Shakespeare Renowed plawright and poet in Lodon • Born and baptized 1564 and died 1616 • Wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets which primaly deal with love →→Spent 3 decades writing • Joined The Lord Chamberlain's Men (most successful company of actors) → Became a shareholder in the company ● Shakespeare Shakespeare's plays • Hamlet (1609): revenge, domestic drama, royal family, mirder and intrigue • Romeo & Juliet (1597): forbidden love, feuding noble families, murder and intrigue Othello (1604): Moor of Venice, secret marriage, murder and intrigue • Mac Beth (1606): power for own sake, political ambitious, rise and fall of a tryant • Other famous plays: Julius Cesar, Two gentlemen of Verona, Henry V.&VI., Midsummer Night's Dream ● Shakespearean sonnets • Consists of 14 verses, which are divided into three quatrains and a rhyming couplet in the end Rhyme scheme: three cross-rhymes and one couplet (ABAB CDCD EFEF GG) ● • Metre: mostly iambic pentameter • Sonnet 1-126 belong to a young man, Sonnet 127-154 concern a woman (known as "the dark lady") • First two quatrains deal with a specific thesis, which then undergoes a turning point in the third quatrain and finally comes to a conclusion in the couplet Important vocabularies in context contemporary - zeitgenössisch domestic drama - Familiendrama iambic pentameter - fünfhebiger Jambus vengeance - Rache professional standing - berufliches Ansehen fate Schicksal downfall/demise - Untergang/Niedergang sinful - sündig soliloquy - Monolog (in Theater) sentiment - Gedanken/Gefühle to...
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stage - aufführen prop - Requisite superstition - Aberglaube playwright - Dramatiker/in Topics covered in Shakespeare's plays Power: Most of his plays include some kind of fight for power. Whether it is political power (such as in Richard III) our power within families. Just look at who is fighting for the power, who they are fighting it for and how those characters are portrayed (evil, mad, heroic etc.) Nature: Nature can primarily refer to the immediate, physical nature around us, such as in pastoral comedy. However it can also refer to human nature and the nature of the society that we live in (Macbeth) Love and Relationships: This is a theme examined in almost every play. There is romantic, irrational love (Romeo and Juliet), dutiful and tactical love (King Lear), and even love that goes unrecognized by the characters until the end. Conflict: In a lot of Shakespeare's plays, there is physical conflict but it also tell the story of real battles. However conflict can also be applied to conflict within families (Romeo and Juliet, King Lear), conflict between lovers (Much Ado About Nothing) or even just emotional conflict (Hamlet). Concerning teaching Shakespeare in class? Pro Con - Shakespeare is difficult to understand Does not help student advance in life Overextension leads to rejection of the topic Shakespeare Outdated world picture, attitudes and values regarding for example gender roles, religion etc. Outdated language which makes it extremely difficult to understand and unenjoyable - Timeless themes like love, hate, revenge etc. Shakespeare's influence can be found in many modern movies, daily language, quotes, titles etc. Part of British history/ culture -> part of a general knowledge The Globe Elisabethan theatre in London • Associated with William Shakespeare -> because so many of his plays were performed there • Built in 1599 -> destroyed by fire on 29 June in 1613 • Second Globe Theatre was built in 1614 Nowadays several modern replicas of the globe theatre exist ● Shakespeare The Globe in the past • In the performance only male actors acted-> female roles were acted by young boys dressed as women Clothes of the actors were expensive elisabethan-style costumes Stage is not decorated or has artifical lights • Actors only play with a few props -> audience had to imagine the setting Many word-sceneries were use (setting of the dramatic scene is generated purely linguistically) Great Chain of Being The law of nature bound God's creation into a hierarchical system: the "Chain of Being". 1. God on the highest ladder, watching over is creation 2. Angels as servant of god 3. Humans, men are viewed higher than women 4. Then Animals 5. After that plants and trees 6. At the bottom are lifeless things: stones, metals, etc. Shakespeare's influence English language: Elisabethan Age By the Elizabethan Age is meant the time of Queen Elisabeth I (1533-1603) • She ruled England for almost 50 years • Her reign was called the "Golden Age" -> because of stability in economic growth and flowering of theatre, music and literature • But also time of tyranny, attempts at assassinating the Queen and devastating outbreaks of the plague Religion had been a source of conflict among the citizen • Political conflict with Catholic rivals as Spain and France have worsened Elizabethan World Picture • The Elizabethan World View mainly involves that the citizens have complete trust in the functioning of God's creation • Men are viewed higher → Women were considered as weak and unable They were depent on the men in their families and were supposed to be obedient to them • Constant faith in a well-structured and hierarchical system → "Chain of Being" • Nature ruled over three levels of god's creation: Moving and Fix stars in the atmosphere, area below the moon (earth with its objects: plants and animals), social and political world of the humans • Conservative way of thinking. Change and development were not wanted Shakespeare invented over 3.000 words and increased the linguistic variety Many phrases he used are still used today e.g. "a heart of gold" and "break the ice" Theatre: Expanded the expectations about what could be accomplished through plot and language • Showed that women are equal to men or sometimes even stronger and cleverer than them Literature: • His works caused a revolution in writing style, literary techniques and genres Romantic tragedies became popular because of his plays • Was quoted by great writers like Charles Dickens and Maya Angelou Stylistic device Alliteration Anaphora Allusion Antithesis Enumeration Ellipsis Exaggeration (Hyperbole) Irony Metaphor Parallelism Rhetorical question Definiton & example wwwwwww Simile Shakespeare Effect A string of words beginning with the same Helps to enrich the poetic effect and makes phrases more letter or sound memorable "False forgeries" (Sonnet 138) Repetition of identical words or phrases at To emphasize a thought or a claim (Behauptung) the beginning of sentence or line "Nobody hurt you [...]. Nobody turned off." Reference to another person, famous historical, literary figure or event in an indirect way "A King who took us to the mountaintop" - Obama is a speech aluding to Matrin Luther Kind Contrasting the opposite of ideas, words or To express and underline the conflict or to heighten the intensity of phrases. the feelings wwwwwwwww "Fair is foul and foul is fair" (Macbeth - Shakespear) Listening two or more aspects in a row Leaving out words deliberately "Therefore I'll lie with her, and she (will lie) more conversational/ lively wwwwwwwwwww with me" (Sonnet 138) Saying something but meaning the opposite of it Representing something as... more that it often use to stress things or make them look more important/ really is worse/ urgent/ dangerous (to strengthen the atmosphere) Harsher form of irony that are used to hurt others are called sarcasm Telling s.o. Who has been rude: "What charming behaviour" A word or phrase used to describe sb/sth else in a way that is different from ist usual use. Kind of comparsion without uing "like" or "as" "the eye of heaven" (Sonnet 18) The repetition of sentences, clauses or phrases all with more or less the same structure. Assumes background knowledge and the corresponding passage stays in the reader's memory, because one can remeber pictotial connections better. "Some say the fault is, some say great is" (Sonnet 96) A question which expects no answer, because most of the time everyone knows the answer To give a statement more emphasis or to make a text stylistically A word or phrase that compares sth. to sth. else using the word "like" or "as" "My love is red, red like a rose" To create an image in the readers mind and description is more powerful wwwwww May be used to contrast certain aspects or viewpoints Personification A non-living thing is described as though it To create the story more vivid (lebhafter) were a living being "The sun is smiling on us today" Direct adress to the reader, to involve the reader into the argumentation To create an image in readers mind which makes the description more powerful