English Abitur preparation definitions and phrases Diversity & discrimination: ethnical background vs. ethical: behaviour/moral, oppression, reluctant (widerwillig), to strive (bemühen/streben), to conceal sth. (etwas verbergen), determination (Entschlossenheit), insurgent (aufständisch), legacy (Erbe), suspense/tension (Spannung/ Druck), astonishment (Erstaunen), to be wrongfully detained, guilty, yield (ergeben), distinguish (differenzieren/unterscheiden), personal ads, discrimination, filtering, visa control, racial profiling, Globalisation, Science & Technology: Transferred gens, transgenic, sustainability, digital age, costefficient, online footprinting, artificial intelligence (KI), pharma crops (bacteria resistant plants are used for medicine), nuclear power phase out, fertility, infertile, rejection, inheritance, descendants, gen-modified organisms (gmo/gm), child labour, fatality (Todesfall), CCTV, to monitor sb., caste system, totalitarian, cloning, privacy, Utopia, dystopia, Science fiction, surveillance, observation, investigation, brainwashing, gadget, prototype, spying, extinction, renewable energy sources, altered (changed/modified), insert foreign gen, resistance, ethical concerns, in vitro fertilisation (IVF), biofuels (made of shit), coping mechanism, chromosome, genome, nucleus, stem cell, petition, waste, pollution, recycling, quality, microplastics, emissions, reduce, mass-production, economy, gap between rich and poor, air pollution, consequence, global warming, mutation, resistance, long-term-effects, playing God, Phrases/useful in analysis: It can not be denied, This statement is very convincing., as a consequence, it may be the case/possible, on top of that, another aspect is, another supporting argument is, the author contradicts himself Moreover=zudem, außerdem, besides-außerdem, daneben, eventually=schließlich, however-jedoch, despite trotzdem, since=da, thus-folglich, due to=aufgrund, equally/similarly=ebenfalls, ähnlich, such/as=so wie..., not only, but...
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Philipp, iOS User
Lena, iOS Userin
also=nicht nur, sondern auch, as a result=dadurch, likewise=ebenfalls, so far, consequently, evidently, on the contrary, significantly, specifically, subsequently, what is more, thus, as a result, as well as, and, in particular, more important, especially, clearly, certainly, one might conclude, compared with, overall, all in all, to conclude, in conclusion, to sum up Plausible, convincing, questionable, contradictory, confusing, controversial, exaggerated, incomplete, memorable- einprägsam, straightforward- Ernst, briefly, simply, expounds- darlegen, his gist of thought- Gedankengang, presents evidence, demands- fordert, implies/suggests-nahelegen Cartoon description: top right corner/hand side, picture appeals/conveys impression, artist creates atmosphere, it visually describes, it is divided into halves, consists of speech bubbles, the caption states, caricature, stereotypical, a character is ridiculed as Sth. In positive/negative light? How does impression get across? How irony used? Are there well-known people- role in connection to topic? What does cartoonist want to bring across? Statistic description: table: a grid with lines and columns, line graph: vertical/horizontal axis, bar chart Comment/discussion: "Experts are debating about..." Short story: surprise ending, internal conflict, immediate beginning -open beginning/ending, immediate beginning (no real introduction of anything), only one topic discussed/ one plotline, few characters/places, short time Common mistakes & better say: things/stuff=items, points, aspects, information, content, argument, object to say to state, to refer to, to declare to think-to believe, to suppose, to consider not: positive connotated words. Word with positive connotation/positively connotated teach-taught-taught spend-spent Meaning of task (Analysis): Fictional: made up, to entertain (novel, poem) Non-fictional: show reality, inform, convince (article, speech) if no counter arguments used it creates an opinion beforehand. The reader has no chance to evaluate by himself, because there are only arguments for one side given. reliable/trustworthy, sb. Is well prepared, evoke feelings (shocking Numbers/statistics: numbers) Persuation techniques: quotes, examples, direct address -> convince reader Use of language: metaphorical language, styl. dev., irony, choice of words, tone Language register: formal, informal, slang Choice of words: positive/negative, metaphorical, word fields, adjectives -> concrete words Tone: ironic, sarcastic, pessimistic, nostalgic, humorous Narrative techniques: narrator, mode of presentation (telling/showing-dialouge) Structure: paragraphs; introduction, main, end: Foreshadowing, rhet. Quest. Sentence structure: long/short, repititions Foreshadowing: idea of what happens, create tension, the reader continues reading Flashback: give clarity, extra info, better understanding, room for interpretations Length: the longer you read, the deeper connected you are Stylistic devices: Simile/comparison/contrast: Show the difference, convince one is better etc.; like, as, than Antithesis: two opposite ideas together in one sentence-> gives text more depths Rhetorical question: know the answer, mistrust/aware of situation, fun/irony Ellipsis/syntax?: not full sentence. Means opposite Hyperbole/exaggeration: emphasize, Irony? Sth. Is ridiculous, emphasize particular feeling Collective "we": feeling of community, all are included (no discrimination), directly addressed, everybody on the same side, Personal pronouns: reader directly involved, think about it, closer to happenings Anaphora, parallelism, climax (highlight certain aspects), enumeration (variety of reasons, diversity- everything included, a lot of reasons for sth.), metaphor, personification (imagery- explain it's meaning in detail!), onomatopoeia (imagine the sound, closer to scene), symbol (sth. Is not said, but meant directly), assonance (similar sound connects two important words) Humor: Irony: shows ridiculous aspects- opposite meaning, is directed against..., satire: humorous way of criticising peoples faults/weakness, exposes peoples stupidity, makes fun of... Examples: sth. Can actually happen in real life, - connection to reality (fiction), make text more vivid, Possible intentions an author might have: Prepare for next sentence, emphasize/underline/stress sth., appeal to readers emotions (shocking/good emotions)/evoke feelings, giving an image/better imagination of sth., highlight importance of sth., submit a connection, making an argument more powerful, arouse pity, convince/persuade of his opinion TIPS: - use concept paper/ note down keywords about what you want to write down - highlight your text with at least different colours of textmarkers: one for each task / each for a different stylistic device etc. -> have a system when going through texts! -don't use () or / in your text! Not start with BUT-> however, one day... Mediation: "Good to hear from you", "The article has the title...", ask questions about his life etc., try to give as many information of the original text as possible without translating it 1:1. You can also change the chronological order of the given information. Adress the reader and include him with questions and humorous attitude. Summary: Introduction sentence, give names of persons => W-Fragen, not only the structure of the text, only describe + a little detail, does not have to be chronological, don't mention lines and quotes! Analysis: Sinnabschnitte! Alles was nicht zur Aufgabe gehört, rauslassen! - look at structure: important paragraphs, turning points. Setting. Narration. Characters. Language. -Introduction of analysis: use the task as thesis: „author uses stylistic devices and a 3rd person narrator to... (konkrete Beschreibung) + create an image... (wage These) ODER: "uses certain language (wage) + konkrete These & Grund => Deutungshypothese. -Keine reine Aufzählung der Stilmittel. Immer 3-teilig argumentieren: Stilmittel + Beispielzitat+ Effekt/Intention auf Leser -use stylistic devices to verify your hypothesis! Quote connections between thesis and styl. dev.