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Englisch Abitur Zusammenfassung

14.6.2022

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Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive
Grammar
tenses
Zeitform
simple present
present progressive
simple past
past progressive
present perfect
progressive
past perfect
progressive

Grammar tenses Zeitform simple present present progressive simple past past progressive present perfect progressive past perfect progressive will future going to future conditional Bildung Beispiel ENGLISH Grafin prepositions at - in - on: At 9 o'clock At Christmas At the entrance At night At the cinema At the weekend At lunch time At university At that time At the moment Gegenwart Handlung im Moment Handlung in Vergangenheit conditional I Verwendung verweist auf Gegenwart oder Zukunft Verwendung (abgeschlossen) Ablauf einer Tätigkeit im bestimmten Zeitraum Handlung in Vergangenheit begonnen und andauernd Handlung begann vor bestimmten Zeitpunkt in Vergangenheit und dauert darüber hinaus unabwendbares Ereignis bestehende Absicht realistische Situationen if + simple present, will future If we study, we will pass our Abitur. In the morning In a taxi In the Easter holiday In the kitchen On the way On the radio In the summer In 2000 In the 21st century On a ship In the winter On the floor In three hours In the afternoon On a bisycle On the page On a plane On the table On the carpet On the wall DE Elopment Bildung Infinitiv (he/she/it +s) to be + Infinitiv + ing Infintiv (regelmäßig) + ed → unregelmäßig lernen was/were + Infinitv + ing have/has + been + Infinitiv + ing had been + Infinitiv + ing will + Infinitiv to be + going to + Infinitiv conditional II verweist auf Gegenwart oder Zukunft hypothetisch if + simple past, would/could + Infinity If I was the Queen, I would give everyone a pizza. conditional III verweist auf Vergangenheit if + past perfect, would/could have + past participle If I had done my homework, I would have been better. when to use... less // fewer: since // for: . less: Verwendung bei Dingen, die nicht zählbar sind oder kein Plural haben fewer: Verwendung...

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Alternativer Bildtext:

bei Dingen oder Leute in Plural . since: Zeitpunkt for: Zeitraum much // many: much: nicht zählbare Dinge many: zählbare Dinge then // than: then: Ereignisse zeitlich einordnen than: Vergleich Indispensable linking words beginning stating your opinion agreeing disagreeing listing something asking for clarification addition cause and effect giving examples comparison contrasting underlining something summary result first of all to start with in general in my opinion I am convinced I think I quit agree You've got a point there exactly I am not convinced I don't quit agree there first of all what is more finally I am sorry, but I don't know what you mean could you explain that please? furthermore moreover another thing is besides because of accordingly as a result for example such as this can be seen in/at similarly in comparison as with in the same way likewise even though on the other hand however especially above all to sum up to put it in a nutshell all in all as a result thus zuallererst anfangs im Allgemeinen meiner Meinung nach ich bin überzeugt ich denke ich stimme zu da hast du einen Punkt genau ich bin nicht überzeugt ich stimme nicht zu zuallererst außerdem schließlich es tut mir leid, aber ich weiß nicht was du meinst könntest du ein Beispiel geben? des Weiteren außerdem eine andere Sache ist neben wegen/weil entsprechend als Ergebnis zum Beispiel sowie zum Beispiel dies kann hier gesehen werden ähnlich im Vergleich wie bei auf dieselbe Weise ebenso obwohl andererseits jedoch insbesondere vor allem zusammenfassend kurz gesagt alles in allem infolgedessen folglich analyzing a cartoon basic information title+ Who is the artist? Where/when was it published? first impression What is the cartoon about? →The cartoon deals with description - What situation is descripted? →The cartoon shows Does it have text? → The caption says → The text in the speech bubble is spoken by What is happening in the fore-/background, ...? →in the centre/foreground/background → at the top/bottom → on the left/right How is the expression of the people? analysis Is the situation/topic presented in a positive or negative light? →The cartoon is supposed to → The cartoon criticises Does it make use of irony? → The cartoon makes fun of Are there well-known people? message → The message of the cartoon is/may be evaluation - cartoon effective or not? → The cartoon is (not) convincing because - is it right or not? UK SE immigration historical facts that pushed immigration into the UK people from the former colonies of the British Empire have always immigrated into GB after WW II Britain needed workers, so it encouraged commonwealth citizens to come to Britain, mainly from Pakistan, India and the Caribbean in the 1990s refugees from the former Soviet Union came to Britain many East-Europeans immigrated into Britain after their countries had become members of the EU in 2004 Brexit difficult relationship between UK and European Union GB didn't join the ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community) in the 1957 only became member of the community (then called EEC = European Economic Community) → thought that membership might weaken the strong trade of GB to Commonwealth states political ties to the USA have always remained Euro-sceptic never joined the Schengen agreement or the monetary union reasons for the majority to vote for the Brexit want an independent country → want their government to decide on its own ca 3.5 million inhabitants of GB are non-British citizens from other EU countries → high population growth living standard decreases more and more → public transport has problems like delays and train cancellations → crisis in the health system → schools are overcrowded →rents have increased immensely many people blame the immigration laws (especially in the EU) for the problems English as world language British Empire: many colonies throughout the world → English spread USA as a world power: after 1st and 2nd world war Europe was destroyed → USA took over the lead on the world market English as computer language: computer technology manly was developed in USA (80% of text on the internet are in English) USA immigration illegal immigration from middle and south America (mainly Mexico) cross border (tortilla curtain) between Mexico and USA → Trump wanted to build a wall there try to get better life (jobs, etc.) bad conditions (mostly in private households hired or illegal work) history - several big immigration waves (Ellis Island famous) → 1st wave: 1814-1860 (immigrants from Britain and Germany) → 2nd wave: 1860-1885 (Scandinavian countries) → 3rd wave: 1885 - 1914 (Mediterranean countries and eastern Europe) → 52 million legal immigrants altogether (nearly 37 million from Europe) slavery: black people fought to get out of slavery (had to fought for rights) black people fought for their rights (e.g. right to vote) → had to answer difficult questions to get the right to vote → Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks stood up for rights Martin Luther King: gave several speeches (e.g. "I have a dream") Rosa Parks: segregation was written into law (front of a bus was reserved for white people, seats behind them for black people) bus drivers could to ask black person to give up a seat for a white rider Situation: white man had no seat → driver told riders in first row of the "colored" section to stand (three obeyed, Parks did not) bus stopped, two police officers approached and took Parks with them consequence: black population of Montgomery would boycott the buses black people are still more likely to get arrested, but black and white people live together peacefully . reasons reasons for leaving home countries: political reasons: oppression, inequality, no human rights, persecution economic reasons: often total dependence on great landowners or employers religious reasons: persecution, can't worship their religion freely social reasons: unemployment, poverty individual reasons: adventures, criminals could escape this way, starting a new life America's attractiveness to immigrants: • personal freedom human rights, democracy good social, political chances rich, fertile, cheap land (in the past) salad bowl or melting pot salad bowl = cultures are mixed together but the single ones are still recognizable (each culture keeps its own beliefs and manners) melting pot = cultures are mixed together and become a single whole (melt together; single cultures aren't recognizable anymore) supports multiculturalism • some cultures still have their own area (e.g. Chinatown), own holidays (e.g. other date of new year → Chinese New Year) segregation in living (black neighborhood) segregation in schools → colored families often can't afford good schools → children go to school with almost only colored people → children grow up with this understanding and don't know it any other way →no change can be made American dream definition = The American Dream is a US belief. It means that anyone, no matter where they come from or what their background is, can achieve success and wealth through hard work salad bowl history writer James Truslow Adams was first to use "the American Dream" in his novel "The Epic of America" in 1931 → Adams mainly underlines the American dream for a more equal world → Since then, almost everyone knows the term basic idea USA = land of opportunity anyone can achieve anything if they work hard anyone can go from "rags to riches" or from "dishwasher to millionaire" declaration of independence guarantees rights to people equality: everybody has equal opportunities and chances, no racism individualism: responsibility for own fate dream or nightmare? American Dream example: Oprah Winfrey daughter of underage parents still alive? grew up in slums at first works as a newscaster, but because of her distinctive voice and appearance she is soon given her own talk show became the first African-American woman with a billion-dollar fortune and one of the most powerful women in the world melting pot loss of identity pro people can still achieve dreams if they work hard → f.ex. Oprah Winfrey, Barack Obama American Nightmare gap between rich and poor lack of health care discrimination and racism many people can't afford life with high standards → poor family can't send their children to good schools or university if you don't reach your dream its discouraging contra successful people get attention, the ones that don't succeed go unnoticed free education for everyone → colleges and university offer scholarships for gifted students not about equality between rich and poor, but about equality of opportunities → equal opportunity doesn't mean that everyone will succeed (own responsibility) . some people don't have the chance to work hard (handicapped, disabilities, diseases) → don't receive financial help high quality schools or universities are expensive → rich become richer, poor stay poor not everyone gets the chance to receive a good job (e.g. colored people) still racism ("Black life matter") Globalization economic globalization = process that leads to increasing interdependence and integration of national companies through trade and investment around the world → companies marge across countries, transfer parts of their production (outsourcing) → 3 big global trends: cultural/social, economic, technic globalization outsourcing = Business strategy in which Companies move their production to developing countries. This delocalization often reduces costs in production, development and services. sweatshops (= companies in 3rd world countries) working conditions use of child labor low wages long working hours (12-16h a day) working overtime is not paid often no breaks, no emergency exits sometimes extremely high temperatures in halls because there is no air conditioning consumer boycott pro draw attention to issues can lead to improvement in wages and working conditions make consumers buy more thoughtfully chances and risks chances world trade → trade barriers are removed (transport costs decrease) new jobs in emerging nations global collaborations → better progress in research cheap goods and wide offer of goods communication with people worldwide → family, friends information is available for everyone, spread more easily outsourcing: access to global talent pool → best workers (smartest people all around the world) con can cause job losses goods could become more expensive risk .burden for the environment plunder of workers →no protected Labor or Human Rights dependence on other countries → countries rely on imports (availability of natural resources) loss of jobs in developed countries growing gap between educated and uneducated countries fair trade costumers have to pay higher prices → increasing wages, better working conditions, take care of the environment → transparency, ensuring no child labor or forced labor, no discrimination, gender equality