What are cartoons? A cartoon usually combines a drawing with a text. Cartoons are often used to make a critical comment on a serious issue in a humorous way. They may be entertaining, often making fun of public figures, but can make a serious and important critical point simply and clearly using visual means. Cartoon often pick uo on one current news event and criticise people, institutions or development in society and politics. Cartoons are often published in newspapers or magazines. In order to understand a cartoon it is important to look at the details, and you should consider the connection between the picture, any speech bubbles and a punch line and/or caption. Elements of a cartoon Working with cartoons Speech bubble Thought bubble How to examine a cartoon: Caption (Bildüberschrift) Caption (Bildunterschrift/-überschrift) Techniques employed in cartoons: Cartoonists often use the following techniques to make their point: highlighting prominent features/actions/events by caricature (exaggerating characteristic elements (e.g. Donald's Trump's haircut) exposing inconsistencies (e.g. contrasting a statement with a picture showing the opposite) irony (depicting the opposite of what is really meant) making use of puns or word play symbolic elements When you are asked to examine a cartoon in your oral exam you should take the following four steps: 1. introductory sentences: point out how you will structure your presentation give available information on the context (author/artist, date and...
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first publication source) briefly state the issue/topic of the cartoon. Panels (if more than one) Operator ,,examine": describe and explain (analyse/interpret) in detail ...to begin with, I will... Next/Then/after that,... Last/finally,... 2. Description: describe the cartoon in a structured and detailed way: Describe the cartoon systematically. Imagine you are describing it to a blind person; what important elements and background are needed to explain the picture and the message. Use the present progressive to describe what people are doing in a picture, and the simple present to describe objects and the setting. ...was created by... and published in... ...illustrates the topic... ..deals with... Description The cartoon consists of/is made up of (several) .../is divided into ... There is a (short/an ironic) caption/speech bubble/thought bubble in/on/next to ... The caption says/states that .../is a comment by ... It is a black and white/colour cartoon. Describe people's body language and facial expressions and their relationship to each other. Include the contents of captions, speech bubbles etc. and their relationship to the picture. 3. Analysis/Interpretation Examine the elements (characters, objects, text) and explain the message they convey. Pay attention to the function of characters (do they represent well-known people or a particular group?) and objects (do they symbolize sth.?) Some aspects to pay attention to: size of elements (possible effect of overly huge elements: appear powerful, threatening,...), light and darkness (bright/light elements may represent hope/optimism, dark elements may represent uncertainty, catastrophe, oppression,...) labelling of elements (as an explanation of the important aspects of the element or what it represents) check whether the cartoonist employs any of the techniques mentioned above. 4. Evaluation Sum up what effect the cartoon has (in relation to the issue it addresses) State whether the cartoon is effective and which elements are responsible for its success/failure. . At the top/bottom of the cartoon ... • In the foreground/background ... •. On the right/left... In the centre ... . In the top/bottom right-hand/left-hand corner ... The cartoonist shows... There are ... in the picture. • The situation reminds one/me/you of... • The cartoon describes ... • • ● Analysis The cartoon stands for/represents/is a caricature of ... The cartoon plays on the stereotypical view of ... ... is exaggerated/stressed/symbolic for ... ... reinforces the cartoonist's message that ... The humour lies in the discrepancy/contrast/parallels/ misunderstanding between ... and ... Evaluation The cartoon (only partly) achieves its aim of (doing sth). In my opinion, the cartoonist is (not) successful in presenting/criticising ... because ... The cartoon appeals (does not appeal) to me. In my opinion, it is convincing/simplistic/confusing/unfair. The cartoonist skilfully/effectively shows ... Unfortunately, it remains unclear whether ... or ... Globalisation Cartoon 1 10/23/11 XINGTON RAID-LEADER ⒸJoel Pett JOEL PETT Globalisation Cartoon 2 100 FULL SPEED AHEAD!! Smoke POLLUTION AND CO2 EMISSIONS ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION CONSUMER JUNK BABY bowevess muts/big componys GLOBAL GOP 5.1 THE FREE TRADE AND GLOBALIZATION MACHINE 000000 GLOBAL CHEAP LABOUR -0000- BILLION C Artist: Joel Pett, 2011. note: GDP: gross world product (Brutto-Welts-Produkt: monetary measure of all products and services on the global market in a year. global warming economy going on "full speed" SA sge NATURAL RESOURCES XXX like word water Black gold acaOL -workers that are used in Environmant destruction