Englisch Abitur Zusammenfassung
Englisch Abitur Zusammenfassung
Englisch Abitur Zusammenfassung
Zusammenfassung aller Themenbereiche für die Kommunikationsprüfung und auch das Englisch Abitur in MindMap-form.
Outsourcing Automation Robots at the workspace to improve workprocesses - they don't make any mistakes don't get tired make in relation to time more money (cheaper) Working conditions can work faster, stronger and exact all the time welfare facilities - ventilation - cleanliness - - outsourcing to safe money - global outsourcing market amounted to 92.5 billion US dollars don't need a break, sleep etc. But they can also help with diffucult jobs, make things easier and more exact. Because they can't decide like a human what to do and also depend on electricity. We could loose loads of Jobs. buisness practice of hiring a party outside a company to perform service - trend to outsource to China and other parts of Asia outsourced labour to lower costs of production, often goes with bad working conditions ... space - lighntning - temperature - working hours - terrible working conditions through the industrial revolution bad conditions in developing countries - workers get sick, diseas, bad mental health, die young - local and national unions were formed by the nations to improve their conditions Globalisation Trade Union Tourism - evolution- new kind of transporaton (Train,car, plane) - financial potential for Islands, bigger part of society - traveling as enjoyment - globalisation cauesed more further tourism - tourism became huge economic sector - tourism as consumerism - big influence on global warmin - more waste - toursim Haushalt to change if ist wants to sustainable be World of Work SOLIDARITY = Gewerkschaft Associaion representing the interests of deependent employees to represent their economic, social and cultural...
Mit uns zu mehr Spaß am Lernen
Lerne mit über 620.000 Lerninhalten von den besten Schüler:innen!
Vernetze dich mit anderen Schüler:innen und helft euch gegenseitig!
Bekomme bessere Noten ohne großen Aufwand!
interests - 7 union types (craft, industrial, public service, federations, uplift, identify-exclusive and enterprise union) aims are better working conditions, more profit - unionists are union members members often have to pay a small amount of their income to benefit of the union THE GOOD WIVES GUIDE Gender pay gap Women and men still aren't equally treated. No matter if money, job, parliament, leading position, family or sportwise. - women still earn 20% monthly less money than a men for the same work - profisportwise the gap is even futher apart and Not seems to close in the near future Child Labour 55 = Kinderarbeit To many children still have to work instead of going to school, they need to feed themselves and their family. For that they pay with their health, life oppurtunities, childhood and often with their lifes. This happens for example in Taiwan or different places in Asia. GENERAL CAMPAIGN easy understandable fit the target group Catch Attention - - interesting for everyone (regardless Sex, age, religion) - access to peoples emotions has to show the qualities of the product - should be present in peoples minds (humor) - should Show what is Special about that product (in comarison to other products!) INTERNATIONAL everyone should understand it (EN) not much text - no discrimination against Certain Cultures - slogan should be adeptable to other languages (rhyme, pun) Spending habits Change in patterns of consumption: - Monthly budget - importance of brands - where produced (country) - sustainability (eco-friendliness) - ethical production - working contitions - local stores/production Advertising Retail: - long waiting rows - time consuming · stressful Retail vs Online shopping - long walking distances - loud and crowded - meet other people - have fun fast fashion Online: - lonely ***** money waste Marketing How marketing works Non - Personal Presentation consistency Transports a Feeling Appeal Message Theme Information Marketing mix represent the brand image Attention, Interest, Desire, Action New DON'T - environmental repercussions (ship) - can't try on clothes - only push big stores relaxed - no other people needed - allways possible (Pandemic) CHE Hanko HANKOOK Kodak 1st Mechanization, water power, steam power Industry 4.0 We need to rethink our working Reorganice and learn new Skills, CO Share, network, prepare for revolution Someone without the technologie will life/work behind Affects of consumerism Advertising affects the way we see the world / can Change how we think. Consumerism makes us compare ourselves to Others. Let's us for get about the affects it has on our environment. 2nd Mass production, assembly line, electricity If high levels of consumption continue → > Seriously negative impacts 3rd Computer and automation Consumerism → our Consumer - life different than our grand parents and parents A ORGANIC 4th Cyber Physical Systems Product life cycle PLASTIC GLASS Life Cycle Phases 1. development (ideas, building) 2. Production / market introduction 3. Transport / Shipping - growth 4. Use phase - maturity 5. Dispersal / decline → recycling etc. Recycling METAL Systems: inter connected supply chains smart factory artificial intelligence smart technologies datas (use, analyse) Connected Systems robots autonomous Cyber Physical Systems Throwaway Society Shopping obsession Planned obsolescence New instead of repair Great Depression USA Fashion only for one Season Circular economy → products easily disassembled Plastic waste - Less than 10% recycled Last um to 500 years - lands in our food too - harmful to health Climat Change Consequences Ice is melting because of the rising theperture. Half of the ice is alteady melt - sea levels rise and citys/islands get flooted. extrem weather - watertemperture is rising - natural desasters consequences for developing countries (need invironment to survive) Affects in human health (heat, air quality) - Plant and animal species can't adapt Traditional source of energy Fossil fuels: Coal, oil, natural gas Needed for diesel, petrol, cooking gas, electricity. Problems - greenhouse gases - acid rain - contaminate drinking water finite ressources unsafe mines Renewable energy Hydropower Solar Geothermal Biomass Wind Oil What can we do? Nuclear drive more with public transport eat less meat - buy food from your region - shopp less from other countries Causes Non-renewable energy - greenhouse gases Coal Natural gas The Future of planet Earth E Environment Plastic waste CO2 General Half of the plastic existing was Made after 2003 Plastic production has more than tribbled since the 90s What happens with the plastic? - less than 10% will be resycled the rest ends ups in big landfills of the ocean (species die, plastic lasts up to 500 years) Pollution Water pollution Plastic waste in ocean - Toxic substances and waste from Farms, Towns, Factories Air pollution Gases from industry, car, ships, planes and cars · C02 - Fine Dust - Nitrogen Oxides Overpopulation - What can we do? - bring our own shoppingbags - try not to use single products - reusable waterbottles and lunchboxes GM Food Gene Modified Food (f.ex. Soy, Corn, Cotton) - Longer shelf life More aromatic Grow faster Increase of nutritional Value Persticides!! Refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines. Healthcare (diagnostic, Operations) Know What You're Buying! GMO Organic Could trigger allergies / may cause cancer! Loads of unkonwn risks! Artificial Intelligence - Robots Personalized Conventionally Grown userscreen, advertisment, ... AI 4011 Four digt code starting with 3 or 4 94129 Five digt code starting with 9 facebook.com/yellowturtlefitness 83137 Five dt code starting with Autonomous Driving Benefits - Machines don't get tired Working while driving Reduce driver stress Privacy Privatsphäre - Our Data is collected from websites, companies and also selled - - can be missused = - privacy is going to be smaller and a lot harder to keep and protect Increased safety Decrease number of accidents - Helps disabled People which can't drive Risks and dangers - who is responsible for accidents - mistakes in programming - hacker attack and take control with bad intentions - jobloss - can't decide what ist should do - moral question -dilemma situation Risks - Opportunities They weigh each other out. With one step into one direction the other one is also growing and we won't be able to stop that. Technology Vehicles driving with only a Little Ohr noch human control input. There are 5 levels of autonomous driving. Future of individual Transport. 0 : Driver only 1: Driver assistant 2: Partial autonoumous 3: Condition automatic 4: Highly automated 5: Full automation Drones Unmanned aircrafts which are controlled either by humanes or compters. There are different types. You Need a drone license if you warr to control one. Could be used for rescue, war, safety, observation etc. Electric car They have electric batteries and work without fossil fuels. Electricity could be a renewable source which is cheaper as gas. But It is really expensive, short range, inediquate infastructure. Needs a lot more time - acutally today it isn't more invironmentally frendly than normal cars. - Security - Surveillance Dangers - can not completely prevent terrorist danger - cyber ciminality How you can protect your data - clearing out cookie caches, browser histories (prevents information collecting of networks) read license agreement before download - difficult passwords, different ones Racial Injustice (in the USA) BLM: Black men got killed by a officer (police violence) - people demonstrated and requested justice for the family movement all around the world Civil Rights Movement: political movement from 1954-1968 against discrimination and segregation achieved the most important breakthrough in equality rights for Africans since 1877 - ex of racial segregation: Rosa Parks - leave seat for white men Rosa Parks American Activist worked the most time as seanstress -secretary at the NAACP organized the montgomery bus boycott Refused to stand up in the bus - civil rights movement have (11 DREAM Martin Luther King Jr. ,,March on Washington" (1963) - I have a Dream speech Gender Issues Men and women are treated differently: - Men are better payed in jobs Some jobs in higher positions men are prefered - typical made image in the society - in some countries women have less rights than men R.I.P (In-)equality Multiculturalism Pro - high Tolerance: respect Others - bring growth and rospertie in the Economic national States are going to break up - Support language exchanges - learn different traditions, religions, Lifestyle,... different point of a view Chinese Irish Italian AMERICAN Con - language borries → Serious levels of isolation - lose Culture, because get-S Mixed. different values and ethnicities - giant gap between Cultures - Integration Issues Racism - some feel last, because they hauen 't got, what they need to live Black lives matter movement - founded in 2013 - in 2020 it get bigger → demonstrations attention against racism and police violence. - symbol: Closed hand - protests weren 't peaceful → more Cases of paice violence. - achievements in the US → Trump and Obama reacted. - not only in the US → it's all over world. Pro: Kids still get bullied in School Police violence still happens very after (for example Georg Floyd) Con: many popular People are black (for example Barack Obama) Police Violence poor Police training, unjust killing, racism 1000 death by Police officers in 2019 no proceeding by the police most affected people: homeless people, drug sellers, prostitudes, demonstrators, journalists, people with a different culture Police violence is a big problem society and officer wise. Deaths like George Floyd are part of this problem, it is time to raise more awareness onto this topic. Tradition and change When one thinks of Britain, you imagine people drinking tea, wearing bowler hats and gorging on fish and chips. Sports, food and music, are tightly knit traditions in Britain. British society has experienced significant change since the Second World War, including an expansion of higher education and home ownership, a shift towards a service-dominated economy, mass immigration, a changing role for women and a more individualistic culture The Empire Britain "where the sun never sets" -> size and globaly Why: It was their "destiny" to do so They wanted power Greed How they controlled the colonies: They paid local soldiers to fight for them ->they didnt have enough manpower Local rulers were used to controll the colonies for them by offering treaties 6000 british officials controlled 200 000 000 Indians ->used "confidence trick": big palaces, behaved in very grand manner This worked untill May 1857 Indian troops and people stood up to fight thr british The British punished the revolution hard -> to impress: Durbars(ceremonial shows of strength) were hold when a monarch was crowned India was the biggest, richest and most significant colonie in the empire Queen Victoria: empress of India 22.06.1897 celebration of her diamond Jubilee-> she reigned for 60years. Canada USA British Empire in 1921 (with modern country names) colonies that left in 1776 colonies before 1914 territories added after 1918 Caribbean Guyana Great Britain Falkland Islands Nigeria Sudan Ghana Namibia South Africa Pakistan Kenya Tanzania Wars The famine of Bengal Boer war The Amritsar massacre C. Hồng Kong Australia New Zealand Immigration - First world: -they are welcome -no problem in society -skilled workers-> get good jobs East world: -do unwanted job -are importanz for this kind of work Third world: -mass imigration -they are save in england, but doesnt help the country -asyl and economic immigration is mixed Britain Democracy vs Monarchy Democracy is a form of government in which the people have the authority to choose their governing legislation. A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is the head of state for life or until abdication. Democracy Pros: - legislative, judicary, executive - election/peoples decision - achieved status - collective majority ruler - modern political system - rational - legal authority Cons: - Polarization occurs frequently. A super majority is possible in a representative democracy. Districts must be able to trust the elected representatives. ... - The voice of the people technically ends with the election. ... - It is a system that invites corruption. Monarchy Pros: New Immigrationsystem How to get to 70 points tasks - they are very expensive outdated national feeling - Symbol of britain attracts tourists Cons: - only representative Example: a university researcher institution - Single ruler from generations - ascribed status - no freedom of speech 20 points Job offer 10 points Speaks English 20 points Staying in the EU: -lower taxes + + = -traveling easier and cheaper -trade politics safety, strong economy (single market) Leaving the EU: -easier for new laws and more control over the laws -less EU taxes and spendings -more independent and unity 20 points Job at appropriate skill level 1973 0 points Salary of £22,000 Britain and the EU (Brexit) Britain joins the European Economic Community (EEC) 70 points First referendum: overwhelming majority to remain in the EEC 1975 negotiates a special rebate for Britain favour of free trade against more political integration against a European "superstate" Euroscepticism Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom is a continuum of belief ranging from the opposition to certain political policies of the European Union to the complete opposition to the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union. It has been a significant element in the politics of the United Kingdom (UK). 1979-1990 - In 2016 Britians decided closely to leave the EU - Long period of negotiations followed with no real outcome From the year 2020 to 2021 Great Britain officially left the EU with the important trade union - In the following year GB struggled from less trade and economy, not enough qualified workers and a new conflict in Northern Ireland pro-European attitude Britain joins European Social Charter Blair even considers joining Eurozone 1997-2010 2010-2016 23/06/2016: Brexit referendum anti-integrationist agenda promises second referendum negotiates further rebate Commonwealth Leave: 51.89% Remain: 48.11% 2016 wins General Election 2019 Parliament passes Brexit bill UK leaves EU on 31/01/2020 transition phase up to Dec 2020 negotiates Brexit deal with the EU unable to get her deal passed in Parliament. Commonwealth 2016-2019 2019- The Commonwealth is an association of countries across the world. Although historically connected to the British Empire, any country can apply to be a member of the Commonwealth, -criterias for membership: world peace, liberty, human rights, equality, free trade Cons: regardless of its intersection with Britain's colonial past. The Commonwealth consists of 54 countries, including the United Kingdom. Pros: -membership is voluntary -Support for developing countries -less cooperation with the rest of the world American Dream Every Individual is given the chance to be sucessful, wealthy and rich: from rags to riches - american way of live - leather of success - american frontier - the can-do-spirit - reach their dreams regardless of colour, religion, nationality History: The early settlers in America hoped for a better life than the one they had left behind in Europe, they dreamt of: - freedom - individualism - mobility, optimism, flexibility - hard work - progress - patriotism EXAMPLE Oprah Winfrey Important Dates 1776: Declaration of Independence 1789: Constitution 1791: Bill of Rights 1790-1890: Revolutionary War Immigration Many people want to immigrate to the US, wanted better Future and ecape Europe system. 1776 - 1849 the First Settlers came. Slave trade Had to work hard - used as cheap workers Slaves: Criminals (slavery as punishment), War loseres (convicted), Born as slaves Slaves in america where mostly shipped from africa, used to help the economy. - Long time of discrimination started - Till today hard work where criminals where punished by slavery when your parents are slaves you are also one What? often used to inspire and motivate Americans to improve themselves and get on life; it has been blamed for creating expectations Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical statue. It stands on Liberty Island in New York Harbour, was Orge inaugurated on October 28, 1886 and is a gift from the French people to the United States. LAA Workney Lame The USA 1 Tica BE HAL Kabaly Interpretation of American Dream Personal Dream: freedom, self-fulfilment, dignity, hapiness, fresh start Economic Dream: prosperity, success, no proverty, progress Social Dream: equality, classless society Religious Dreams: religious freedom in a ,,promised land" in which they were god's chase people, exceptionalism Political Dreams: democracy National Identify: patriotism, freedom, individualism, mobility, optimism, flexibility, hard work, progress Manifest Destiny A symbol of Manifest Destiny*, the figure ,,Columbia" moves across the land in advance of settlers, replacing darkness with light and ignorce with civilization. *us-amerikanische Ideologie. Sie besagt, dass es eine teologische Mission gibt, die kulturellen Vorstellungen der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika zu verbreiten. It's role in the world Economic Influence: Leaders in the economic an military power, many big and influential companies are located in the USA (Apple, Facebook produce about 25% (one qouter) of the worlds wealth Military Influence: One third of the total world's defence spending is by the US alone (660 billion dollar), The US is the world's only superpower Control Influence: Over 2 billion people around the world speak englisch, US music, movies, videogames have a large market of 3 million customers in their country President can veto laws - Legislative Executive Congress can pass laws over president's veto and controls budget Congress House of Representatives Senate President Courts can declare acts by president unconstitutional Senate approves president's court appointments and can remove judges Court can declare laws unconstitutional Checks & Balances This system provides each branch of government with individual powers to check the other branches and prevents them that one gets to much power. Legislative (the Senat): makes all laws, controls taxing and spending policies Executive (president): responsible for enforcing the laws of the land Almost every adult can own or carry one. It's seen as a person's basic right. The right to buy and carry a gun was written into the constitution, which is a list of basic rules that a country is based on. President appoints judges Judicial (supreme Court): review laws, explain laws, decide if a law goes against the Constitution Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians. ... In some countries such as the United States, gun control may be legislated at either a federal level or a local state level. Gun Control Judicial The Courts We the People Gale Minde dhe Minisay COA By M Prior to election day In each state, all parties with a presidential candidate choose potential electors Election day NMB>mm When voters in each state cast votes for the presidential candidate of their choice they are actually voting to select their state's electors The electoral system President and vice president get elected every 4 years by the citizens National Electionday (Tuesday after the first of november) The USA 2 7 55 6 11 Each state has a certain number of electors based on its representation in Congress 3 3 9 5 3 3 5 6 38 7 10 6 10 After election day Trump as a President Donald Trump stunned the political world in 2016 when he became the first person without government or military experience ever to be elected president of the United States. From his first days in Washington to his last, Trump seemed to revel in the political fight. 20 Trump's policy record included major changes at home and abroad. D.C. 538 electors in total 270 votes for majority The electors meet to vote for president and the electoral votes are tallied by Congress मत US politics The modern political party system in the United States is a two-party system dominated by the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. These two parties have won every United States presidential election since 1852 and have controlled the United States Congress since at least 1856. Joe Biden 46. President of the United States of America as Democrat - Jill Biden wife lost earlier wife and daughter at car accident - want's to built sustainable infrastructure - want's free health insurance - challenges: Corona crisis, economic crisis, economic crisis, health system, racism, trumps mistakes Important People (Quoted) Politicans Scientists Famous People Important written sources Others From past and present US (PMS, party leaders, ...) UK (Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Party leaders, ...) Other countries (that are somehow relevant) UN Secretaries Of rellevant fields of study (geneticists, environmentalists, social scientists) Spokesmen/-women For certain topics Authors and Actors Whistleblowers Constitutions Laws Newspaper Explanation on worksheed MLK (civil rights) ◄ Greta Thunberg Emma Watson (feminism) 다 PAST PRESENT Taking part in a discussion Dos: Don'ts: Think about your opinion before the discussion starts. Say what you really think about the topic and explain why you think that. Listen to what your partner says and say if you agree or disagree. Make sure you know the language for agreeing and disagreeing. Be polite if you disagree. Ask your partner what she thinks. Use every second you are given to do the task. Finish the discussion by summarizing what you have spoken about. So... Avoiding silence and getting time to think In English-speaking cultures we avoid long silences or pauses. We look at the other person and show that we are listening to their turn. We also indicate when we want to speak and use expressions to keep our turn. Erm... Well ... Don't only give your own opinion but also respond to your partner. Don't worry if you don't agree with your partner. That's fine! Don't talk about things that are not relevant to the topic. Don't let the discussion stop. Keep it going! Let me think... Taking turns - language support In an exam you have to take turns with your partner because you both need to talk. Make sure you speak for long enough and that your turn isn't too short. The following expressions will help you. Take turns You may start. I'll go first if that's OK for you. Shall I go first? Would you like to begin? Make your turn longer by giving examples What I mean is ... So, in other words ... For example, ... Such as ... QUEL Stating your opinion - In my - Well, I'd say... - It's a fact that ... opinion/view,... - The way I see it, ... - Personally, I think ... - If you ask me, ... - I'm absolutely convinced that ... - On the whole, I think e whole, I think Agreeing - I quite agree... - That's a good point... - Quite!/Exactly!/Precisely! - Certainly!/Definitely! - You're quite right. / That's right. - I hadn't thought of that. Disagreeing Polite disagreement - I'm afraid I don't quite agree there. - I'm not sure, really. - Do you really think so? - I'm not convinced that .... - Well, I have my doubts about that. - It depends really... - I'm wondering whether... - As far as I'm concerned, .... - It seems to me that ... think/feel/reckon/believe... - I - First of all / To start with .... -I'd like to point out that... -There can be no doubt that ... - Nobody will deny that ... - As I see it, ... - That's just how I see it / feel about it. - I agree entirely/completely. - You've got a good point there. - That's exactly how I see it. - Yes, indeed. - I'd go along with that. Strong disagreement - I'm sure that's wrong! - I doubt that very much. - That doesn't convince me at all. - I don't agree with you at all. - I disagree entirely. - It's not as simple as that. - The problem is that ... 620- Asking for clarification - I'm sorry, but I don't understand/know what you mean by ... - Could you give an example? - Could you explain that, please? - Can you prove that? I would be very interested in some data/examples that ... Strategies you can use when you don't know a word If you don't know or can't remember an exact word - don't worry! There are lots of things you can do to communicate without saying the exact word. These are very useful strategies that even native speakers use. a. Use general words If you can't remember the word 'surgeon', you could say a more general word like 'doctor'. b. Give examples If you don't know the word 'cutlery, you could give examples such as 'knife, fork and spoon'. c. Use relative clauses to give a description It's a person who... / thing that ... / place where ... If you don't know the word 'briefcase', you could say 'It's a thing that people use to carry papers to work'. Signalling that you would like to say something - May I interrupt you? -Excuse me, I would like to add that ... - An important aspect is missing here, namely ... - That illustrates perfectly what ... - Can I just say/explain that ...? - I would like to jump in here, to clarify that ... - I hope you don't mind me interrupting, but it is important to stress... Adding a point - Another thing is ... - What's more ... - On top of that, ... - We must also consider ... - I would like to add that ... - Have you ever considered ...? Buying time - Well, that is an interesting point. / I see what you mean. - I think the question we were discussing was ... - You have given your opinion, however... - Why don't we see what X has to say about that? - Let's not forget to ... Summarizing your point of view or your main arguments - So, what shall we say? -The most important argument is ... - Finally, you can't deny that ... - So, 1/we have come to the conclu- sion that ... - There are more good reasons for ... than for... - Let me just state again that it is vital to... - I have shown that ... / It has become clear that ... - In spite of everything we have heard from the other side.... -To sum it up ... - If we don't .., then ... d. Describe the purpose or function (It's used to + infinitive / for + -ing) If you don't know the word 'scissors', you could say 'They are used to cut paper' or 'They are used for cutting paper. This strategy works well with objects that have a clear use or function. e. Use synonyms (words that mean the same) If you don't know the word 'tiny, you could say 'very small'. This strategy works well with nouns and adjectives. f. Use antonyms (opposite words) If you don't know the word 'weak', you could say 'not strong'. This strategy works well with adjectives. g. Use approximations (It's a kind of ... / It's a sort of ...) If you don't know the word "bungalow, you could say "It's a kind of house' or 'It's a sort of house'.