Short Stories Loose Change Andrea Levy (2005) Summary: story is told by an unnamed female first-person narrator the narrator meets Laylor during a visit to the toilets at the National Portrait gallery in London Luncomfortable in need of change for the "tampon machine" the narrator meets Laylor who helps her out without expecting to be paid back after that the narrator walks through the gallery commenting on different pictures - they head for the cafeteria. the narrator learns about the living situation Laylor and her brother are in: ↳ as refugees from Uzbekistan ↳ they don't know anyone in London don't have much جا they (homeless) money · Laylor does not ask for anything, but the narrator feels shamed into helping her · while thinking about the advantages that helping Laylor could bring, the narrator leaves the gallery without further comment. Aspects focused on in the story: Displacement question of identity & belonging: narrator: - insecuritys ´ first-generation-immigrant • Stress her own belonging to Britain L> she takes pride in behaving like typical Londoner Laylor: Settled and strong character young illegal immigrant · strength based of her self- knowledge & acceptance of her family background provides her with a sense of belonging Both Characters illustrate the importance of belonging when it comes to identity: • narrator: lack a sense of belonging appears to also lack a proprer sense of self Identity struggle ? → • Laylor: experienced displacement, but she appears confident & strong → sense of...
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belonging seems to underpin her identity Topic: a story of prejudices of immigrants - 0⁹0 the story illustrates that generosity does not depend on wealth. postcolonial experience: narrator: • first-generation-immigrant from the Carribean Ishe takes pride in behaving like typical Londoner when she meets Laylor, she realises, that she have the power to help her but ironically decides against it L> maybe because of her stereotypical London aloofness (Distanziertheit) The story is linked to postcolonialism by the themes of identity. & belonging Laylor: Seems empowered by her sense of belonging narrator: in contrast she is weakened by her lack of it. she appears to loose her humanity in the end, defeated by her continuing struggle to belong She shall not be moved - Shereen Pandit (2005) Summary: • unnamed first-person narrator and her daughter Miriam L> on their to a dance lesson on a cold day in London way. they board a bus narrator realises that the aisle (Gang ) is blocked by a Somali woman with a pram (Kinderwagen) and a toddler · the seats in the area for prams are taken by two middle- aged white woman that ↳ the narrator wants to help the Somali woman by confronting them & asking to make space but they reject the idea, arguing it will cause a scene and disturb her daughter unnecessarily the bus driver shouts at the woman ordering to fold up the pram • the Somali Woman is very calm Istedfast while she is bullied by the bus-driver and the two women. • a old-white woman gets in the bus, the narrator refuses to give up her seat ↳ she only wants to get up if the two women give up their seat for the Somali woman (Miriam is confused by her behaviour) · Somall woman get's off the bus. narrator advises her to report the bus driver ↳ but she replies that she is a slave and not worthy of her attention. · Later: narrator feels guilty and is worried that she's a bad role model for her daughter Topic: racism woman's failture to speak out against it Aspects focused on in the story: Displacement: question of identity & belonging: narrator: - fled to England to avoid political presecution (Verfolgung) have a strong sense of right & wrong (she also teach her daughter morally correct speak out against wrong-doing. → but the narrator does not → she fails to set a good example for her child her sense of belonging & identity based in part of her values & Ideals identifying as a person who stands out against racism L ↳ she may not belong where she felt she did (she act contrary. to her teachings)→ make an impact of her daughter inaction → even it goes against her own morals. • the Somali woman: • strong sense of identity & belonging ·also she is treated of someone who does not belong as "other" experience discrimination & racism · but she is right aware of what's her right. · multiculturalism / anti-racism /against injustice the narrator does not speak out when it matters Land neither do any other people on the bus • for her daughter: a "first lesson" in looking away & ignoring racism postcolonial experience: linked to postcolonialism 1) characters = first-generation immigrant (daughter) = woman with a migration background (Somali) 2) setting = story takes place in the UK (involved in the slave trade 3) title · "She shall Not Be Moved" ≈ "We shall Not Be Moved (African American spiritual used as a protest song during the Civil rights movement in the USA The Third and Final Continent-Jhumpa Lahiri (2005) Summary: • narrator lives in London with other Bengalis, studies and begins a career as a librarian (Bibleothekar) 5 years later job at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Boston) L> but in the same time his marriage was arranged by his older. Brother and his wife. • future bride / wife: Mala (but he barely know her • then he moves to a private house owned by a old Lady named Mrs. Croft →share respect for one another • the narrator begins to feel protective of her ·Mala arrives they move into a small apartement together ・first uncomfortable (because they are strangers) : : • at one point they visit Mrs. Croft first moment of warmth, they begin to grow closer • not long afterwards: Mrs. Croft died narrator is very sad and Mala consoles him strengthening their bond ´ end of the story: happily married, have a son studying at Harvard • narrator still remembers Mrs. Croft Aspects focused on in the story: Displacement: question of identity & belonging: narrator: • live with other Bengalis → have little responsibilitys & enjoy their lives. not feeling a great need of change: Sense of belonging does not make an effort to fit in or understand British culture • when he moves to Boston: he systematically & purposely learn. & adjust to amarican life Mala: · tries to adapt her behaviour Sharing a life= difficult for them (they barely know each other) • but their trying their best • they don't reject the culture they live in! • they have each other they not experience displacement / lack of belonging : -→ Topic: migration · arranged marriage reasons for migration postcolonial experience: • the story does not give information on political (economic conditions focused on the main character's personal migration. history. • the migration experience is positive. The Escape-Qaisra Shahraz (2009) Summary: about Samir 73 years old, Pakistani living in the UK. • starts of the mosque in Long sight where he is praying for his dead wife • his son dropped him off at the mosque and is supposed to pick him up • he bumps into his old friend Manzoor who invites him to his home but Samir refuses (because he was afraid of old memories) • Samir has a house with 5 bedrooms but his family move out and his wife passed away his joy has gone. L> he seems to be lonely. · So Samir announces that he wants to go back to Pakistan for a few month to visit his family. •when he arrived: Samir does not experience the feeling of homecoming he had expected. he realises he has become unfamiliar with his life in Pakistan ・he visit his family but the situation is very akward. contrary to his initial plans: he leave Pakistan after just he realised that his home is in England a week • he moved to an old people's home, where Samir is happy. and enjoys his life. Aspects focused on in the story: Displacement : question of identity & belonging: narrator: ·Samir live in England but has a close link to his country of origin keep up Pakistani traditions he has fostered to belief that Pakistan is the place where he truly belongs · his wife seems to have been fundamental to his sense of belonging lidentity and home after his death: He longs for an "escape" from England Topic: searching for a home sense of belonging So he wants to reconnect with his origins. · but in Pakistan he feels displaced ↳realisation that Pakistan is no longer the place. he belongs (England has become his home • new purpurse in life: the desire to help people poorer than himself postcolonial experience : · Samir = first generation immigrant from Pakistan personal Story of his search for belonging lidentity. ·• Samir continues to view his country of birth as a place. he belongs but he realises that his home is England his particular Pakistani-British family lives a mostly. positive postcolonial experience. → One could say that Samir & his family have benefited from the opportunities made possible by immigration to England. (specifically economically & in terms of education. Important Aspects: Clash of Cultures: (postcolonial experience) • Situation in which diverging attitudes/opinions, morals... of two different cultures come into conflict ↳ it can concern cultures from different countries (Italian Japanese) ↳but also subcultures within a larger group (Hip hop fans, goths...) Bi-cultural people = people who identify with two cultures ↳ Sometimes experience conflict & difficulties when trying to reconcile both their cultural identitys. " "culture shock" = anxiety and confusion some people feel when they find themeselves in a culture different from their own (Gran Torino) Displacement: (Verdrängung/ Vertreibung) • refers to the action of moving sth. from its place/position. ´in context of migration: peoples enforced departure from their own home country. ↳reasons globalisation, natural disaster, war, climate change → the term can be used to describe the feeling of beeing in the wrong place Identity: (Identität) a person's sense of self-defined by: physical, psychological, interpersonal characteristics group memberships, social roles Identity is defined by the things a person does ها : ما Important aspects when thinking about Identity: · education / career gender · Sexuality Social class •Social roles skills peer groups (Cliquen) culture Belonging: (Zugehörigkeit) · feeling of beeing comfortable & happy in a certain place / among a particular group of people → feeling of beeing accepted I approved. Important aspects when thinking about Belonging: family / Friends teams country of one's partners parents birth School · country of birth cities identity is multi-faced. (a combination of many traits) belonging = a fundamental human need Frankenstein Frankenstein-Mary Shelley (1831) General informations: published in 1832 the novel centres aroud Victor Frankenstein, who discovers the secret of creating life 3 different narrators following the first-person narrator (1) Captain Robert Walton (2) Victor Frankenstein (3) creature • Walton's letters act as a framing device they introduce & conclude the story. Summary: Walton's opening letters: letters from explorer Robert Walton to his sister Margaret Saville travels around the North Pole (in search of glory / hoping to make geographical / scientific discoveries) ・on his voyage crew rescues a stranger →Victor Frankenstein Walton & Frankenstein become friends -Frankenstein begins to tell his own story (as a warning against the dangers of reckless (rücksichtslos) ambition Frankenstein's narration: · reader learns about his happy upbringing & childhood. L> fascinated by mysteries of heaven & earth he started studying science (University of Ingolstadt) ↳ learns about: chemistry & modern scientific theories • his mother died so he cutt of from his family & the outside world (he buries himself in his work) ·he searches the graveyards (Friedhof) for human limbs/ organs begins to build a creature which he succeeds in bringing to life ↳ horrorfied by what he was created (he panics & falls into a serve illness) • the creature escapes. · Frankenstein learns that his younger brother William has been murdered • he realise that his creature is responsible they accused Justine (the household)→ she is consequently hanged. the creature's narration: · he tells Frankenstein what he has experienced. Land how hard his life has been People are afraid of him & run away because of his ugly appereance ↳ he hides from civilisation & seeks refuge in a shed behind a cottage where the De Lacey Family live he watches the unhappy family. →he provides them with wood from the forest ↳ the creature shows interest in understanding the De Laceys (he is willing to learn) ´he learns to speak, read & gains knowledge about history. : & Society ´ wishes to befriend the family but is driven away • the creature decided to seek revenge against his creator way: wants to befriend with William (but he is • on the as prejudiced as anyone else) he learns about his relationship to Frankenstein and frame Justine for the murder of William L the creature asks Frankenstein to create a female companion Frankenstein's narration: •· begins creating a female ↳ Frankenstein thinks about the fatal consequences. he decides to destroy it Lo the creature kills Victors best Friend Henry ↳ Creature strangles Victors wife Elisabeth on the couple's wedding night · Victor fled to the Arctic where he is picked up by Walton's ship Walton's final letters. • Walton decides to return home • Frankenstein dies because he could not destroy his creation ↳ Walton finds the creature weeping (weinend) over Frankensteins body • Creature tells Walton about his plans to commit suicide Walton realise: Isome successes come at too high a cost Charactermap: best friends Robert Walton Arctic explorer, listens to and records Victor's tale in letters to his sister Victor Frankenstein protagonist plays God by creating the monster" 11 Henry Clerval Innocent childhood friend & travelling companion of Victor tells story murders creates married seeks friendship with writes to Monster created by Victor Frankenstein, have a hard life Elizabeth Lavenza adopted by the Frankenstein family, marries Victor rders siblings murders Margaret Saville places locket in, her pocket Find De Lacey Family Blind father, Son Felix and Sofie, daughter Agatha / Family who risks their wealth to help Sofie's father → the monster helps them only to get rejected at the end Waltons sister William Frankenstein Youngest brother of Victor Justine Moritz housekeeper of the Frankenstein family Aspects focused on in the story: The ethics of science: "playing God" there is a code of conduct that most scientists feel bound to : Frankenstein does not follow. • Scientists must think critically, consider ethical & moral questions, act responsibly & communicate their results being : but Frankenstein "plays God" and create a human from dead body parts. fatal consequences of his action (death of friends...) expression "playing God" : used when science provides answers where before humans had accepted their situation · critical question: if it can be done, should it be done? جا without science = no choice Frankenstein will be relevant, as long as scientific & technological advances are made ! Question of (human) identity: What is it that makes us human? • question of the novel : The creature is alive, but is it human ? he consists of human parts but looks deformed, monstrous but: he clearly experience human emotions (pain, sympathy, sadness...) → his behaviour: cruel, brutal (like a monster); creature is immun to cold & strong Frankenstein learns that "life" is still not enough to "make" ahuman being the reader is constantly confronted with the human traits. of the creature → learns to speak / read delights in nature →need of human affection. • his appereance makes him a monster • the society hurts him and his feeling (That makes him what he is) →lack of belonging exclusion of society. 2- nothing can be done; it is down to nature / God • choice = responsibility · Ingolstadt : connected to Victors intellectual pursuits • the forest place to hide / try to survive →gives him comfort / peace is up to the reader to find the answer of this question The role of nature : The Arctic • connected to the themes of exploration / pursuit of knowledge) • start &ends in the Arctic (frames the narrative) ↳place of darkness, isolation & danger •The Alps/The Orkneys: dangerous place, desolate landscape Frankenstein only finds a place of comfort in ever-changing landscapes L reflect his tormented mind. inner conflict Symbols: ·lightning: fascination with science, electricity. Storms reflect his troubled state of mind. . announce the creature's arrival & terrible events the moon: • reflects Frankensteins fears & prejudice • first thing that bring him pleasure (the creature) ↳ the beauty of the moon forms a contrast to the creature's appereance Gran Torino Gran Torino-Clint Eastwood (2008) General informations: directed by Clint Eastwood • Story about walt Kowalski and his Asian neighbours Summary: • Walt Kowalski (gruff, embittered, taciturn war veteran) ↳a white racist ·befriends with his new Asian neighbours (The Lors) ↳ develops a mentor relationship with Thao The Lors = Hmong people (ethnic group, originally from Southern China, Vietnam, Laos... who were exiled (verbannt) due to their cooperation with the CIA during the Vietnam war Walt = former Ford factory worker (keeps a 1972 Ford Gran Torino in his garage) Thao attempts to steal (as an initiation ritual to a local gang 2 ·Thao = unsuccessful to make amends (Wiedergutmachung) : he starts working for Walt. they form a bond ↳ Walt helps him to get a job (develops into a father figure) • Walt: a serious diagnosis (he does not tell anyone) The gang continues to threaten (bedrohen) Thao walt beats up a member of the gang ↳ they shoot at the Lor house, injure Thao & rape Sue (sister) • the police can not arrest them • Walt decides to confront the gang & locked Thao in his basement · he is very loud, causing the neighbourhood to witness his sacrifice he is shot in the street & dies (unarmed so the could be arrested) · Thao interhits (erbt) the Gran Torino and Walts house is donated to the church. gang Character map: The 合 4 Lor family family Thao attack The Asian Gang family Sue good relationship a Aspects focused on in the story: sister friends friends the African-American gang Culture Clash: Traditional values and changing culture : • Walt: Walt (like a mentor) 7 Kowalski Family old friends ´old-fashioned American values L> Gran Torino = symbol (presents America's success in auto industry, wealth & history = old timer / relic of a long-gone era (like Walt) · Walt = certain type of man from his generation defined by conservatism, patriotism & racism = values hard work, independence & self-defence = - his response to violence is violence Barber & Kennedy begin to get along BARBER •shop• father Janovic + • he regrets the influx of immigrants. but he lives in a house next to people with the same ethnic & cultural background (Walt is the only white American left in the area • neighbours: the Lors family (Hmong people), an ethnic minority of Asian origin → Walt treats them extreme disrespectful ↳ he thinks that his neighbourhood clashes with his values. • Walt is focused on keeping things in order ↳he seems to defend his house against the changing. culture in the course of the movie: • Walt opens up & learns about the Hmong culture /customs L> he feels welcome in the Lor family Gender related conflicts: • Walt = masculine stereotypes "1 ↳ his behave to talk: "talking like a man" (with racial slurs) Lit influences Thao, whose role model Walt becomes ·mother Lor= believes in similary clear-cut gender roles ↳men had to be protective & show no "female" characteristics like shyness & sensitivity Thao: his masculinity is questioned by. ↳his family ↳ the gang members ↳ Walt ↳ he is Sue contrast : (1 not being "man enough" (Thaos lesson: to "man up" •many qualities that her family & Walt consider male L> confidence, assertiveness (Durchsetzungsvermögen) Family & belonging: • Walt: two grown sons & their families ↳dissapointed in his sons & grandchildren's behaviour L> feels misunderstood / disrespected but he is unable to improve their relationship · Thao: · isolates himself from his family (like Walt) struggles to fit in In the cours of the story: they build a father-son relationship they open up to each other both find purpose & sense of belonging ·mother Lor: only speak her native language ↳> do not seek integration. both children redefine gender roles Walt realises that he has more in Common with the Lors than with his own family. in the beginning they both lack a sense of belonging & the ability to communicate their emotions L> belong with their own ethnic group ·Sue: well integrated (experience a sense of belonging to both) Criticism: Racist slurs and the white saviour" trope: a part of walts everyday language. ↳ explanation: involvement in Korean war (but not an excuse!) · Anti-Asian racism (issue in Amarican history) during the covid-19 pandemic: hate crimes against Asian have increased Walts racist language could be compared to Donald Trumps use of the term "China virus" The role of gang culture & violence: · film takes place in Detroit → youth violence is rife L> causes are: economic /social issues. people with difficult family backgrounds search for a sense of belonging and easily fall prey to gangs ↳ Gangs: rivals, violence & problems in the movie Walt opens up & tries to becomes a better person ↳ he learns that his assumptions are wrong. in the movie: 3 gangs 1) the Latino/Mexican-gang 27 the African American-gang 3) the Hmong-gang. Richard III Richard William Shakespeare (around 1600) III Summary: · Edward III (House of York) has become king of England · after the capture of Lancaster King Henry II Henry executed Edward (Prince of Wales) also falls ↳ no peace in the land • younger brother of Edward II = Richard (Duke of Gloucester) Lis determined to ascend the throne himself · Richards plans to become king: →get his elder brother (Ouke of Clarence) out of the way. · he killed him by two hired assassins after that Edward TV dies Richard becomes King • Rard married Lady Anne ↳he realises he has to (daughter of the dead King Edward III) Richard has Lady Anne killed and asks his nieck's hand in marriage · Richards supporters turn away from him Earl of Richmond prepares to dethrone Richard L> battle for the throne. • Richard is killed by Richmond Richmond crowned as king Henry III & marries Young Elizabeth Lunites the houses of York & Lancaster Lends the War of the Roses Character map: King Henry VI Margaret Prince Edward Lancaster York Tudor Woodeville → he has two princes killed (widow of Edward Wales) marry young Elizabeth Anne Dutchess of York Edward Richard III Clarence ? Daughter Son Henry VIII Richmond Young Elizabeth (Henry VII) the story takes place during the Wars of Roses in England (1455-1485) L> houses of Lancester & York fought for the throne ? King Edward IV Queen Elizabeth Young Duke Prince Edward of York ? ? Rivers Grey Dorset Aspects focused on in the story: Richards pursuit of power: Richard villain, ambitious, unsrupulous = Lis willing to sacrifice his own family in order to reach his goals · Richard is not satisfied by his position ↳ his ultimate goal is to become king (he is determined to do anything to achieve his goal • driven by an immense hunger of power • uncaring of his immorality of his plan • Richard justifies his villainy by his physical deformity. & the lack of love it has brought. ↳ he wants to take revenge for his ugliness & loneliness ·= manipulative & calculating. • Soliloque, conversation between Richard & Clarence Richard demonstrates his skill's as a speaker. demonstrates his two-faced nature. alone = honest & evil with another person= he hides his real personality } The roles of women in the drama: female characters symbolise the virtues & ideals of Elizabethan England ↳moral counterpart to Richard's lack of conscience: Lady Anne, Queen Elizabeth, the Duchess & Queen Margaret (emotional intelligence: they are often able to figure out Richards intrigues but they cannot take action to prevent them) victims, while Richard uses them to gain power The drama uses the female characters to criticise the moral ambiguity of Elizabethan England. Fate vs. Free will in the drama • determined to prove a villain • his power provides him the ability of making own choices the curses of the female come true The restoration of order: Ghosts show up to highlight the question of what is morality right ↳ Ghosts serve to create tension & enhance the atmosphere of the night before the Battle (Richmond vs. Richard) the appereance of Richard's victims demonstrates the extent of his crimes. Whihch he reveals in his soliloque at the beginning fate= reserved for those who don't power (women) have = • decided by those in power The Plot: Richard orders his brothers' death & marries Anne Richard's Soliloquy Exposition Rising Action Richards main characteristics: -villain ruthless evil ・deformity Richard becomes King Climax/Crisis •manipulative ·self-pitying •two-faced nature • a good speaker Richards attitude towards women: • views women as a tool • manipulated & disrespected by Richard · consider women as a weapon. ↳ to improve his power Richard orders the princes' deaths. Richmond returns Falling Action final battle between Richard & Richmond: Richard dies Dénouement/resolution Operatoren Describe: outline: state: present: point out: Summarise: analyse, examine: interpret: characterise: explain: illustrate: compare: comments: discuss: justify: evaluate: Contrast: assess: Anforderungsbereich 1 genau beschreiben. grobe, oberflächliche Zusammenfassung der Hauptpunkte Sachverhalt klar und präzise auf den Punkt bringen Aspekte strukturieren und niederschreiben bestimmte Informationen herausfiltern und erklären Zusammenfassung der Hauptpunkte eines Textes/ bestimmte Aspekte eines Textes Anforderungsbereich 2 Text auf bestimmte Merkmale/Aspekte untersuchen und analysieren; Aspekte beschreiben und erklären Bedeutung eines bestimmten Aspekts (z. B. Text passage, Aussage, Verhalten) herausarbeiten.. Beschreibung und Deutung eines Charakters; Schlussfolgerungen aus expliziten Merkmalen ziehen Sachverhalt/Aspekte beschreiben und definieren Sachverhalt veranschaulichen: Beispiele aus Text herausfiltern Unterschiede und Ahnlichkeiten herausstellen Anforderungsbereich 3 begründete, eigene Meinung abgeben und durch Textbelege stützen. komplexeres Thema aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln betrachten (Pro-/Kontraargumente). Überzeugend darlegen, wieso eine Entscheidung /Schlussfolgerung gerechtfertigt ist. Bewertung eines Sachverhalts durch Aufzeigen von Vor- und Nachteilen. Gegenüberstellung, in welcher die Unterschiede besonders deutlich werden sollen Bewertung eines Sachverhalts durch Aufzeigen von Vor- und Nachteilen mit abschließendem Urteil Stylistic devices/ means: accumulation (Akkumulation) alliteration (Alliteration) climax (Klimax) anaphora (Anapher) Die Wiederholung gleicher Wörter hintereinander/an Satzanfängen. ellipsis (Ellipse) enumeration (Aufzählung) euphemism (Euphemismus) hyperbole (Übertreibung) Die Benutzung mehrerer ähnlicher Wörter/Phrasen. irony (Ironie) Mehrere Wörter hintereinander beginnen mit Die Fokussierung wichtiger Aspekte. dem gleichen Laut. parallelism Weglassen eines Wortes/mehrerer Wörter (Bedeutung wird trotzdem verstanden). Eine Reihe von Ausdrücken, die eine Art von Die Fokussierung auf wichtige Steigerung beinhalten. Aspekte/Erreichen eines komischen/ironischen Effekts. Etwas indirekter/positiver darstellen. Die Betonung/Darstellung eines Themas/einer Idee. Eine offensichtliche Übertreibung, nicht wortwörtlich, sondern bildlich gemeint. Eine Auflistung von Wörtern, die sich meist auf Der Beweis eines Statements/den eine Idee/ein Thema beziehen. Leser durch Beispiele überzeugen. Die Betonung einer Idee/eines Themas/eines Statements. metaphor (Metapher) Ein indirekter Vergleich. Eine Idee/ein Objekt wird durch ein Bild ausgedrückt. Bild & Objekt haben Gemeinsamkeiten. Die Betonung des ausgelassenen Wortes/der ausgelassenen Wörter. inversion (inversion) Änderung der normalen Wortstellung im Satz. Die Betonung des Verbs/ Adverbs, das an den Anfang rückt. Die Wiederholung ähnlicher/gleicher Die negative Qualität von etwas Unangenehmem zu verstecken. Den Leser zu überzeugen, eine Meinung zu betonen. Die Benutzung bestimmter Wörter, die genau zu unterhalten, auf das Gegenteil der eigentlichen Wortbedeutung ausdrücken. lebhafte/humorvolle Weise zu informieren, Kritik zu äußern Der Vergleich zweier Sachen und die Verdeutlichung ähnlicher Faktoren. Durch die ungewöhnliche Struktur, (Parallelismus) periphrasis (Periphrase) personification (Personifikation) pun (Wortspiel) repetition (Wiederholung) rhetorical question (rhetorische Frage) simile, comparison (Vergleich) symbol (Symbol) understatement (Untertreibung) zeugma (Zeugma) Strukturen. Ein beschreibendes Wort/eine Paraphrase wird statt eines Namens verwendet. Menschliche Eigenschaften werden auf Tiere/Objekte/Ideen projiziert. Das Spiel mit ähnlich klingenden/aussehenden Wörtern, die aber Unterschiedliches bedeuten. Eine Frage, bei der keine Antwort gegeben oder erwartet wird, da die Antwort offensichtlich ist. Der Vergleich zweier Objekte/abstrakter Ideen. Ein konkretes Objekt/ein Platz/eine Handlung/Person repräsentiert etwas Abstraktes. Der wiederholte Gebrauch eines Wortes/einer Die Gedanken zu ordnen, ein Wortgruppe/einer Struktur. Statement/eine Idee/Struktur zu betonen. Etwas wird als weniger wertvoll/wichtig präsentiert, als es tatsächlich ist. den Leser unterhalten, Interesse zu gewinnen. Ein Wort wird an einer Stelle in zwei unterschiedlichen Funktionen genutzt. Aufmerksam machen auf spezielle Eigenschaften der Person/des Objekts. Das Darstellen einer Idee/einer Tätigkeit. Den Leser zum Lachen zu bringen, das Interesse zu wecken. Die Betonung eines Statements. Die Betonung der Gemeinsamkeiten. Dem Objekt mehr Bedeutung geben. Die Betonung eines Fakts/eines Gefühls. Herstellung von Ironie/Aufmerksamkeit auf einen Fakt generieren. How to outline information: Introduction: • write an umbrella sentence ↳ type of text, title, author, year of publication, topic example: The text /article"..." written by... and published in... is about /deals with... relate the topic of the text to the required task Main part: •focus on the relevant information to the task L leave out: irrelevant aspects. • own opinion. • examples. no longer than one-third of the original text. Conclusion: short summarise of what is being said before. conclusion examples: to sum up..... The reader is informed that.... Important connectives: Therefore.... • Thus In addition to that..... •Furthermore... How to analyse a text: P-E-E-chart method: SKILL BOX P-E-E chart method Point ● ● What are you trying to say? References to stylistic devices/means. The author makes use of several examples of alliteration. The use of imagery underlines/supports/ reinforces/visualises the author's opinion. Evidence/explanation Prove your point by giving a quote from the text to support your view. ● ● Paraphrase or sum up quotations. .Read between the lines. Give an explanation/ interpretation. ● For example, ... The author writes ... The novel/article/story describes This is shown by ... This is apparent in lines .../ in the chapter ... Effect/elaboration ● Describe the effect and the impact on the reader. You may comment on the historical context, today's relevance, etc. This quotation shows ... This example highlights ... The author suggests that ... The quotation implies/ hints at ... How to write a comment / written discussion: When writing a comment (opinion essay) or a written discussion (for and against essay), you are required to present your ideas in a structured manner. Therefore, collect your arguments and examples and think of how to connect your points effectively. Use the writing frame to organise your notes. Avoid simply stating arguments or opinions without supporting them. There are different types of essays. In an opinion essay, you present your opinion on a given topic and give reasons and examples for your opinion. The task word comment on is a signal for an opinion essay. In a for- and-against essay you discuss a topic by showing the pros and cons objectively. The task word discuss is a signal for a for-and-against essay. Criteria for writing a comment/written discussion Content Introduction • Write a clear, thought-provoking introduction in which you present the issue/statement and show why it is important to discuss it. . . The problem of ... has met with a lot of attention lately; As far as I understand/can see ...; There are many reasons for ...; There is no doubt that ...; Therefore one should discuss the issue ... • Attract the reader's attention by telling an anecdote that illustrates the topic's significance. Main part Find a smooth transition and employ your topic sentence. Some experts state that ...; many people believe/claim that ... • Make sure that each paragraph consists of one well-developed argument (P-E-E). . . . ● • ● Conclusion Refer to the given task. As I have discussed, there are ...; In conclusion, I would like to say that ...; After weighing up the arguments, I... Summarise the most important reasons for your opinion. Apparently, ...; Obviously, ... Make a moral/social observation and give your final position on the topic. Use conditionals for emphasis. If there were more people who behave like that, it would be ...; I firmly believe that ... Give arguments in favour of your opinion. (POINT) Firstly,...; secondly ...; another point, in addition, besides ...; furthermore, on top of that ... Give evidence to explain/illustrate each of your arguments (numbers, statistics, events, own experience, insights gained in class). (EXAMPLES) + (ELABORATION) For example, e.g., such as, let me illustrate this idea by giving an example, namely, to clarify, to explain, to paraphrase, etc. Language Activate topic-relevant vocabulary. • Make use of powerful adjectives and avoid overused words such as good/bad and happy/sad. • Watch spelling and punctuation. (witch vs which, Alaska, Alaska's, etc.) Bear in mind the rules of grammar. (present perfect vs simple past, simple present vs present progressive, singular vs plural, adjective vs adverb, there vs their, who vs which, etc.) Include counterarguments to show that you see the whole picture. On the other hand, there are sceptics who say that..., but ...; However, there is evidence that shows ...; Statistics show, however, that ... Vary your sentences in terms of length and structure. (participle clauses, adverbials in front position, passive voice constructions, gerunds, inversion, etc.) Use a variety of sentence connectives, those of expressing comparison and contrast in particular (example/addition/reason and result/expressing contrast and comparison) For example, .../such as .../Therefore, .../Thus, .../In addition to that, .../Furthermore, ...