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Summary of „To Kill a Mockingbird“ (all chapters)

Summary of „To Kill a Mockingbird“ (all chapters)

 TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD:
HISTORICAL CONTEXT:
Story is set in 1930, the time of the great depression. The great Depression is the time of econ

Summary of „To Kill a Mockingbird“ (all chapters)

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A summary to every chapter of „To kill a mockingbird“.

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TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD: HISTORICAL CONTEXT: Story is set in 1930, the time of the great depression. The great Depression is the time of economic crisis in American society. There were not many Jobs offers. African Americans couldn't participate in society because of the Jim Crow laws. 1960 this law. was abolished(abgeschafft) because of the civil rights movement in 1960. White superiority was a norm back then. Farmers were hit the most back then and were really poor. SUMMARY: Chapter 1: Scout the narrator introduces her familial circumstances. Her father is Atticus Finch and her brother is Jem. Her mother passed away and have a black cook named Calpurnia. Atticus Finch is a lawyer. Dill is a friend of Jem and Scout and they are fascinated by their neighbor Boo Radley who is locked in his house because he did a crime and only comes out at night. Chapter 2/3: Summer is over and Dill goes back to Mississippi for the school year and Scout starts her first grade in school. When Miss Caroline offers to lend Walter Cunningham lunch money, Scout is punished for explaining to Miss Caroline why he can't borrow money. (Walter Cunningham is too poor to pay it back). When Scouts sees Walter on the playground she beats him...

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up and Jem steps in between and invites Walter to Dinner. Scout doesn't want to go to school anymore and tells it Atticus. Atticus teaches her: "You never really understand a person, until you climb into his skin and walk around in it." Atticus teaches her human values like dignity and is a peacemaker. Chapter 4: Scout finds a knothole near the Radley house in a tree and there are gums wrapped inside of it. Jem comes up with a game called 'Boo Radley' which involved reenacting(nachmachen) the stories they heard about the Radley family, including the one where Boo stabs his father. Chapter 5: Jem and Dill grow closer, and Scout begins to feel left out of their friendship. As a result, she starts spending much of her time with one of their neighbors: Miss Maudie Atkinson, who a childhood friend of Atticus's brother. She's patient, kind and open-minded, just like Atticus. She tells Scout more about the Radley family and for the first time Scout starts to see Boo as a sad and lonely person, not a monster. She becomes more interested when she discovers Jem and Dill's plan to deliver a note to Boo via a fishing hole through a loose shutter. They want to invite Boo Radley to eat ice cream with them. She agrees and serves as a lookout for Jem as he delivers the note, but they never realize that Atticus is onto them, and he warns them to stop bothering Boo. Chapter 6: The kids want to look for Boo Radley at the night and a shadow scared them so they fled. The kids hear a shotgun shot behind them and flee under the fence and Jem loses his pants because it gets stuck in the fence. The children return home, where they encounter a collection of neighborhood adults. Miss Maudie informs them that Mr. Nathan Radley shot at "a Negro" in his yard. Miss Stephanie says: "Next time he won't aim high be it dog or nigger. "That shows, that African Americans were considered as animals. Chapter 7: As school restarts, Scout is worried about Jem's quietness since that incident at the Radley's. He reveals that when he returned for his pants, he found them stitched and hanged on the fence as if someone expected him to return for them. As they walk past the old tree at the edge of the Radley property, they notice a ball of twine tucked in the knothole. Jem is convinced that someone is leaving the things for them, so they take whatever they find from then on. As they hoped to leave a thank you note, they find the knothole cemented! Jem asks Nathan Radley on his way home why he cemented the tree, but Nathan tells him he did it because the tree was dying, an answer Jem knew was a lie. He uses his wit to nurture his belief that Boo Radley may be the one leaving them gifts in the oak tree. He gets upset when Nathan Radley cements the knothole because he feels like Nathan has destroyed. Boo's method of communicating and interacting with the outside world. Chapter 8: That night, Atticus wakes Scout up to dress and leave the house since Miss Maudie's house is on fire. The kids are told to stand in front of the Radley property as Atticus, and other neighbors salvage Maudie's belongings and prevent the fire from spreading. Finally, the fire is stopped, but Miss Maudie's home is gone. As the kids return to the house, Atticus discovers a strange blanket on Scout's shoulders. Neither Jem nor Scout can remember who wrapped it around Scout; when it dawns on them that it might have been Boo Radley. Atticus suggests they fold and return it, but Jem declines. Then he reveals their secrets about the gifts, the evening in Radley's garden and finding his stitched pants. Atticus calms him down by promising him that the blanket will be a secret between them. In the morning, the kids find Miss Maudie sitting in her backyard, not aggrieved about her loss. She admits that she never liked the house and was already planning on the house to replace it with. She admits she was more worried about her neighbors during the fire. Scout is surprised by the way Miss Maudie isn't bothered about her house which burnt down with her possessions, but Miss Maudie tells her that she was more worried about the fire hurting her neighbors than she was about her own possessions. Her kindness and selflessness are a show of strength that the Finch family will need later in the book. The kids have more empathy for Boo Radley and see him more and more like a human being rather than a monster. Chapter 9: A boy named Cecil Jacobs confronts Scout and says her father would defend a nigger, which makes Scout angry. Atticus explains Scout that she will be confronted with more ugly talk. Atticus answers the question if he is going to win the trial with a simple no, he still wants to try to win. Around Christmas Scout gets into an Argument with Uncle Jack and their situation can be compared with the Tom Robinson trial. One Side, (Scout/Tom Robinson) is not able to present their own point of view and the other side (Uncle Jack/racist Maycomb community) punished by that side without even listening to them. The author intends for Scout´s situation to be a clear parallel to how Tom Robinson feels. A child experiencing the same situation and emotions helps the reader to understand Tom-s position. Chapter 10/11: Atticus kills a sick dog and shoots him from far distance with only one shot. Atticus teaches Scout and Jem that it is a sin To Kill a Mockingbird because they are innocent and the only thing they do is sing. In the story Boo Radley and Tom Robinson are both considered as mocking birds because both of them are innocent people that harm nobody. Scout and Jem learn here that their father isn't boring. Atticus knows how to handle a gun but doesn't want to show off with it because guns should be used when it is really necessary. Chapter 11: One nasty woman, Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose, always harasses Jem and Scout whenever they pass in front of her house. Jem is fed up with it that when she criticizes Atticus for supporting Robinson, he destroys her camellia bushes using Scout's baton: Dubose asks him to come each day to read to her. He always read to her until she fell asleep, and after that month ended, she died. Jem revealed she had been battling her addiction to morphine and her somber mood was a side effect of withdrawal. This chapter indicates the similarities between Mrs. Dubose's struggles to overcome her addiction to morphine, and Atticus's fight to reduce the level of racism in Maycomb. Mrs. Dubose and Atticus both know they are going to lose their fights but they face them anyway. Scout and Jem don't understand why Atticus would take on a case he knows he won't win, but he explains that losing is not a good enough reason not to try. Chapter 12/13: . Calpurnia takes the children with her to an African American church where they learn about Tom Robinson. Scout and Jem experience the unfairness of segregation - the separation between white and black people. Nearly all African American can't read and write. Aunt Alexandra is staying with them for a longer period of time and she believes that the kids need some feminine influence and she does not feel Calpurnia is adequate. Jem does not have any prejudices towards African American because he takes the bags from Aunt Alexandra even though she said that Calpurnia should take the bags to the bedroom. Jem shows maturity and lack of prejudice. Chapter 14: Aunt Alexandra doesn't want Calpurnia in the household anymore because she sees no use for her. Atticus is on Calpurnia's side and wants that Calpurnia stays. Later that night, Scout steps on something that moves in her room and thinks it's a snake. Upon searching they find Dill under her bed; he had run from home because his stepfather never wanted him around. As they fall asleep, Scout asks Dill why Boo Radley never ran away, and Dill says that maybe he had nowhere to run to; making Scout appreciate her family bond with Jem and Atticus more. Chapter 15: Dill stays over the Summer at the Flinch household. At the night, Sheriff Tate and some men warn Atticus that Tom Robinson has been moved to the county jail and that there might be trouble. Atticus spends the night in front of Toms 's cell. A group of men arrive and want to lynch and confront Atticus. When Scout identifies Walter Cunningham's father, he tells him to say hello to his son; and her innocent request eases the tension as the men drive away. the mob feels mentally broken since one of them has been identified as an individual. The men who once felt strong as a group now feel vulnerable and ashamed as individuals. The genuine concern that Atticus shows when he learns that Tom is being to Maycomb County jail makes Scout and Jem to see him in a new light. They begin to appreciate him for his kindness and humility, and not just for being their father. The incident at the jail shows the real strength of the Finch family. Jem, Scout and Atticus stand up and defend each other while relying on their personalities. Chapter 16: The jury selection for the case begins, Atticus asks the kids to stay away from the courthouse that day. They are very curious because of the people passing their house to the courthouse. During the afternoon session, they stop to pick up Dill and head to the court house; where they find seats in the Colored balcony. . Chapter 17: As the trial begins, Sheriff Tate gives his testimony, stating that Bob Ewell entered his office claiming his daughter Mayella had been raped and beaten by a black man. They went to the Ewells,' and she identified her attacker as Tom Robinson. When Atticus cross-examined him, he established that they didn't call a doctor and that the right side of Mayella's face received most of the beating, meaning the assailant was left-handed. Atticus sees loopholes in it, like the fact that they never called a doctor; and shows him to be left-handed - a possibility that Bob Ewell could have been Mayella's rapist. Chapter 18: Atticus's cross-examination of Mayella clearly indicates that Tom Robinson couldn't have committed the crime he is accused of. Mayella. is defiant and even stops answering Atticus's questions towards the end because the evidence is in plain sight for everyone to see Chapter 19: Tom's testimony reveals him as a gentle and caring man who occasionally helped his neighbors; the Ewells. He states that Mayella had been inviting him over the fence to perform small tasks for her, and she always made sexual advances at him. He is asked why he would do all that work without getting paid and he responds that he feels sorry for Mayella, a statement that insults the Ewells. it is during the trial when we actually see how selfless and good, he is. His statements make the Ewells' statements look so weak and untrue. Chapter 20: Scout and Dill talk with Dolphus Raymond who has a black girlfriend and children of mixed-race, something looked down upon by many in Maycomb. He offers Dill coca cola, which Scout thinks is alcohol. Surprised, she asks Raymond why he lets people think he's a drunkard, and he answers that the people would leave him and his family alone if they think he's a drunkard. Chapter 21: Jem is confident of victory, while Dill has fallen asleep. Finally, after eleven that night, the jury enters. Scout remembers that a jury never looks at a man it has convicted, and she notices that the twelve men do not look at Tom Robinson as they file in and deliver a guilty verdict. The courtroom begins to empty, and as Atticus goes out, everyone in the "colored" balcony rises in a gesture of respect. Chapter 22: Atticus, Jem, Scout, and Dill walk home feeling defeated. Jem is more crushed by the verdict and asks his father how the verdict was reached, to which he admits not to understand. Mr. Ewell had confronted Atticus at the post office, spitting at him and threatening him. Chapter 23: Tom Robinson has been sent to another prison seventy miles away while his appeal winds through the court system. Atticus feels that his client has a good chance of being pardoned. When Scout asks what will happen if Tom 'loses, Atticus replies that Tom will go to the electric chair, as rape is a capital offense in Alabama. Atticus tells Jem that in an Alabama court of law, a white man's word always beats a black man, and that they were lucky to have the jury out so long. But Alexandra forbids her form playing with Walter because - he is 'trash' and can impart bad habits in her. Scout is upset about what her aunt says about Walter as Jem says that he is starting to understand why Boo prefers to remain indoors. Chapter 24: Atticus suddenly arrives and pulls Alexandra aside to inform her that Tom Robinson had been shot while attempting to escape from prison. Atticus and Calpurnia leave to go and inform Tom's wife about the bad news. Alexandra wonders how much more the town will throw at Atticus, but Miss Maudie tells her that the people's trust in Atticus is a tribute to him. Chapter 26: Scout sees her teacher, Miss Gates, on the courthouse door on the night of Tom Robinson's trial and she was talking about how black people were getting a little too above themselves, and it was time someone taught them a lesson. Scout could not understand why Miss Gates hated Hitler for the way he treated Jews, people very far away from them, when she treated people, she knew so poorly. Chapter 28: Once on the dark path, Jem and Scout realize that someone is following them and they start running. They do not get far when all of a sudden Scout trip on her costume and falls. Jem grabs her hand and attempts to run again but they do not go far with Scout still stuck in her costume. Once they get near the road, Scout feels her brother's hand leaving hers, and in a second, she hears him scream in a different spot, and she turns towards the direction. All of a sudden, the attacker is thrown to the ground by yet another stranger. And just as the fight begins, it ends. Scout calls for Jem but he does not answer, then she sees a man coughing by the tree. The man starts staggering towards the streets carrying something heavy, and when he reaches the streetlights, Scout realizes the man was carrying Jem towards their house. When she gets home, she sees the man talking to his father then they carry Jem inside the house. The doctor and sheriff arrive after some time and while the doctor examines Jem's condition, the sheriff leaves the scene. When he returns, he reports having seen Scout's costume and Bob Ewell's dead body where Scout and Jem were attacked. Ewell had a knife stuck under his ribs. Chapter 29: When Scout gets to the part where another stranger pooped in to help them, the sheriff asks her who it was, and she points to the stranger in their house. She studies him through her tears, from his clothes to his hands and when she gets to his face, the stranger smiles and then, Scout realizes that she is looking at Boo Radley. Chapter 30: Atticus tries to defend his son claiming he killed Ewell in self-defense while Tate says multiple times that Jem did not kill Ewell that he fell on his knife. Atticus insists on his side of the story, but after some time he realizes what the sheriff was trying to do. He was covering up for Boo by stating that Ewell fell on his own knife. He states that his decision as the sheriff of the Maycomb County was final. Atticus realizes Scout's maturity when she agrees to play along, claiming that turning Boo in would be like shooting a mockingbird.. CHARACTERS: Scout: Scout the first-person narrator in To Kill a Mockingbird. Over the course of the book, she comes to understand aspects of human nature, societal expectations and her own place in society. Scout is intelligent, thoughtful, self-confident and sometimes she is insurgent (rebellisch) and cheeky (frech). Scout acts impulsively. She is a good-hearted woman Jem: Jem is Scout´s brother, 4 years older than her, who matures a lot over the course of the novel. Jem chooses to follow the footsteps of Atticus and fights against the prejudices in the Maycomb community. Atticus Finch: He is a wise, caring and honest father who shows exemplary behavior towards his children. Jem and Scout are taught morals of every individual. Atticus is anti-racist and highly respected person. Tom Robinson: Is a black man with a wife and children. He worked on a cotton plantation until he was convicted of raping Mayella .Ewell. Tom cannot use his left arm because of an accident with a cotton machine.. He wasn't physically able to abuse Mayella but.the. jury still convicts him because of the color of his skin. Boo Radley: Boo is the mysterious neighbor that has committed a crime. Boo is a protective person that saves the kids in the end. Bob Ewell: He is a barbaric and evil man who beats his children. He is responsible for the death of an innocent man.. Mayella Ewell: She is Bob Ewell's daughter that is terrified and lonely. She is in an inferior and powerless position. She is pressured to lie in the trial by her father who does not want to be arrested. THEMES AND INTERPRETATION: The Story is set in the 1930s: It occurs during the great depression and before the civil rights movement. It is primarily about the social problems associated with racism and prejudice towards African Americans. 1. Moral education: Atticus teaches his children morals, manners and how to interact with society. Calpurnia teaches Scout how to write and read before she starts school. Aunt Alexandra teaches Scout to act and dress more like a woman. 2. Innocence: Innocence is represented through the symbol of the mockingbird which is projected on to Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. Both are harmless and helpful but victims of extreme prejudice. Tom is disadvantaged because of his skin color and Boo because of his absence. Tom is accused guilty even though he wasn't. 3. Prejudice: Maycomb society holds a lot of prejudices, especially towards African Americans. African Americans can't read and Tom lost his case just because he is black. People are treated differently because of their racial and social status. Ewells are seen as white trash. and Cunninghams can't take money because they are poor and can't pay it back. Just because Boo is staying inside and never comes out the Maycomb community starts gossiping about him and saying bad things. In the end we see that Boo Radley is a good- hearted man. 4. Racism: To kill a Mockingbird criticises racism. Tom Robinson already lost his case when the Ewells tried to take advantage of him. Black people couldn't read and write. They had different churches for only black people and in the court the black people needed to go upstairs. White and black were seperated from each other in the court. 5: Gender roles and story of initiation: Scout dresses like a boy and also acts like one. She is rebellious and is being compared to a tomboy. Aunt Alexandra wants Scout to be like a ,,Southern Belle" which was the typical way how a woman should be in that time but Scout didn't like that. Being a Southern Belle doesn't fit to Scout´s character. Scout and Jem are confronted with guilt and evil results of societal conflicts and inequality. The children go through a process of self discovery and take large steps towards adulthood. 6. Comparison with the film version. The movie is almost like the Novel. The only thing that is different is, that we don't really see through the eyes of Scout. We are more like a third person that watches the incidents. In the movie Aunt Alexandra is not present so we don't see Scouts gender issues. In the movie they introduce Tom Robinson's father who is not present in the novel.

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Summary of „To Kill a Mockingbird“ (all chapters)

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 TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD:
HISTORICAL CONTEXT:
Story is set in 1930, the time of the great depression. The great Depression is the time of econ

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A summary to every chapter of „To kill a mockingbird“.

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TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD: HISTORICAL CONTEXT: Story is set in 1930, the time of the great depression. The great Depression is the time of economic crisis in American society. There were not many Jobs offers. African Americans couldn't participate in society because of the Jim Crow laws. 1960 this law. was abolished(abgeschafft) because of the civil rights movement in 1960. White superiority was a norm back then. Farmers were hit the most back then and were really poor. SUMMARY: Chapter 1: Scout the narrator introduces her familial circumstances. Her father is Atticus Finch and her brother is Jem. Her mother passed away and have a black cook named Calpurnia. Atticus Finch is a lawyer. Dill is a friend of Jem and Scout and they are fascinated by their neighbor Boo Radley who is locked in his house because he did a crime and only comes out at night. Chapter 2/3: Summer is over and Dill goes back to Mississippi for the school year and Scout starts her first grade in school. When Miss Caroline offers to lend Walter Cunningham lunch money, Scout is punished for explaining to Miss Caroline why he can't borrow money. (Walter Cunningham is too poor to pay it back). When Scouts sees Walter on the playground she beats him...

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up and Jem steps in between and invites Walter to Dinner. Scout doesn't want to go to school anymore and tells it Atticus. Atticus teaches her: "You never really understand a person, until you climb into his skin and walk around in it." Atticus teaches her human values like dignity and is a peacemaker. Chapter 4: Scout finds a knothole near the Radley house in a tree and there are gums wrapped inside of it. Jem comes up with a game called 'Boo Radley' which involved reenacting(nachmachen) the stories they heard about the Radley family, including the one where Boo stabs his father. Chapter 5: Jem and Dill grow closer, and Scout begins to feel left out of their friendship. As a result, she starts spending much of her time with one of their neighbors: Miss Maudie Atkinson, who a childhood friend of Atticus's brother. She's patient, kind and open-minded, just like Atticus. She tells Scout more about the Radley family and for the first time Scout starts to see Boo as a sad and lonely person, not a monster. She becomes more interested when she discovers Jem and Dill's plan to deliver a note to Boo via a fishing hole through a loose shutter. They want to invite Boo Radley to eat ice cream with them. She agrees and serves as a lookout for Jem as he delivers the note, but they never realize that Atticus is onto them, and he warns them to stop bothering Boo. Chapter 6: The kids want to look for Boo Radley at the night and a shadow scared them so they fled. The kids hear a shotgun shot behind them and flee under the fence and Jem loses his pants because it gets stuck in the fence. The children return home, where they encounter a collection of neighborhood adults. Miss Maudie informs them that Mr. Nathan Radley shot at "a Negro" in his yard. Miss Stephanie says: "Next time he won't aim high be it dog or nigger. "That shows, that African Americans were considered as animals. Chapter 7: As school restarts, Scout is worried about Jem's quietness since that incident at the Radley's. He reveals that when he returned for his pants, he found them stitched and hanged on the fence as if someone expected him to return for them. As they walk past the old tree at the edge of the Radley property, they notice a ball of twine tucked in the knothole. Jem is convinced that someone is leaving the things for them, so they take whatever they find from then on. As they hoped to leave a thank you note, they find the knothole cemented! Jem asks Nathan Radley on his way home why he cemented the tree, but Nathan tells him he did it because the tree was dying, an answer Jem knew was a lie. He uses his wit to nurture his belief that Boo Radley may be the one leaving them gifts in the oak tree. He gets upset when Nathan Radley cements the knothole because he feels like Nathan has destroyed. Boo's method of communicating and interacting with the outside world. Chapter 8: That night, Atticus wakes Scout up to dress and leave the house since Miss Maudie's house is on fire. The kids are told to stand in front of the Radley property as Atticus, and other neighbors salvage Maudie's belongings and prevent the fire from spreading. Finally, the fire is stopped, but Miss Maudie's home is gone. As the kids return to the house, Atticus discovers a strange blanket on Scout's shoulders. Neither Jem nor Scout can remember who wrapped it around Scout; when it dawns on them that it might have been Boo Radley. Atticus suggests they fold and return it, but Jem declines. Then he reveals their secrets about the gifts, the evening in Radley's garden and finding his stitched pants. Atticus calms him down by promising him that the blanket will be a secret between them. In the morning, the kids find Miss Maudie sitting in her backyard, not aggrieved about her loss. She admits that she never liked the house and was already planning on the house to replace it with. She admits she was more worried about her neighbors during the fire. Scout is surprised by the way Miss Maudie isn't bothered about her house which burnt down with her possessions, but Miss Maudie tells her that she was more worried about the fire hurting her neighbors than she was about her own possessions. Her kindness and selflessness are a show of strength that the Finch family will need later in the book. The kids have more empathy for Boo Radley and see him more and more like a human being rather than a monster. Chapter 9: A boy named Cecil Jacobs confronts Scout and says her father would defend a nigger, which makes Scout angry. Atticus explains Scout that she will be confronted with more ugly talk. Atticus answers the question if he is going to win the trial with a simple no, he still wants to try to win. Around Christmas Scout gets into an Argument with Uncle Jack and their situation can be compared with the Tom Robinson trial. One Side, (Scout/Tom Robinson) is not able to present their own point of view and the other side (Uncle Jack/racist Maycomb community) punished by that side without even listening to them. The author intends for Scout´s situation to be a clear parallel to how Tom Robinson feels. A child experiencing the same situation and emotions helps the reader to understand Tom-s position. Chapter 10/11: Atticus kills a sick dog and shoots him from far distance with only one shot. Atticus teaches Scout and Jem that it is a sin To Kill a Mockingbird because they are innocent and the only thing they do is sing. In the story Boo Radley and Tom Robinson are both considered as mocking birds because both of them are innocent people that harm nobody. Scout and Jem learn here that their father isn't boring. Atticus knows how to handle a gun but doesn't want to show off with it because guns should be used when it is really necessary. Chapter 11: One nasty woman, Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose, always harasses Jem and Scout whenever they pass in front of her house. Jem is fed up with it that when she criticizes Atticus for supporting Robinson, he destroys her camellia bushes using Scout's baton: Dubose asks him to come each day to read to her. He always read to her until she fell asleep, and after that month ended, she died. Jem revealed she had been battling her addiction to morphine and her somber mood was a side effect of withdrawal. This chapter indicates the similarities between Mrs. Dubose's struggles to overcome her addiction to morphine, and Atticus's fight to reduce the level of racism in Maycomb. Mrs. Dubose and Atticus both know they are going to lose their fights but they face them anyway. Scout and Jem don't understand why Atticus would take on a case he knows he won't win, but he explains that losing is not a good enough reason not to try. Chapter 12/13: . Calpurnia takes the children with her to an African American church where they learn about Tom Robinson. Scout and Jem experience the unfairness of segregation - the separation between white and black people. Nearly all African American can't read and write. Aunt Alexandra is staying with them for a longer period of time and she believes that the kids need some feminine influence and she does not feel Calpurnia is adequate. Jem does not have any prejudices towards African American because he takes the bags from Aunt Alexandra even though she said that Calpurnia should take the bags to the bedroom. Jem shows maturity and lack of prejudice. Chapter 14: Aunt Alexandra doesn't want Calpurnia in the household anymore because she sees no use for her. Atticus is on Calpurnia's side and wants that Calpurnia stays. Later that night, Scout steps on something that moves in her room and thinks it's a snake. Upon searching they find Dill under her bed; he had run from home because his stepfather never wanted him around. As they fall asleep, Scout asks Dill why Boo Radley never ran away, and Dill says that maybe he had nowhere to run to; making Scout appreciate her family bond with Jem and Atticus more. Chapter 15: Dill stays over the Summer at the Flinch household. At the night, Sheriff Tate and some men warn Atticus that Tom Robinson has been moved to the county jail and that there might be trouble. Atticus spends the night in front of Toms 's cell. A group of men arrive and want to lynch and confront Atticus. When Scout identifies Walter Cunningham's father, he tells him to say hello to his son; and her innocent request eases the tension as the men drive away. the mob feels mentally broken since one of them has been identified as an individual. The men who once felt strong as a group now feel vulnerable and ashamed as individuals. The genuine concern that Atticus shows when he learns that Tom is being to Maycomb County jail makes Scout and Jem to see him in a new light. They begin to appreciate him for his kindness and humility, and not just for being their father. The incident at the jail shows the real strength of the Finch family. Jem, Scout and Atticus stand up and defend each other while relying on their personalities. Chapter 16: The jury selection for the case begins, Atticus asks the kids to stay away from the courthouse that day. They are very curious because of the people passing their house to the courthouse. During the afternoon session, they stop to pick up Dill and head to the court house; where they find seats in the Colored balcony. . Chapter 17: As the trial begins, Sheriff Tate gives his testimony, stating that Bob Ewell entered his office claiming his daughter Mayella had been raped and beaten by a black man. They went to the Ewells,' and she identified her attacker as Tom Robinson. When Atticus cross-examined him, he established that they didn't call a doctor and that the right side of Mayella's face received most of the beating, meaning the assailant was left-handed. Atticus sees loopholes in it, like the fact that they never called a doctor; and shows him to be left-handed - a possibility that Bob Ewell could have been Mayella's rapist. Chapter 18: Atticus's cross-examination of Mayella clearly indicates that Tom Robinson couldn't have committed the crime he is accused of. Mayella. is defiant and even stops answering Atticus's questions towards the end because the evidence is in plain sight for everyone to see Chapter 19: Tom's testimony reveals him as a gentle and caring man who occasionally helped his neighbors; the Ewells. He states that Mayella had been inviting him over the fence to perform small tasks for her, and she always made sexual advances at him. He is asked why he would do all that work without getting paid and he responds that he feels sorry for Mayella, a statement that insults the Ewells. it is during the trial when we actually see how selfless and good, he is. His statements make the Ewells' statements look so weak and untrue. Chapter 20: Scout and Dill talk with Dolphus Raymond who has a black girlfriend and children of mixed-race, something looked down upon by many in Maycomb. He offers Dill coca cola, which Scout thinks is alcohol. Surprised, she asks Raymond why he lets people think he's a drunkard, and he answers that the people would leave him and his family alone if they think he's a drunkard. Chapter 21: Jem is confident of victory, while Dill has fallen asleep. Finally, after eleven that night, the jury enters. Scout remembers that a jury never looks at a man it has convicted, and she notices that the twelve men do not look at Tom Robinson as they file in and deliver a guilty verdict. The courtroom begins to empty, and as Atticus goes out, everyone in the "colored" balcony rises in a gesture of respect. Chapter 22: Atticus, Jem, Scout, and Dill walk home feeling defeated. Jem is more crushed by the verdict and asks his father how the verdict was reached, to which he admits not to understand. Mr. Ewell had confronted Atticus at the post office, spitting at him and threatening him. Chapter 23: Tom Robinson has been sent to another prison seventy miles away while his appeal winds through the court system. Atticus feels that his client has a good chance of being pardoned. When Scout asks what will happen if Tom 'loses, Atticus replies that Tom will go to the electric chair, as rape is a capital offense in Alabama. Atticus tells Jem that in an Alabama court of law, a white man's word always beats a black man, and that they were lucky to have the jury out so long. But Alexandra forbids her form playing with Walter because - he is 'trash' and can impart bad habits in her. Scout is upset about what her aunt says about Walter as Jem says that he is starting to understand why Boo prefers to remain indoors. Chapter 24: Atticus suddenly arrives and pulls Alexandra aside to inform her that Tom Robinson had been shot while attempting to escape from prison. Atticus and Calpurnia leave to go and inform Tom's wife about the bad news. Alexandra wonders how much more the town will throw at Atticus, but Miss Maudie tells her that the people's trust in Atticus is a tribute to him. Chapter 26: Scout sees her teacher, Miss Gates, on the courthouse door on the night of Tom Robinson's trial and she was talking about how black people were getting a little too above themselves, and it was time someone taught them a lesson. Scout could not understand why Miss Gates hated Hitler for the way he treated Jews, people very far away from them, when she treated people, she knew so poorly. Chapter 28: Once on the dark path, Jem and Scout realize that someone is following them and they start running. They do not get far when all of a sudden Scout trip on her costume and falls. Jem grabs her hand and attempts to run again but they do not go far with Scout still stuck in her costume. Once they get near the road, Scout feels her brother's hand leaving hers, and in a second, she hears him scream in a different spot, and she turns towards the direction. All of a sudden, the attacker is thrown to the ground by yet another stranger. And just as the fight begins, it ends. Scout calls for Jem but he does not answer, then she sees a man coughing by the tree. The man starts staggering towards the streets carrying something heavy, and when he reaches the streetlights, Scout realizes the man was carrying Jem towards their house. When she gets home, she sees the man talking to his father then they carry Jem inside the house. The doctor and sheriff arrive after some time and while the doctor examines Jem's condition, the sheriff leaves the scene. When he returns, he reports having seen Scout's costume and Bob Ewell's dead body where Scout and Jem were attacked. Ewell had a knife stuck under his ribs. Chapter 29: When Scout gets to the part where another stranger pooped in to help them, the sheriff asks her who it was, and she points to the stranger in their house. She studies him through her tears, from his clothes to his hands and when she gets to his face, the stranger smiles and then, Scout realizes that she is looking at Boo Radley. Chapter 30: Atticus tries to defend his son claiming he killed Ewell in self-defense while Tate says multiple times that Jem did not kill Ewell that he fell on his knife. Atticus insists on his side of the story, but after some time he realizes what the sheriff was trying to do. He was covering up for Boo by stating that Ewell fell on his own knife. He states that his decision as the sheriff of the Maycomb County was final. Atticus realizes Scout's maturity when she agrees to play along, claiming that turning Boo in would be like shooting a mockingbird.. CHARACTERS: Scout: Scout the first-person narrator in To Kill a Mockingbird. Over the course of the book, she comes to understand aspects of human nature, societal expectations and her own place in society. Scout is intelligent, thoughtful, self-confident and sometimes she is insurgent (rebellisch) and cheeky (frech). Scout acts impulsively. She is a good-hearted woman Jem: Jem is Scout´s brother, 4 years older than her, who matures a lot over the course of the novel. Jem chooses to follow the footsteps of Atticus and fights against the prejudices in the Maycomb community. Atticus Finch: He is a wise, caring and honest father who shows exemplary behavior towards his children. Jem and Scout are taught morals of every individual. Atticus is anti-racist and highly respected person. Tom Robinson: Is a black man with a wife and children. He worked on a cotton plantation until he was convicted of raping Mayella .Ewell. Tom cannot use his left arm because of an accident with a cotton machine.. He wasn't physically able to abuse Mayella but.the. jury still convicts him because of the color of his skin. Boo Radley: Boo is the mysterious neighbor that has committed a crime. Boo is a protective person that saves the kids in the end. Bob Ewell: He is a barbaric and evil man who beats his children. He is responsible for the death of an innocent man.. Mayella Ewell: She is Bob Ewell's daughter that is terrified and lonely. She is in an inferior and powerless position. She is pressured to lie in the trial by her father who does not want to be arrested. THEMES AND INTERPRETATION: The Story is set in the 1930s: It occurs during the great depression and before the civil rights movement. It is primarily about the social problems associated with racism and prejudice towards African Americans. 1. Moral education: Atticus teaches his children morals, manners and how to interact with society. Calpurnia teaches Scout how to write and read before she starts school. Aunt Alexandra teaches Scout to act and dress more like a woman. 2. Innocence: Innocence is represented through the symbol of the mockingbird which is projected on to Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. Both are harmless and helpful but victims of extreme prejudice. Tom is disadvantaged because of his skin color and Boo because of his absence. Tom is accused guilty even though he wasn't. 3. Prejudice: Maycomb society holds a lot of prejudices, especially towards African Americans. African Americans can't read and Tom lost his case just because he is black. People are treated differently because of their racial and social status. Ewells are seen as white trash. and Cunninghams can't take money because they are poor and can't pay it back. Just because Boo is staying inside and never comes out the Maycomb community starts gossiping about him and saying bad things. In the end we see that Boo Radley is a good- hearted man. 4. Racism: To kill a Mockingbird criticises racism. Tom Robinson already lost his case when the Ewells tried to take advantage of him. Black people couldn't read and write. They had different churches for only black people and in the court the black people needed to go upstairs. White and black were seperated from each other in the court. 5: Gender roles and story of initiation: Scout dresses like a boy and also acts like one. She is rebellious and is being compared to a tomboy. Aunt Alexandra wants Scout to be like a ,,Southern Belle" which was the typical way how a woman should be in that time but Scout didn't like that. Being a Southern Belle doesn't fit to Scout´s character. Scout and Jem are confronted with guilt and evil results of societal conflicts and inequality. The children go through a process of self discovery and take large steps towards adulthood. 6. Comparison with the film version. The movie is almost like the Novel. The only thing that is different is, that we don't really see through the eyes of Scout. We are more like a third person that watches the incidents. In the movie Aunt Alexandra is not present so we don't see Scouts gender issues. In the movie they introduce Tom Robinson's father who is not present in the novel.