g. misogyny in some plays (on PURPOSE, irony) Difficulties understanding Shakespearean language > Results in frustration & lack of motivation ➤ The actual message is "lost in frustration" ➤ Importance of Elizabethan English not given anymore Thesis: questionable if Shakespeare really wrote everything ➤Who do we "honour"? Question of authorship Dealing with the supernatural At times it seems to be fictional and "unreal" Not relatable Connections to other topics +Living in a globalized world Shakespeare's work has still global relevance today ➤Several Shakespearean motifs can be connected to current events/problems +Great Britain Shakespeare's work is a part of the British identity/literature Elizabethan times... American Dream Ambition for one's dreams (e. g. in Macbeth) ➤ Illusion vs. reality (A. D. is an illusion that differs from reality) + Nigeria Manipulation & influence (colonial control by the British) Religion/racism (cultural influences) + Visions of the future Dependency on perception ► Visions, illusion ➤ ambiguity PART B: TEXT ANALYSIS This extract is taken from the play Othello (around 1604), Act III, scene iii. Othello, a highly ranked military, is having a conversation with lago about the way Cassio, one of Othello's officers and on close terms with Othello, behaves around Desdemona, Othello's wife. Cassio actually has no plans with Desdemona but serving her out of respect for Othello. Cassio also thinks Iago to be open, kind and honest. Amongst other motifs, Iago is jealous of Cassio because he was the one who received a promotion that Iago had claimed for himself. In the beginning of the play Othello's wooing for Desdemona was repelled by her father, however, she decided to marry him anyway. Right before this conversation Desdemona and Othello were conversing. Desdemona goes away to do something else and Othello is left with a strange feeling that he cannot define. 1. Outline the gist of the conversation between Iago and Othello and shortly describe what Iago wants to achieve. 2. Analyze the way lago talks to Othello. To what extent and how does he manage to achieve what he wants? Pay special attention to language, motifs and/or techniques of persuasion. 3. After this scene Othello happens to meet Macbeth and Lady Anne in a private room while having tea. Since he is not so sure about what to do about his situation, he addresses Macbeth and Lady Anne and tells them about his pickle. Write down their conversation and what kind of advise Macbeth and Lady Anne could give him. 4. Eventually Othello kills Desdemona. After having spent a long time in prison, Othello accidentally meets Lady Anne and Macbeth in a private room while having tea. Othello then claims to been deceived by the worst villain of all times. Macbeth and Lady Anne seem to have something to add to this...a wild discussion begins. Write down this discussion. IAGO My noble lord-- OTHELLO What dost thou say, Iago? IAGO Did Michael Cassio, when you woo'd my lady, Know of your love? [...] OTHELLO O, yes; and went between us very oft. IAGO Indeed! OTHELLO Indeed! ay, indeed: discern'st thou aught in that? Is he not honest? IAGO Honest, my lord! [...] OTHELLO What dost thou think? IAGO Think, my lord! OTHELLO Think, my lord! By heaven, he echoes me, As if there were some monster in his thought Too hideous to be shown. Thou dost mean something: I heard thee say even now, thou likedst not that, When Cassio left my wife: what didst not like? And when I told thee he was of my counsel¹ In my whole course of wooing, thou criedst 'Indeed!' And didst contract and purse thy brow together, As if thou then hadst shut up in thy brain Some horrible conceit: if thou dost love me, Show me thy thought. IAGO My lord, you know I love you. OTHELLO I think thou dost; And, for I know thou'rt full of love and honesty, And weigh'st thy words before thou givest them breath, 1 meaning that Cassio was part of the plan when Othello (secretly) got together with Desdemona. → Cassio war ein Eingeweihter Therefore these stops of thine fright me the more IAGO For Michael Cassio, I dare be sworn I think that he is honest. [...] OTHELLO Nay, yet there's more in this: I prithee², speak to me as to thy thinkings, As thou dost ruminate, and give thy worst of thoughts3 The worst of words. IAGO I do beseech you4-- Though I perchance am vicious in my guess, As, I confess, it is my nature's plague To spy into abuses, and oft my jealousy Shapes faults that are not--that your wisdom yet, From one that so imperfectly conceits, Would take no notice, nor build yourself a trouble Out of his scattering and unsure observance. It were not for your quiet nor your good, Nor for my manhood, honesty, or wisdom, To let you know my thoughts. OTHELLO What dost thou mean? [...] IAGO O, beware, my lord, of jealousy; It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock The meat it feeds ons [...]. OTHELLO O misery! IAGO Poor and content is rich and rich enough, But riches fineless is as poor as winter To him that ever fears he shall be poor. Good heaven, the souls of all my tribe defend From jealousy!6 OTHELLO 2 = Ich bitte dich! Why, why is this? Think'st thou I'ld make a lie of jealousy, To follow still the changes of the moon With fresh suspicions? No; to be once in doubt Is once to be resolved: [...] No, Iago; I'll see before I doubt; when I doubt, prove [...]. IAGO I am glad of it; for now I shall have reason To show the love and duty that I bear you With franker spirit: therefore, as I am bound, Receive it from me. I speak not yet of proof. Look to your wife; observe her well with Cassio [...]. OTHELLO [What dost thou mean?] IAGO She did deceive her father, marrying you; And when she seem'd to shake and fear your looks, She loved them most. OTHELLO And so she did. IAGO Why, go to then; She that, so young, could give out such a seeming, To seal her father's eyes up close as oak- He thought 'twas witchcraft7--but I am much to blame; I humbly do beseech you of your pardon For too much loving you. [Iago leaves] OTHELLO Why did I marry? This honest creature doubtless Sees and knows more, much more, than he unfolds. 3= whatever you are thinking about, even your worst suspicions 4 Please, don't make me do it. 5 It is a green-eyed monster which makes fun oft he victims it devoures (eats). 6 The person who's poor and contented is rich enough. But infinite riches are nothing to someone who's always afraid he'll be poor. God, help us not be jealous! 7 Hexenwerk Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Name: 13 Abiturprüfung 2011 Englisch, Grundkurs Aufgabenstellung: 1. Outline Bassnett's view that Shakespeare's in danger. Consider the reasons she gives for her judgement and the solutions she suggests. (Comprehension) (16 Punkte) 2. Analyse the way Susan Bassnett tries to convince her readers of her opinion. Consider structure, use of language and rhetorical devices. (Analysis) (24 Punkte) 3. Choose one of the following tasks: 3.1 In her article Susan Bassnett asks: "Why are we still so obsessed with Shakespeare that we insist on boring teenagers out of their minds with plays in a language they find foreign?" (ll. 18 – 20). With reference to your own experience with Shakespeare, comment on the author's view of Shakespeare's relevance today and her argument that his language needs to be modernized for a young audience. (Evaluation: comment) (20 Punkte) 3.2 One of Bassnett's students who firmly believes that Shakespeare should be read and performed in the original reads her article. She goes to Bassnett's office to have a discussion with her. Write the dialogue. (Evaluation: re-creation of text) (20 Punkte) Wortzahl: 589 E GK HT 2 Seite 1 von 3 Materialgrundlage: • Ausgangstext: Sach- und Gebrauchstext (Kommentar der internationalen Presse) Fundstelle: Susan Bassnett, Shakespeare's in danger. We have to act now to avoid a great tragedy, in: The Independent, 14 November 2001 (Auszug) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/shakespeares-in-danger- we-have--to-act-now-to-avoid-a-great-tragedy-616966.html (30.05.2010) Zugelassene Hilfsmittel: • Ein- und zweisprachiges Wörterbuch Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Name: Susan Bassnett 13 E GK HT 2 Seite 2 von 3 Shakespeare's in danger. We have to act now to avoid a great tragedy The Independent, 14 November 2001 The other day I took my family to see one of my favourite Shakespeare plays. You'll love it, I told them. Nearly three hours later we tottered out into the night. Desperate to find something kind to say (there were friends involved), we praised one actor's Jim Carrey imitations and the flashing TV screens all over the postmodern set. And a costume made 5 out of CDs that flashed like disco lights. And one character's use of a mobile phone. The rest was silence. An American friend walked out of a Globe production recently, claiming that it was insulting her child's intelligence. That sums up the problem of so many contemporary productions; much of the Shakespeare we see now is unintelligent. The actors can't 10 understand the words and compensate with silly antics. If the protagonist of the play I saw had lain down and kicked his legs in the air one more time I would have thrown a shoe at him. Directors, unable themselves, I suspect, to understand the text, resort to gimmicks, hiring designers to make the production more "relevant" or "meaningful". Nobody seems to have much idea how to pace a production. When in doubt, they insert a dance or a 15 procession. Boredom and Shakespeare go increasingly hand in hand. At some point during the interminable evening, I found myself thinking the unthinkable: why bother with Shakespeare today? Why not relegate him to the dusty shelves along with Chaucer and the dozens of other Great Unreads in the literary canon? Why are we still so obsessed with Shakespeare that we insist on boring teenagers out of their minds with plays 20 in a language they find foreign? Isn't it time to rethink our relationship with the Bard? Now, I am not advocating the silly, elitist idea that Shakespeare is so irrelevant to today that students should study the cultural significance of Hollyoaks instead. I believe there is such a thing as great literature, and it is important that every generation should have access to it. I've always been a believer in the importance of Shakespeare for everyone, because 25 not only did he create some of the most wonderful characters ever to grace a stage, but his language is truly marvellous. Listening even to the mangling of that language the other night, I found the familiar words flooding back into my mind, in much the way that people of my generation have the King James Bible lurking somewhere behind the modern English Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Name: 13 versions. But my children don't have that language in their heads. All a bad production will 30 do is deter them from going back to Shakespeare in the future. E GK HT 2 Seite 3 von 3 The problem with Shakespeare today is linguistic. The language has become obsolete, Shakespeare's jokes are meaningless, his witticisms miss their target. It isn't the actors' fault: all they can do is struggle to make sense of a language that might as well be Tibetan. Directors compensate with devices that are supposed to facilitate understanding, and the 35 whole enterprise falls apart, because the essence of Shakespeare is language. [...] What we need are good English translators to take Shakespeare in hand and liberate him for a new generation. [...] What we need are two versions of Shakespeare's plays: the original written version for anyone with specialist knowledge of Renaissance English; and the 40 performance version, in good modern English. Shakespeare would doubtless be grateful. What writers want to feel that audiences can't understand their jokes? Please, someone out there, commission a good English translation of Shakespeare and save the Bard from extinction. Annotations: The writer is Professor in the Centre for Translation and Comparative Cultural Studies at the University of Warwick 3 Jim Carrey Canadian-American actor, best known for his performances in comedies - 5 f. The rest was silence Hamlet's last words in Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet - 14 pace a production here provide a performance with dramatic rhythm and variety - 18 Chaucer Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400); English writer, author of the Canterbury Tales - 20 Bard a professional poet in medieval Britain, employed by a patron. Shakespeare is often referred to as "the Bard" (also cf. 1. 42) - 22 Hollyoaks a long-running TV soap opera of the late 1990s centring round teenage students at a fictitious college - 28 King James Bible English translation of the Bible dating from Shakespeare's time Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW 2. 1. Aufgabenart A1/A2: Kombination A1 und A2 mit Wahl der Prüflinge zwischen analytisch-interpretie- rendem Schwerpunkt (Evaluation: comment) und anwendungs-/produktionsorien- tiertem Schwerpunkt (Evaluation: re-creation of text) 1. Unterlagen für die Lehrkraft Abiturprüfung 2011 Englisch, Grundkurs Aufgabenstellung¹ Outline Bassnett's view that Shakespeare's in danger. Consider the reasons she gives for her judgement and the solutions she suggests. (Comprehension) (16 Punkte) 2. Analyse the way Susan Bassnett tries to convince her readers of her opinion. Consider structure, use of language and rhetorical devices. (Analysis) (24 Punkte) 3. Choose one of the following tasks: 3.1 In her article Susan Bassnett asks: "Why are we still so obsessed with Shakespeare that we insist on boring teenagers out of their minds with plays in a language they find foreign?" (ll. 18-20). With reference to your own experience with Shakespeare, comment on the author's view of Shakespeare's relevance today and her argument that his language needs to be modernized for a young audience. (Evaluation: comment) (20 Punkte) 1 3.2 One of Bassnett's students who firmly believes that Shakespeare should be read and performed in the original reads her article. She goes to Bassnett's office to have a discussion with her. Write the dialogue. (Evaluation: re-creation of text) (20 Punkte) E GK HT 2 Seite 1 von 11 3. Materialgrundlage • Ausgangstext: Sach- und Gebrauchstext (Kommentar der internationalen Presse) Fundstelle: Susan Bassnett, Shakespeare's in danger. We have to act now to avoid a great tragedy, in: The Independent, 14 November 2001 (Auszug) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/shakespeares-in-danger- we-have--to-act-now-to-avoid-a-great-tragedy-616966.html (30.05.2010) Wortzahl: 589 Die Aufgabenstellung deckt inhaltlich alle drei Anforderungsbereiche ab. Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW 4. Bezüge zu den Vorgaben 2011 1. Inhaltliche Schwerpunkte • Shakespeare - a literary ‘giant' in the 21st century 2. Medien/Materialien 5. ● 6. The interest of young audiences in Shakespeare - passages from a Shakespeare play and from a contemporary film • Sach- und Gebrauchstexte Textformate der Druckmedien: Kommentare und Leitartikel der internationalen Presse Zugelassene Hilfsmittel Ein- und zweisprachiges Wörterbuch Vorgaben für die Bewertung der Schülerleistungen Teilleistungen - Kriterien a) inhaltliche Leistung Teilaufgabe 1 (Comprehension) Anforderungen 1 E GK HT 2 Seite 2 von 11 Der Prüfling stellt dar, dass die Autorin charakteristische Merkmale moderner Shakespeare- Aufführungen beschreibt, die z. B. gekennzeichnet sind durch • übermäßigen Einsatz moderner Requisiten, • mangelndes Verständnis des Originaltextes bei Schauspielern und Regisseuren, Kompensation durch unmotivierte artistische oder tänzerische Einlagen. 2 benennt kritische Einsichten, die sich für die Autorin aus ihren Beobachtungen ergeben, z. B. dass • Shakespeare zunehmend mit Langeweile verbunden wird, ● die Relevanz Shakespeares für die heutige Zeit in Frage gestellt werden muss, junge Leute Shakespeares Werke sprachlich nicht mehr verstehen und deren Aufführungen meiden. 3 zeigt auf, dass Susan Bassnett als Hauptursache für die Krise der Shakespeare-Re- zeption sprachliche Verständnisschwierigkeiten sieht; er verweist z. B. darauf, dass die Sprache veraltet ist, • Scherze und geistreiche Bemerkungen nicht mehr zünden, außersprachliche Requisiten das Verständnis nicht herstellen können. 4 stellt den Lösungsansatz der Autorin dar und verweist z. B. auf ihre • Forderung nach einer modernen englischsprachigen Übersetzung von Shakes- peares Werken, • Vorstellung, dass die moderne Übersetzung für heutige Theateraufführungen neben der Originalversion für Kenner des Renaissance-Englisch bestehen solle, Überzeugung, dass eine solche Modernisierung im Sinne Shakespeares wäre und ihn vor dem Vergessen bewahren würde. 5 erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (2) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! maximal erreichbare Punktzahl 4 4 4 4 Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW Teilaufgabe 2 (Analysis) Anforderungen 1 Der Prüfling erläutert, dass der Aufbau des Textes klar den Argumentationsgang der Autorin nachzeichnet und verweist z. B. auf 4 den Einstieg in Form einer konkreten Situationsschilderung (Z. 1-6), angerei- chert durch weitere persönliche Beobachtungen (Z. 7-15), • die Verallgemeinerung der Erfahrungen zu einer kritischen Fragehaltung (Z. 16-20), ● die Antizipation und Entkräftung von Gegenargumenten (Z. 21 - 30), die Begründung und Erläuterung des eigenen Ansatzes (Z. 31 - 43). 2 analysiert den Sprachgebrauch, insbesondere die Metaphorik des Artikels, die dazu beitragen, das Engagement der Autorin für die Rettung der Werke Shakes- peares als Kulturgut zu unterstreichen. Er belegt das z. B. durch • Übertreibungen in der Überschrift (in danger, great tragedy), • Aufwertungen zur Charakterisierung von Shakespeares Werken (importance Z. 24; most wonderful Z. 25; truly marvellous Z. 26) sowie Abwertungen zur Beschreibung der aktuellen Aufführungspraxis (unintelligent Z. 9; silly Z. 10; unable Z. 12; Boredom Z. 15), anschauliche Metaphern (mangling of that language Z. 26) E GK HT 2 Seite 3 von 11 3 untersucht weitere rhetorische Mittel, die die Autorin einsetzt, um den Lesern die Notwendigkeit für Änderungen zu verdeutlichen, die sich aus der Krise der Shakespeare-Rezeption ergibt. Er nennt z. B. Wiederholungen und Parallelismen (... and ... And... And ... Z. 4-5), • Aneinanderreihung rhetorischer Fragen (... why bother ...? Why not relegate...? Why are we still ...? Isn't it time...? Z. 17-20), • ● Konkretisierungen durch persönlichen Bezug (my family Z. 1; An American friend Z. 7; my children Z. 29). Verallgemeinerungen, die das Ausmaß der Mängel moderner Rezeption und Auf- führungspraxis unterstreichen sollen (The actors can't understand Z. 9-10; Directors, unable ... to understand Z. 12; Nobody seems to have much idea Z. 13 f.). arbeitet andere sprachliche Strategien der Adressatenorientierung heraus, mit denen die Autorin die Leser in ihre Argumentation einbindet und von ihrem Hand- lungsansatz überzeugen möchte. Er verweist in diesem Zusammenhang z. B. auf Ironie und Humor (The rest was silence Z. 6; Great Unreads Z. 18; I would have thrown a shoe at him Z. 11-12), den Gebrauch der ersten Person Plural (What we need ... Z. 37, 38; Why are we still...? Z. 18; our relationship Z. 20), die direkte Leseranrede (Please, someone out there... Z. 41-42). 5 erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (4) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! maximal erreichbare Punktzahl 6 6 6 6 Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW Teilaufgabe 3.1 (Evaluation: comment) Anforderungen 1 2 3 4 5 Der Prüfling greift das Zitat auf und konkretisiert es im Hinblick auf die Diskrepanz zwischen erwachsener und jugendlicher Wahrnehmung. Er verweist z. B. auf • die überragende Bedeutung Shakespeares in der literarischen Tradition, • die Unzugänglichkeit seiner Sprache für jugendliche Rezipienten, • Gefühle von Langeweile und Abschreckung, die in der jüngeren Generation entstehen. erörtert kritisch die von Susan Bassnett behauptete Relevanz Shakespeares für die heutige Zeit, indem er z. B. eingeht auf die Frage, ob der Inhalt der ihm bekannten Werke universell und zeitlos oder aber obsolet und realitätsfern ist, E GK HT 2 Seite 4 von 11 • Gründe für die Popularität moderner Shakespeare-Verfilmungen, die Sinnhaftigkeit einer Beschäftigung mit den Werken Shakespeares aus der Perspektive eines jungen Menschen im 21. Jahrhundert. nimmt begründet Stellung zu Susan Bassnetts Forderung nach der Modernisie- rung von Shakespeares Sprache für junge Leute, indem er z. B. die Schönheit bzw. Fremdheit von Shakespeares Sprache unterstreicht, die Bedeutung der Sprache für den Inhalt beleuchtet, • generell nach der Legitimation eines solchen Eingriffs in ein literarisches Kunstwerk fragt. kommt in Abwägung seiner Ausführungen zu einer abschließenden Schlussfolge- rung, die sich plausibel und nachvollziehbar aus den zuvor entwickelten Gedanken- gängen ergibt, z. B. stimmt er - angesichts von Shakespeares Bedeutung - der Forderung nach einer sprachlichen Modernisierung zu, um das Werk einem jugendlichen Publikum näher zu bringen, • plädiert er dafür, Jugendliche müssten in der Lage sein, sich auch mit einem ● sprachlich schwierigen Hauptwerk der kulturellen Tradition auseinander zu setzen, • lehnt er die Beschäftigung mit Shakespeares Werk ab, weil er es für historisch bedingt und überholt hält. erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (4) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! maximal erreichbare Punktzahl 4 6 6 4 Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW Teilaufgabe 3.2 (Evaluation: re-creation of text) Anforderungen 1 3 2 argumentiert durchgängig aus der Perspektive von Susan Bassnett, die eine moderne Übersetzung der Werke Shakespeares für das Theater für unabdingbar hält, um der Bedeutung des Dichters auch in der heutigen Zeit gerecht zu werden. Er lässt diese z. B. formulieren, dass 4 5 Der Prüfling formuliert einen situations- und adressatengerechten Einstieg in die Diskussion, indem er die Studentin den Grund ihres Kommens nennen und die Argumentation des Artikels aus ihrer Sicht zusammenfassen lässt. E GK HT 2 Seite 5 von 11 ● die Schwierigkeiten mit Shakespeares Sprache nicht nur das Verständnis, son- dern auch das Interesse speziell der jungen Leute dem Dichter und seinen Werken erschweren bzw. unmöglich machen, • nicht nur die Bildungseliten bzw. Spezialisten, sondern alle Schichten die Mög- lichkeit haben sollten, Shakespeares Werke zu verstehen und von ihnen ange- sprochen zu werden, Shakespeares Werke immer wieder auch in andere Sprachen übersetzt worden sind, ohne dass dies ihre Bedeutung gemindert oder ihre Popularität beeinträch- tigt hätte. erläutert durchgängig aus der Perspektive der Studentin deren Argumente gegen eine sprachliche Modernisierung Shakespeares und für Aufführungen der Original- versionen. Er lässt diese z. B. ausführen, dass eine Übersetzung jeglicher Art immer auch eine Interpretation und damit even- tuell eine Veränderung der Aussage bedeutet, • Sprache über die rein lexikalische Ebene hinaus eine affektive Komponente enthalten kann, die den Zuschauer anspricht, auch ohne dass er jedes einzelne Wort oder jede Formulierung versteht, • die Deutung und Wertung eines solchen Dramentextes, der sich ohne Kontext- wissen einem schnellen Zugriff entzieht, starke intellektuelle Denkleistungen vom Leser erfordert. lässt die Dialogpartner die Diskussion abschließen, indem sie - je nach Verlauf - zu einer Übereinstimmung kommen oder ihre Positionen unvereinbar bestehen lassen. erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (4) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! maximal erreichbare Punktzahl 4 6 6 4 Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Name: 13 Abiturprüfung 2010 Englisch, Leistungskurs Aufgabenstellung: 1. Summarize the author's views on the importance of Shakespeare today and the conclusions he draws for teaching Shakespeare. (Comprehension) (16 Punkte) 2. Analyse the way the author uses structure, argumentative techniques and language to attract and persuade his readers. (Analysis) (24 Punkte) 3. Choose one of the following tasks: 3.1 Discuss the author's view on Shakespeare's relevance for young people. Refer to your background knowledge as well as texts by Shakespeare and film adaptations that you know. (Evaluation: comment) (20 Punkte) 3.2 Write a letter to the editor of The Independent in which you comment on the author's views on teaching Shakespeare. Take into account your own experience of Shakespeare as a German student of English. (Evaluation: re-creation of text) (20 Punkte) ● Materialgrundlage: • Ausgangstext: Sach- und Gebrauchstext (Kommentar der internationalen Presse) Fundstelle: Brandon Robshaw, Why it's time to give the Bard the heave ho!, in: The Independent, April 24, 2008 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/schools/brandon-robshaw-why-its-time- Wortzahl: 780 E LK HT 2 Seite 1 von 3 to-give-the-bard-the-heave-ho-814375.html (29.06.2009) Zugelassene Hilfsmittel: Ein- und zweisprachiges Wörterbuch Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Name: 13 Why it's time to give the Bard the heave ho! by Brandon Robshaw The Independent, April 24, 2008 E LK HT 2 Seite 2 von 3 As a tribute to Shakespeare this St George's day, isn't it time we dropped him from the National Curriculum? The Bard is a national monument. Nor is there anything wrong with that. Along with a flag, an anthem and a football team, a national writer is part of the trappings of nationhood. The Italians have Dante, the Germans have Goethe, the French 5 have a pantheon which includes Molière, Racine, Victor Hugo and Proust. And Shakespeare is peculiarly well-suited to be ours, for both literary and non-literary reasons. The date of his death and the putative date of his birth neatly fall on our patron saint's day; he belongs to the golden age of Elizabethan expansionism; his history plays chronicle our kings and queens and contain quotable patriotic gobbets ("This precious stone 10 set in the silver sea," "We few, we happy few," etc.). His output is staggeringly prolific - 38 dramatic works in all the genres, several long poems and over 150 sonnets - and his plays work well enough dramatically to be constantly performed today. He had, as George Orwell put it, an amazing skill at putting one word beside another; as well as acute psycho- logical insight, the largeness of mind to give great lines even to minor or unfavoured 15 characters, an unmatched ear for rhythm, and an uncanny ability to coin memorable phrases which, in many cases, have passed into general usage. One might even say that appreciation of Shakespeare is the touchstone of an educated literary taste. If you don't like him, you don't get it. Voltaire and Tolstoy famously didn't, but then English wasn't their mother tongue. 20 The trouble is that most schoolchildren today don't like him and don't get it. And this isn't their fault. Shakespeare wrote over 400 years ago. Few people realise how much English has changed in just the last generation. Grammar and vocabulary have altered to the extent that teenagers tend to dismiss anything written before about 1960 as "Old English". Besides, the large and increasing number of second-language speakers are in the same boat 25 as Voltaire and Tolstoy from the start. We don't have anything like the unified national culture we had when I first studied Shakespeare in the 1970s. Then, most schoolchildren had at least some exposure to the King James Bible, the Book of Common Prayer and Hymns Ancient and Modern. We still didn't find Shakespeare easy, but at least we didn't need to have "thee" and "thou" explained to us. Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen Name: 13 E LK HT 2 Seite 3 von 3 30 Even the key selling-point that many Shakespearisms have entered common usage is gradually losing its force as the years go by. I was recently taken aback to discover that virtually none of a class of London teenagers had encountered the expression "one fell swoop". Well, you might say, here's your chance to teach them, then. But that cannot be the justification for making Shakespeare compulsory - to teach outdated idioms that no one 35 under the age of 40 uses. We need to think more clearly about the purpose of enshrining Shakespeare in this manner. If it's to preserve his national monument status, this is an unnecessary and counterproductive way of going about it. If it is to teach those things that literature is supposed to teach - aesthetic pleasure, understanding of character, moral sensitivity, liberal humanist values, an 40 inkling of the techniques by which literary texts work their magic - then Shakespeare is simply not delivering. It's like handing pupils a treasure in a locked chest. More contemporary texts may not offer quite such riches, but at least the kids could open the box. Making today's school children read Shakespeare is about as sensible as compelling them to read Ulysses or Tristram Shandy. For all but a few - the brightest and best-read - it is a 45 form of torture. Yet it's laid down in the National Curriculum that all British children of secondary school age must study not one but two Shakespeare plays. It is, as Will himself would say, a custom more honoured in the breach than in the observance – and in practice, many teachers circumvent the difficulty by teaching a fragment of Romeo and Juliet and then showing the class West Side Story. 50 By the time students come to choose their AS-levels, those with a liking for literature should be ready to appreciate the riches Shakespeare has to offer. Let them wait until then. This isn't "dumbing down". Force-feeding children Shakespeare can only induce nausea and a lifelong aversion. If we want Shakespeare to be for all-time as well of an age, we must let students come to him when they are willing and able to make the effort needed to 55 enjoy him. Surely this is a tribute our national writer deserves? Annotations: to give sb. the heave ho to end a relationship with sb. - 1 St George patron saint of England - 9 gobbet fragment, here piece of literature - 12 - 13 George Orwell British author - 32-33 (at) one fell swoop in one go - 44 Ulysses, Tristram Shandy novels by James Joyce and Laurence Sterne - 47 a custom more honoured in the breach a custom better abandonded than followed (quote from Hamlet) - 49 West Side Story musical based on Romeo and Juliet - 50 AS-levels school subjects chosen at the age of 16 Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW Unterlagen für die Lehrkraft Abiturprüfung 2010 Englisch, Leistungskurs 1. Aufgabenart A1/A2: Kombination A1 und A2 mit Wahl der Prüflinge zwischen analytisch-interpretie- rendem Schwerpunkt (Evaluation: comment) und anwendungs-/produktionsorien- tiertem Schwerpunkt (Evaluation: re-creation of text) 2. Aufgabenstellung 1. Summarize the author's views on the importance of Shakespeare today and the conclusions he draws for teaching Shakespeare. (Comprehension) (16 Punkte) E LK HT 2 Seite 1 von 12 2. Analyse the way the author uses structure, argumentative techniques and language to attract and persuade his readers. (Analysis) (24 Punkte) 3. Choose one of the following tasks: 3.1 Discuss the author's view on Shakespeare's relevance for young people. Refer to your background knowledge as well as texts by Shakespeare and film adaptations that you know. (Evaluation: comment) (20 Punkte) 3.2 Write a letter to the editor of The Independent in which you comment on the author's views on teaching Shakespeare. Take into account your own experience of Shakespeare as a German student of English. (Evaluation: re-creation of text) (20 Punkte) 3. Materialgrundlage • Ausgangstext: Sach- und Gebrauchstext (Kommentar der internationalen Presse) Fundstelle: Brandon Robshaw, Why it's time to give the Bard the heave ho!, in: The Independent, April 24, 2008 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/schools/brandon-robshaw-why-its-time- to-give-the-bard-the-heave-ho-814375.html (29.06.2009) Wortzahl: 780 Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW 4. Bezüge zu den Vorgaben 2010 1. Inhaltliche Schwerpunkte • Shakespeare - a literary 'giant' in the 21st century Shakespeare and the Elizabethan World - In-depth study of a play and corresponding film passages/scenes from theatre per- formances 2. Medien/Materialien 5. ● 6. 1 Vorgaben für die Bewertung der Schülerleistungen Teilleistungen - Kriterien a) inhaltliche Leistung Teilaufgabe 1 (Comprehension) Anforderungen Zugelassene Hilfsmittel Ein- und zweisprachiges Wörterbuch 1 • Sach- und Gebrauchstexte - Textformate der Druckmedien: Kommentare und Leitartikel der internationalen Presse • Literarische Texte 2 Drama: William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet Lyrik: Shakespeare's sonnets and Elizabethan poetry ELK HT 2 Seite 2 von 12 Der Prüfling stellt als zentrale Textaussage die Auffassung Robshaws heraus, dass Shakes- peare aufgrund veränderter Gegebenheiten in der heutigen Zeit keine verpflich- tende Schullektüre für alle Schülerinnen und Schüler im Rahmen des National Curriculum mehr sein solle (Z. 1-2). ● führt aus, dass Robshaw einerseits die Bedeutung und herausragende Rolle Shakespeares als national monument betont (Z. 2), und nennt wesentliche Grün- de für diese Einschätzung, z. B. • Shakespeare als Repräsentant des Elisabethanischen Zeitalters (Z. 8), den patriotischen Charakter einiger seiner Stücke (Z. 9 - 10), den Umfang, die Vielfalt und außergewöhnliche Qualität seiner literarischen Produktion (Z. 10-12), Shakespeares überragenden Einfluss auf die Entwicklung der englischen Sprache (Z. 13-16). AFB = Anforderungsbereich Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! maximal erreichbare Punktzahl (AFB)¹ 4 (1) 4 (1) Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW 3 benennt andererseits Argumente Robshaws, die belegen sollen, warum seiner Auffassung nach Shakespeare heute nicht mehr als obligatorische Schullektüre infrage kommt, z. B. aufgrund der • Veränderungen in der englischen Sprache und fehlenden kulturellen Voraus- setzungen, die das Verständnis Shakespeares besonders für Jugendliche er- schweren (Z. 21-23, Z. 34-35), 5 4 zeigt anhand der Schlusspassage (Z. 53-55), dass Robshaw Shakespeares singu- läre Rolle als nationaler Schriftsteller bewahren will, indem Shakespeares Texte nur noch in den Kursen bearbeitet werden sollen, deren Schüler über die erforder- lichen Lernvoraussetzungen und Bereitschaft verfügen. erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (2) Teilaufgabe 2 (Analysis) Anforderungen 1 • Tatsache, dass viele britische Schüler einen Migrationshintergrund haben und Englisch als zweite Sprache lernen (Z. 24 - 25), • Probleme der Shakespeare-Rezeption, die Schülern den Zugang zur Literatur unnötig erschweren (Z. 38 - 42). 2 ELK HT 2 Seite 3 von 12 Der Prüfling untersucht inhaltliche Aspekte der Argumentationstechnik und arbeitet heraus, dass der Verfasser die Aufmerksamkeit des Lesers gewinnen bzw. seine Argumen- tation glaubwürdig lassen will, z. B. durch eine provozierende Überschrift, eine Vielzahl von Beispielen (Z. 6-16), Shakespeare-Zitate (Z. 9-10, Z. 32-33, Z. 47) bzw. Zitate bekannter Schrift- steller (Z. 13), die Schilderung eigener Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen (Z. 25 – 29, Z. 31 – 33). erläutert, dass der Text einen klar strukturierten, kontrastiven Aufbau hat, der es dem Leser erleichtert, der Argumentation Robshaws zu folgen, und bezeichnet die Textteile z. B. als • Einführung in die Thematik (kontroverse Sicht auf Shakespeare als Leittext im National Curriculum) (Z. 1-2), ● Darstellung der Antithese (herkömmliche Begründungen zur Rechtfertigung der Position Shakespeares (Z. 2-16) mit einem Zwischenfazit (Z. 17-19)), • Entwicklung, Erläuterung und Begründung der These Robshaws (sprachliche, kulturelle und gesellschaftliche Wandlungsprozessse) (Z. 20-49), • Fazit als Synthese (Shakespeare-Lektüre als eine Option für interessierte und fortgeschrittene Schüler) (Z. 50-55). Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! 4 (1) 4 (1) maximal erreichbare Punktzahl (AFB) 6 (II) 4 (II) Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW 3 analysiert die Wortwahl des Verfassers und arbeitet dabei heraus, dass der Verfasser z. B. • eine Vielzahl von Adjektiven, Adverbien und Nomen verwendet, die Shakes- peares einmalige Leistungen unterstreichen (staggeringly prolific Z. 10, amazing skill Z. 13, unmatched ear Z. 15, uncanny ability Z. 15), Archaismen und literarisches Register teilweise mit ironischem Ton einsetzt, um den angeblich veralteten Charakter von Shakespeares Sprache zu betonen (the Bard Z. 2, thee and thou Z. 29), 4 ● 6 ELK HT 2 Seite 4 von 12 das formelle Register mit einem informellen Sprachgebrauch kontrastiert, der indirekt darauf hinweist, dass Shakespeares Englisch heute archaisch bis unver- ständlich wirkt (give ... the heave ho; If you don't like him, you don't get it Z. 18, key selling-point Z. 30, kids Z. 42, informelle Anrede Shakespeares als Will Z. 46, dumbing down Z. 52), • Personalpronomen we oder Possessivpronomen our einsetzt, um eine Identifika- tion mit seinen Aussagen zu ermöglichen (Z. 53, Z. 55). analysiert und erläutert den bildhaften Sprachgebrauch des Verfassers, der Meta- phorik und Vergleiche einsetzt, um zentrale Aussagen des Textes zu illustrieren, z. B. • die Glorifizierung Shakespeares als Nationaldichter (The Bard is a national monument Z. 2) bzw. quasi religiöse Figur, die ihn jeder Modernisierung ent- zieht (enshrining Z. 36), • seine ästhetische und kulturelle Maßgeblichkeit (touchstone of an educated literary taste Z. 17 - 18), • die erschwerte Zugänglichkeit für heutige Jugendliche (It's like handing pupils a treasure in a locked chest. More contemporary texts may not offer quite such riches, but at least the kids could open the box. Z. 41-42), • den Zwangscharakter der schulischen Auseinandersetzung mit Shakespeare (it is a form of torture Z. 44-45) bzw. die unvermeidlichen negativen Lang- zeitfolgen (Z. 52-53). 5 untersucht den Einsatz weiterer rhetorischer Figuren, z. B. die Verwendung von rhetorischen Fragen (Z. 1-2 und Z. 55) als Mittel der Leserlenkung bzw. Konkretisierung des Argumentationszusammenhanges, Aufzählungen (Z. 6-11, Z. 38-42), um die Kohärenz der Argumentation zu unterstützen, • Kontraste (Z. 19 und Z. 21, Z. 28 – 29, Z. 45 – 49), um die Widersprüche in der aktuellen Shakespeare-Rezeption herauszustellen. erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (4) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! 4 (II) 6 (II) 4 (II) Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW Teilaufgabe 3.1 (Evaluation: comment) Anforderungen 1 2 3 4 5 6 Der Prüfling nimmt die zentrale Argumentation des Verfassers als Anknüpfungspunkt auf und erörtert kritisch z. B. den Widerspruch zwischen • Shakespeare als nationaler Ikone einerseits bzw. ● seiner praktischen Unverständlichkeit für Jugendliche andererseits. ergänzt die Argumente des Verfassers um weitere mögliche Probleme der Shakespeare-Rezeption, z. B. mit dem Verweis auf die thematische Komplexität der Dramen, das fremde und oft problematische Wertesystem, das elisabethanische Welt- und Menschenbild. entwickelt mögliche Gegenargumente, die geeignet sind, die fortbestehende Aktualität von Shakespeares Dramen und Gedichten zu belegen, z. B. die Zeitlosigkeit der Charaktere und Konflikte, ELK HT 2 Seite 5 von 12 • Möglichkeit, eigene Werte und Weltbilder zu hinterfragen, Möglichkeit der Bühnenadaption und kommerziell erfolgreichen Verfilmung. maximal erreichbare Punktzahl (AFB) 4 (III) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! 4 (III) 4 (III) nimmt wertend Bezug auf seine eigenen Erfahrungen mit Shakespeare und belegt 4 (III) seine Aussagen anhand der ihm bekannten Texte, Verfilmungen, Theateraufführungen. formuliert ein stringentes Fazit, das eine begründete und differenzierte persönliche 4 (III) Urteilsbildung mit Blick auf die Aussagen des Verfassers beinhaltet. erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (4) Ministerium für Schule und Weiterbildung NRW Teilaufgabe 3.2 (Evaluation: re-creation of text) Anforderungen 1 2 3 4 5 Der Prüfling formuliert eine Einleitung, die auf den Kommentar Robshaws zurückgreift, und nimmt als Ausgangspunkt dabei z. B. Bezug auf die Kritik am National Curriculum, das gegenwärtig zwei Shakespeare-Dramen obligatorisch fordert, seine eigene Situation als deutscher Schüler im Englischunterricht. ● ELK HT 2 Seite 6 von 12 kommentiert zustimmend, relativierend oder ablehnend zentrale Argumente des Verfassers, z. B. die kulturelle Bedeutung Shakespeares als Autor mit Weltgeltung, • sprachlichen Schwierigkeiten: der Erschließung seiner Texte, tiefgreifenden gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen (etwa die einer multikulturellen Gesellschaft), leichtere Zugänglichkeit zeitgenössischer Literatur. ● entwickelt auf der Grundlage des vorgelegten Kommentars seine eigene begrün- dete Position, indem er z. B. • persönliche Erfahrungen mit Shakespeare im Unterricht wertend einbezieht, ● in angemessener Weise Kenntnisse der im Unterricht bearbeiteten Texte und Adaptionen Shakespeares berücksichtigt. formuliert ein Fazit, das seine Argumentation nachvollziehbar und überzeugend zu- sammenfasst und sich zugleich wertend auf die Ausgangsthese Robshaws bezieht. erfüllt ein weiteres aufgabenbezogenes Kriterium. (4) Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! maximal erreichbare Punktzahl (AFB) 4 (III) 6 (III) 6 (III) 4 (III)