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Immigration Zusammenfassung

Immigration Zusammenfassung

 Pauline/Freia
Immigration
(Sources: PEW Research Center, 1 Abiunity, Other students, English lessons, YouTube, Wikipedia²)
The Land of Oppo

Immigration Zusammenfassung

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Immigration Zusammenfassung für die Englisch Kommunikationsprüfung

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Pauline/Freia Immigration (Sources: PEW Research Center, 1 Abiunity, Other students, English lessons, YouTube, Wikipedia²) The Land of Opportunity (American Dream) has always attracted immigrants from around the world. As a result, the population of the USA is made up of a wide variety of different races. The majority of people came - and still come today - in the hoping of making a better life for themselves in America. However, this ethnic mix also includes the Native Americans, who had already settled throughout North America when the first European settlers came along, and people from Africa who were brought against their will to work as slaves (for black slaves, America was anything but a land of opportunity). The United States has more immigrants than any other country in the world. • Today, more than 40 million people living in the U.S. were born in another country, accounting for about one-fifth of the world's migrants. The population of immigrants is also very diverse, with just about every country in the world represented among U.S. immigrants. The U.S. foreign-born population reached a record 44.8 million in 2018. History of Immigration to the US Januar 2021 The USA is widely known as a country of immigrants Apart from the Native Americas (make up 1%), all inhabitants came as immigrants voluntarily...

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or forced Early 17th century: colonial immigration (mainly British settlers), Puritans (English Protestants, not content with the Church of England), 1st African Americans forcefully shipped to colonies as slaves (until 19th century) Mid 19th up to the early 20th century: biggest waves of voluntarily immigration, central and western Europe, gold in California → many Chinese, Jews who escaped religious persecution First official federal immigration on Ellis Island, statue of liberty After WW1: attitudes changed, immigration quotas and laws severely restricted Civil rights movements race-based quotas were abolished, Asian and Latin Americas Peak was in in earlier countries, USA remains country of immigration Due to higher restrictions, number of illegal immigrants has increased Trump promotes a "zero tolerance policy" towards illegal immigration, plan to build Wall at the US- Mexican border More than 1 million immigrants arrive in the U.S. each year. In 2018, the top country of origin for new immigrants coming into the U.S. was China, followed by India, Mexico and the Philippines. By race and ethnicity, more Asian immigrants than Hispanic immigrants have arrived in the U.S. in most years since 2009. Immigration from Latin America slowed following the Great Recession, particularly for Mexico, which has seen both decreasing flows into the United States and large flows back to Mexico in recent years Immigration policies in the US: Until the end of the 19th century, there were no restrictions on immigration to the States - settlers were encouraged to come From the 20th century onwards, various laws and policies were introduced to control immigration - it became clear that the open door policy was not sustainable, • Today, there are different ways of getting a greed card: through family already living in the States, through marriage to a US citizen, or through your employment. There are around 11 million undocumented, or illegal, immigrants in the US, over half of which come from Mexico. 1 https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/08/20/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/ 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement 1 Pauline/Freia Refugees Since the creation of the federal Refugee Resettlement Program in 1980, about 3 million refugees have been resettled in the U.S. more than any other country. In 2019, a total of 30,000 refugees were resettled in the U.S. The largest origin group of refugees was the Democratic Republic of the Congo, followed by Burma (Myanmar), Ukraine, Eritrea and Afghanistan. citizenship Most immigrants are in the country legally, while almost a quarter are unauthorized. • In 2017, 45% were naturalized U.S. citizens. having lived in the U.S. for five years. In 2019, about 800,000 immigrants applied for naturalization. Generally, most immigrants eligible for naturalization apply to become citizens. ● ● ● Ellis island and Angel island They were immigration regulation points. 1892 was used to manage the increasing number of immigrants • Health check, registration, legal interview • Some had to stay on the island for months 2% were deported However, Mexican lawful immigrants have the lowest naturalization rate overall. ● Language and personal barriers, lack of interest and financial barriers are among the top reasons for choosing not to naturalize cited by Mexican-born green card holders. ● ● The settling in (challenges for refugees) Speaking and learning English to get a job, make friends or navigate every day life, speaking English is crucial in the U.S. many take ESL classes but finding the time to do so is not easy. Raising children and helping them succeed in school raising children in an unfamiliar culture. children ,,americanize" and learn English faster than parents. this can lead to generational conflicts or cultural disparity. in school, parents often see their children struggling to keep up or being bullied and discriminated due to cultural differences. parents also don't have the education or language to help their children. Januar 2021 exploitation on the housing market Accessing services Transportation Cultural barriers Unauthorized immigrants are almost a quarter of U.S. foreign-born population Foreign-born population estimates, 2017 Living Nearly half (45%) of the nation's immigrants live in just three states: California (24%), Texas (11%) and Florida (10%). California had the largest immigrant population of any state in 2018, at 10.6 million. 2 Unauthorized immigrants 10.5 million (23%) Temporary lawful residents 2.2 million (5%) Note: Figures for the total and subgroups differ from published U.S. Census Bureau totals because census data have been augmented and adjusted to account for undercount of the population. All numbers are rounded. Unauthorized immigrants include some with temporary protection from deportation under Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and Temporary Protected Status (TPS), as well as pending asylum cases. Source: Pew Research Center estimates based on augmented U.S. Census Bureau data. PEW RESEARCH CENTER high school U.S. born Educational attainment among U.S. immigrants, 2018 % among those ages 25 and older Foreign born Foreign born birthplace: Mexico East and East and Southeast Asia Central Asia South Asia 16 Central America South America Middle East- North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Oceania Europe 11 Canada and 7 17 Other North America Caribbean Lawful permanent residents 12.3 million (27%) 27 23 14 16 10 9 10 12 12 18 High school Some graduate college 47 19 27 22 22 26 30 20 23 19 Lawful immigrants 35.2 million (77%) Naturalized citizens 20.7 million (45%) 31 26 27 Securing work most refugees take whatever job possible in the beginning. but finding one and slowly moving up the ladder is incredibly difficult. refugees and immigrants who were educated and had good jobs back home, find it frustrating that they can't obtain the same jobs here. Employers often prefer experience inside the US and certificates from other countries often don't count that much. Securing housing 25 19 26 71 25 46 44 50 Bachelor's or more 33 37 17 13 40 Note: "Some college includes those with two-year degrees. "High school graduate" includes those with a high school diploma or its equivalent, such as a GED certificate. Middle East consists of Southwest Asia and North Africa. Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2018 American Community Survey (IPUMS). PEW RESEARCH CENTER 11 Pauline/Freia Statue of Liberty Stands for liberty, democracy and a welcoming country. Was a gift from France. Completed In 1884 and transported in small peaces. Put up in 1886 The crown with the seven spikes stands for the continents and the oceans. She holds the constitution and a flame. She is 46m high. • On the pedestal on which she is standing is a poem engraved. It was written by Emma Lazarus in 1883 and is called the new colossus". She was raised in a jewish family and was an activist. She helped jewish activists and wrote the poem for the statue of liberty. To her, everybody should be welcomed into her country. ● Melting Pot: The new colossus By Emma Lazarus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Salad Bowl: Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Metaphor, which is often used to describe the American society in which millions of immigrants from all over the world are formed into a harmonious whole through the common experience of living in the USA However, in recent years the concept of the melting pot, which propagates cultural assimilation, has come under criticism with other metaphors like a mosaic, or a salad bowl being preferred Metaphor that is employed to describe the USA's multicultural society It may be preferable to the traditional melting pot concept, because in a salad bowl, the original ingredients remain visible while they combine and make a successful whole Thereby, the traditional melting pot´s image of "forced assimilation" is avoided Instead, different ethnic groups are encouraged to keep their distinct backgrounds, because these are all necessary to make up the whole of the USA's society 3 U.S. immigrants are seen more as a strength than a burden to the country % who say immigrants today... Burden country by taking jobs, housing, health care 63 31 Januar 2021 1994 2000 2006 Strengthen country through hard work, talents 66 2012 Note: Don't know responses not shown. Source: Phone surveys of U.S. adults conducted 1994-2019. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 24 2019 Pauline/Freia ICE: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ICE's stated mission is to protect the United States from the cross-border crime and illegal immigration that threaten national security and public safety3 Criticism: Many start to stand up against the inhumane treatment people suffer from ICE methods, especially since the Trump administration. The Occupy ICE movement began on June 17, 2018. They were protesting outside of ICE buildings to stop the Trump Administration's ICE policies. More and more people joined, it spread to different cities and other organizations joined. On August 1, 2019, a month-long peaceful protest event was started outside the San Francisco ICE office, where protesters beat drums and demanded that family separation at the border be stopped. A report was published, revealing that 1,224 sexual abuse complaints while in immigration custody were filed between January 2010 and June 2017. Contrary to ICE's claims, only 2% of these complaints were investigated. As part of the 2018 Trump administration's zero tolerance policy, nearly 3,000[62] minors were separated from their parents, or the adults accompanying them, while trying to illegally cross the U.S.-Mexico border and placed in detention camps. These camps have recently been compared to prisons and concentration camps. Often the deportation of children and their parents are separated by years or detained children have also been given up for adoption. In a series of court cases, foster families were successfully able to gain full custody of migrant children that they were housing without notifying their parents. From 2012 to early 2018, ICE wrongfully arrested and detained 1,488 U.S. citizens, including many who spent months or years in immigration detention. In 2019, a U.S. citizen that was detained stated that he lost 26 pounds from the horrendous conditions that the detention center offered Sanctuary cities are cities that limit their cooperation with ICE. When a person is arrested, his or her information is placed into a federal database that ICE can access. In a non-sanctuary city, ICE can ask the police to hold the illegal immigrant until they can pick him or her up. However, sanctuary cities believe this is unconstitutional and view being an illegal immigrant as not a crime but a civil violation. Mexico, China and India are among top birthplaces for immigrants in the U.S. Top five countries of birth for immigrants in the U.S. in 2018, in millions Mexico China 2.9 India 2.6 Philippines 2.0 El Salvador 1.4 11.2 Share among all immigrants 25% 6 6 4 3 Note: China includes Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mongolia. Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of 2018 American Community Survey (IPUMS). PEW RESEARCH CENTER U.S. deportations of immigrants slightly up in 2018 In thousands, by fiscal year and criminal status 189 165 116 92 211 127 360 319 281 FAA 255 217 182 241 246 148 154 391 382 386 417 435 4 260 212 197 217 237 414 247 333 340 193 204 Januar 2021 295 174 337 Total 188 Noncriminal 98 102 105 132 170 189 200 199 168 140 136 121 149 Criminal 73 73 84 92 92 2001 ¹02 '03 '04 ¹05 '06 '07 08 09 10 11 '12 '13 14 15 16 '17 2018 Note: Criminal status is based on prior criminal conviction. Data refers to removals by U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security publications. Data for 2001-2004: "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010." Data for 2005-2014: "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2014." Data for 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 from "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics" for each respective year. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement Pauline/Freia Ecological reasons Bad air quality earthquakes ● Severe flooding Crop failure ● Economic reasons Unemployment • Lack of career opportunities Poor infrastructure ● Drought Famine (Hungersnot) Consequences of global warming Political reasons • War Push factors Bad working conditions Lack of services Insecurity Gang warfare Criminality Persecution (religious political) Sexual identity Dictatorship Lack of freedom Despotism Personal reasons • Marriage • Family reunion • Adventurism • Interest for culture/language Push factors: War Poverty Unemployment Lack of security and service High crime rate Crop failure Flood and drought - famines 5 Ecological reasons Beautiful landscape ● • Better air • Water supply • Modern infrastructure Economical/social reasons Better educational opportunities Employment Better working conditions Career opportunities ● Pull factors • Pension/accomodation • Social security/ insurance Generous social benefits Higher standard of living • holidays Political reasons Safety stability • Rule of law Democratic institutions Freedom of speech Proper treatment of refugees Higher standard of security Personal freedom ● ● Personal reasons • marriage ● Relationship Love of culture/country Size of population Januar 2021 Pull fastors: Political security Greater wealth / affluence Chance of employment More secure atmosphere and better services Less crime More fertile land and better food supply Lower risk from natural hazards

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Immigration Zusammenfassung

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 Pauline/Freia
Immigration
(Sources: PEW Research Center, 1 Abiunity, Other students, English lessons, YouTube, Wikipedia²)
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Immigration Zusammenfassung für die Englisch Kommunikationsprüfung

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Pauline/Freia Immigration (Sources: PEW Research Center, 1 Abiunity, Other students, English lessons, YouTube, Wikipedia²) The Land of Opportunity (American Dream) has always attracted immigrants from around the world. As a result, the population of the USA is made up of a wide variety of different races. The majority of people came - and still come today - in the hoping of making a better life for themselves in America. However, this ethnic mix also includes the Native Americans, who had already settled throughout North America when the first European settlers came along, and people from Africa who were brought against their will to work as slaves (for black slaves, America was anything but a land of opportunity). The United States has more immigrants than any other country in the world. • Today, more than 40 million people living in the U.S. were born in another country, accounting for about one-fifth of the world's migrants. The population of immigrants is also very diverse, with just about every country in the world represented among U.S. immigrants. The U.S. foreign-born population reached a record 44.8 million in 2018. History of Immigration to the US Januar 2021 The USA is widely known as a country of immigrants Apart from the Native Americas (make up 1%), all inhabitants came as immigrants voluntarily...

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or forced Early 17th century: colonial immigration (mainly British settlers), Puritans (English Protestants, not content with the Church of England), 1st African Americans forcefully shipped to colonies as slaves (until 19th century) Mid 19th up to the early 20th century: biggest waves of voluntarily immigration, central and western Europe, gold in California → many Chinese, Jews who escaped religious persecution First official federal immigration on Ellis Island, statue of liberty After WW1: attitudes changed, immigration quotas and laws severely restricted Civil rights movements race-based quotas were abolished, Asian and Latin Americas Peak was in in earlier countries, USA remains country of immigration Due to higher restrictions, number of illegal immigrants has increased Trump promotes a "zero tolerance policy" towards illegal immigration, plan to build Wall at the US- Mexican border More than 1 million immigrants arrive in the U.S. each year. In 2018, the top country of origin for new immigrants coming into the U.S. was China, followed by India, Mexico and the Philippines. By race and ethnicity, more Asian immigrants than Hispanic immigrants have arrived in the U.S. in most years since 2009. Immigration from Latin America slowed following the Great Recession, particularly for Mexico, which has seen both decreasing flows into the United States and large flows back to Mexico in recent years Immigration policies in the US: Until the end of the 19th century, there were no restrictions on immigration to the States - settlers were encouraged to come From the 20th century onwards, various laws and policies were introduced to control immigration - it became clear that the open door policy was not sustainable, • Today, there are different ways of getting a greed card: through family already living in the States, through marriage to a US citizen, or through your employment. There are around 11 million undocumented, or illegal, immigrants in the US, over half of which come from Mexico. 1 https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/08/20/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/ 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement 1 Pauline/Freia Refugees Since the creation of the federal Refugee Resettlement Program in 1980, about 3 million refugees have been resettled in the U.S. more than any other country. In 2019, a total of 30,000 refugees were resettled in the U.S. The largest origin group of refugees was the Democratic Republic of the Congo, followed by Burma (Myanmar), Ukraine, Eritrea and Afghanistan. citizenship Most immigrants are in the country legally, while almost a quarter are unauthorized. • In 2017, 45% were naturalized U.S. citizens. having lived in the U.S. for five years. In 2019, about 800,000 immigrants applied for naturalization. Generally, most immigrants eligible for naturalization apply to become citizens. ● ● ● Ellis island and Angel island They were immigration regulation points. 1892 was used to manage the increasing number of immigrants • Health check, registration, legal interview • Some had to stay on the island for months 2% were deported However, Mexican lawful immigrants have the lowest naturalization rate overall. ● Language and personal barriers, lack of interest and financial barriers are among the top reasons for choosing not to naturalize cited by Mexican-born green card holders. ● ● The settling in (challenges for refugees) Speaking and learning English to get a job, make friends or navigate every day life, speaking English is crucial in the U.S. many take ESL classes but finding the time to do so is not easy. Raising children and helping them succeed in school raising children in an unfamiliar culture. children ,,americanize" and learn English faster than parents. this can lead to generational conflicts or cultural disparity. in school, parents often see their children struggling to keep up or being bullied and discriminated due to cultural differences. parents also don't have the education or language to help their children. Januar 2021 exploitation on the housing market Accessing services Transportation Cultural barriers Unauthorized immigrants are almost a quarter of U.S. foreign-born population Foreign-born population estimates, 2017 Living Nearly half (45%) of the nation's immigrants live in just three states: California (24%), Texas (11%) and Florida (10%). California had the largest immigrant population of any state in 2018, at 10.6 million. 2 Unauthorized immigrants 10.5 million (23%) Temporary lawful residents 2.2 million (5%) Note: Figures for the total and subgroups differ from published U.S. Census Bureau totals because census data have been augmented and adjusted to account for undercount of the population. All numbers are rounded. Unauthorized immigrants include some with temporary protection from deportation under Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and Temporary Protected Status (TPS), as well as pending asylum cases. Source: Pew Research Center estimates based on augmented U.S. Census Bureau data. PEW RESEARCH CENTER high school U.S. born Educational attainment among U.S. immigrants, 2018 % among those ages 25 and older Foreign born Foreign born birthplace: Mexico East and East and Southeast Asia Central Asia South Asia 16 Central America South America Middle East- North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Oceania Europe 11 Canada and 7 17 Other North America Caribbean Lawful permanent residents 12.3 million (27%) 27 23 14 16 10 9 10 12 12 18 High school Some graduate college 47 19 27 22 22 26 30 20 23 19 Lawful immigrants 35.2 million (77%) Naturalized citizens 20.7 million (45%) 31 26 27 Securing work most refugees take whatever job possible in the beginning. but finding one and slowly moving up the ladder is incredibly difficult. refugees and immigrants who were educated and had good jobs back home, find it frustrating that they can't obtain the same jobs here. Employers often prefer experience inside the US and certificates from other countries often don't count that much. Securing housing 25 19 26 71 25 46 44 50 Bachelor's or more 33 37 17 13 40 Note: "Some college includes those with two-year degrees. "High school graduate" includes those with a high school diploma or its equivalent, such as a GED certificate. Middle East consists of Southwest Asia and North Africa. Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2018 American Community Survey (IPUMS). PEW RESEARCH CENTER 11 Pauline/Freia Statue of Liberty Stands for liberty, democracy and a welcoming country. Was a gift from France. Completed In 1884 and transported in small peaces. Put up in 1886 The crown with the seven spikes stands for the continents and the oceans. She holds the constitution and a flame. She is 46m high. • On the pedestal on which she is standing is a poem engraved. It was written by Emma Lazarus in 1883 and is called the new colossus". She was raised in a jewish family and was an activist. She helped jewish activists and wrote the poem for the statue of liberty. To her, everybody should be welcomed into her country. ● Melting Pot: The new colossus By Emma Lazarus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Salad Bowl: Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Metaphor, which is often used to describe the American society in which millions of immigrants from all over the world are formed into a harmonious whole through the common experience of living in the USA However, in recent years the concept of the melting pot, which propagates cultural assimilation, has come under criticism with other metaphors like a mosaic, or a salad bowl being preferred Metaphor that is employed to describe the USA's multicultural society It may be preferable to the traditional melting pot concept, because in a salad bowl, the original ingredients remain visible while they combine and make a successful whole Thereby, the traditional melting pot´s image of "forced assimilation" is avoided Instead, different ethnic groups are encouraged to keep their distinct backgrounds, because these are all necessary to make up the whole of the USA's society 3 U.S. immigrants are seen more as a strength than a burden to the country % who say immigrants today... Burden country by taking jobs, housing, health care 63 31 Januar 2021 1994 2000 2006 Strengthen country through hard work, talents 66 2012 Note: Don't know responses not shown. Source: Phone surveys of U.S. adults conducted 1994-2019. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 24 2019 Pauline/Freia ICE: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ICE's stated mission is to protect the United States from the cross-border crime and illegal immigration that threaten national security and public safety3 Criticism: Many start to stand up against the inhumane treatment people suffer from ICE methods, especially since the Trump administration. The Occupy ICE movement began on June 17, 2018. They were protesting outside of ICE buildings to stop the Trump Administration's ICE policies. More and more people joined, it spread to different cities and other organizations joined. On August 1, 2019, a month-long peaceful protest event was started outside the San Francisco ICE office, where protesters beat drums and demanded that family separation at the border be stopped. A report was published, revealing that 1,224 sexual abuse complaints while in immigration custody were filed between January 2010 and June 2017. Contrary to ICE's claims, only 2% of these complaints were investigated. As part of the 2018 Trump administration's zero tolerance policy, nearly 3,000[62] minors were separated from their parents, or the adults accompanying them, while trying to illegally cross the U.S.-Mexico border and placed in detention camps. These camps have recently been compared to prisons and concentration camps. Often the deportation of children and their parents are separated by years or detained children have also been given up for adoption. In a series of court cases, foster families were successfully able to gain full custody of migrant children that they were housing without notifying their parents. From 2012 to early 2018, ICE wrongfully arrested and detained 1,488 U.S. citizens, including many who spent months or years in immigration detention. In 2019, a U.S. citizen that was detained stated that he lost 26 pounds from the horrendous conditions that the detention center offered Sanctuary cities are cities that limit their cooperation with ICE. When a person is arrested, his or her information is placed into a federal database that ICE can access. In a non-sanctuary city, ICE can ask the police to hold the illegal immigrant until they can pick him or her up. However, sanctuary cities believe this is unconstitutional and view being an illegal immigrant as not a crime but a civil violation. Mexico, China and India are among top birthplaces for immigrants in the U.S. Top five countries of birth for immigrants in the U.S. in 2018, in millions Mexico China 2.9 India 2.6 Philippines 2.0 El Salvador 1.4 11.2 Share among all immigrants 25% 6 6 4 3 Note: China includes Macau, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mongolia. Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of 2018 American Community Survey (IPUMS). PEW RESEARCH CENTER U.S. deportations of immigrants slightly up in 2018 In thousands, by fiscal year and criminal status 189 165 116 92 211 127 360 319 281 FAA 255 217 182 241 246 148 154 391 382 386 417 435 4 260 212 197 217 237 414 247 333 340 193 204 Januar 2021 295 174 337 Total 188 Noncriminal 98 102 105 132 170 189 200 199 168 140 136 121 149 Criminal 73 73 84 92 92 2001 ¹02 '03 '04 ¹05 '06 '07 08 09 10 11 '12 '13 14 15 16 '17 2018 Note: Criminal status is based on prior criminal conviction. Data refers to removals by U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security publications. Data for 2001-2004: "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010." Data for 2005-2014: "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2014." Data for 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 from "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics" for each respective year. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement Pauline/Freia Ecological reasons Bad air quality earthquakes ● Severe flooding Crop failure ● Economic reasons Unemployment • Lack of career opportunities Poor infrastructure ● Drought Famine (Hungersnot) Consequences of global warming Political reasons • War Push factors Bad working conditions Lack of services Insecurity Gang warfare Criminality Persecution (religious political) Sexual identity Dictatorship Lack of freedom Despotism Personal reasons • Marriage • Family reunion • Adventurism • Interest for culture/language Push factors: War Poverty Unemployment Lack of security and service High crime rate Crop failure Flood and drought - famines 5 Ecological reasons Beautiful landscape ● • Better air • Water supply • Modern infrastructure Economical/social reasons Better educational opportunities Employment Better working conditions Career opportunities ● Pull factors • Pension/accomodation • Social security/ insurance Generous social benefits Higher standard of living • holidays Political reasons Safety stability • Rule of law Democratic institutions Freedom of speech Proper treatment of refugees Higher standard of security Personal freedom ● ● Personal reasons • marriage ● Relationship Love of culture/country Size of population Januar 2021 Pull fastors: Political security Greater wealth / affluence Chance of employment More secure atmosphere and better services Less crime More fertile land and better food supply Lower risk from natural hazards