To Kill a Mockingbird

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Philine

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11/12/13

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To Kill a Mockingbird

 To kill a mockingbird
Basic information
- Type: Novel
- Author: Harper Lee
- Published: 1960 (first time)
Genre: initiations story / coming

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Information on the Novel To Kill a Mockingbird - Characters, Topics, Symbols, Great Depression etc.

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To kill a mockingbird Basic information - Type: Novel - Author: Harper Lee - Published: 1960 (first time) Genre: initiations story / coming-of-age story - based on historical facts (Racism etc.) - narrator is a six years old child - First-person narrator, childish perspective - Setting: story takes place 1933-35 during the time of the Great Depression. - Maycomb, South of the US (fictional town) : - racial segregation, prejudices against African-Americans small town: traditions, prejudices against citizens, every family own character - different groups but together together not a community, everybody knows everybody Great Depression economic slump in North America, Europe, other industrialized areas - cause: collapse of stock-market prices on the New York Stock Exchange in October 1929. (Companies gave too much stocks out - broke down) time and place of action stock prices continued to fall over the next three years - ruined thousands of investors, strained banks & other financial institutions - failure of banks / loss of confidence in the economy resulted in much-reduced levels of spending, demands & production - output was dramatically decreasing, unemployment was rising (had risen to 25-30 % by 1932) - turned into a worldwide economic stump because the US was major creditor / financier of postwar Europe (national economies weakened, war reparations) economic distress resulted in election of Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt as president in...

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late 1932 - changes in economy's structure, government regulation, public-works projects - government action came to play an important role in ensuring economic stability - mass unemployment & economic stagnation (Flaute, Stockung) => Great Depression in To Kill a Mockingbird = - poverty affects all of the residents of Maycomb - people pay Atticus with natural goods - Cunninghams have been hit very hard by the economic crash since they are farmers from the countryside Walter does not have money for lunch, no shoes, needs to help around the farm doctors, dentists and lawyers get little payments for their services Symbols Mockingbird - Mockingbird as a symbol of innocence - has been harmed by human actions - Jem, Tom R., Dill, Boo Radley) - stories about destroying innocence by having contacts with the evils (Killing a mockingbird = killing innocence) - Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like „shootin“ a mockingbird" (end of the novel) Boo Radley Southern Belle - ultimate symbol of good (saves Jem and Scout) beauty of the southern states - stereotype of a young, refined and sophisticated beautiful white woman from the American South - upper class, not supposed to look down on less well off classes - Aunt Alexandra: presents the southern belle of that time in the US, behaves like a lady, dresses like a lady, polite etc. - wants to teach Scout how to be a southern belle (lady-like, feminine) Topics - racism 1930s, then vs today -novel written during CRM - reflects on the poor situation of the black population. - Racial segregation in the South - Jim Crow Laws - ,,separate but equal“. - common.code - no interracial relationships - Mayella Ewell took advantage of it - no fair trial for Tom - race only evidence against Tom - When Atticus defends Tom he is insulted + his whole family - prejudices - Atticus belief in treating and respecting everyone as an indivdual is contrasted in the novel - Aunt Alexandra calls black people ,,trash" - people are put into categories e.g. the Ewells or the Cunninghams over generations - prejudices against people who don't fit into society (Boo) - Tom Robinson was presumed guilty because of his race conflict between Good and Evil - in their childhood Scout and Jem assume that people are essentially good - they have never experienced evil good people: Boo Radley, Atticus, Tom - Boo and Tom aren't prepared for the evil that they encounter, as a result they are destroyed - Jem's faith in justice is severely damaged after the trial - Atticus is aware that people have both sides - Gender roles Scout realizes what being a female in the South means (ideal: the Southern Belle) - she identifies with the males in her households - tomboy -primary female role models are Calpurnia and Miss Maudie - both strong minded, protective and independent - women meet in their missionary circles, dressed up and gossip - moral values (standards) / lessons in life - as Scout grows up, she gets taught lots of life lessons - Atticus teaches his children about moral values - - Coming of Age „Bildungsroman" - loss of innocence throughout the novel starting when Atticus takes over Tom Robinson's case - in the end have a more complex world view - coexistence of good and evil, seeing life from different perspectives, understanding people - learn a lot from Atticus mostly about humans - Scout learns from her father, other people - courage, bravery - real courage = standing up for one's convictions, risking one's standing in the community and personal safety - 1930s in the US, (social issues) - Great Depression etc. - existence of social inequality - displayed through social hierarchy of Maycomb - Finch Family - Most Townspeople - Ignorant Farmers like the Cunninghams - ,,White trash" Ewells - Black community - lying - small town community - tradition / conservation - stereotypes - character development / relationships Life lessons Scout Lessons about Education - Calpurnia taught her how to write and read Source of lessons - Atticus Lessons about gender roles - Aunt Alexandra teaches her about the gender roles in society Lessons about life Atticus teaches her to be tolerant and fair and to believe in humanity Miss Maudie teacher her that nobody has to do something just because everyone does it, Scout learns to live her own life without letting herself be determined by societies rules Characters 1.) Scout Finch (Jean Louise Finch) - narrator & protagonist - 6 y/o at beginning- 8 years / third grade at end of the novel - mother died when she was 2 years old (does not have any memory of her) - smart / intelligent, likes to read, does not like to go to school because it bores her - very curious, always questioning things, adventorous, outspoken - plans to get married with Dill in the future (child dream), just good friends - tomboy / boyish, not interested in doing girly things and dressing like a girl, starts fights, rebellious good person, helpful with other children (e.g. Walter Cunningham) - mature & interacts comfortably with authorities - tries to explain the peculiarities of the Cunningham family to Miss Caroline she is gradually confronted with serious problems of that particular time (racism, hypocrisy - Heuchlerei) - grows up throughout the novel, development from innocence to experience (innocent, intolerant of new things - grown up, mature, courageous, lost innocence) 2.) Jem Finch (Jeremy Finch) - four years older than Scout - mother died when he was 6 years old (has memory of her, misses her). - feels protective over Scout, close relationship, Scout looks up to him, caring, dominant over Scout ( thinks he has more privileges and rights) - feels a bit ashamed of his sister in school, wants to be left alone around others - good friends with Dill - seems smart, but not as smart as Scout - gets taught about Justice by Atticus, is shocked and moved by the conviction of Tom R. - finds it hard to believe in justice - adventurous - brave, shows courage as fearless protector of his sister - development throughout the story - begins to do what is right, loss of innocence as he faces the brutality of a society full of racism - involves Atticus in Dill's attempt of running away, temporarily exiled by his friends but maintaining the rightness of his decision without apologizing 3.) Atticus Finch 50 years old - well dressed, streaks of grey hair, wears glasses - wife died, father of two children Jem and Scout (loving and caring relationship, role model) lawyer, serves the town in his profession, highly respected personality in the community of Maycomb - loves to read (books, newspapers) - quiet and calm person, smart and not impulsive, brave sister: Alexandra Finch (relationship is fine, not very good, different and contrasting opinions on education of children, on social issues (e.g. race) defends the black man Tom Robinson, risks his stand / reputation in society and his family's safety - shows his fight for equality and justice - teaches Scout various life lessons : understanding humans, respect, equality etc., sets an example for his children - financially stable, not rich, but isn't affected as harshly by the effects of the Great Depression as others in Maycomb - 4.) Calpurnia - colored women - cook of the Finch family, does various household chores (for a long time) helps taking care of the children, educating (raising) them (morals, writing and reading etc.), treats them like her own - close relationship with the Finch family, treated equal, well appreciated supports her black community, fights for equality - speaks different when she is with her folks, adapts to the people around her, is educated (literate) - is a connection between the black and the white folks in the story - wise, loyal, hardworking, respectful 5.) Dill (Charles Baker Harris) age of Jem and Scout, one year older than Scout stays with his aunt Miss Rachel Haverford every summer in Maycomb, loves being there - plans to marry Scout in the future (child dream) - has lots of imagination, creative (in role plays), invents stories about his life (mostly exaggerated, beautified) - difficult family life (is getting passed around by relatives, has no real home) - obsessed with the Boo Radley story - naive thinking (still a child) 6.) Tom Robinson - colored men, African American, part of the black community in Maycomb married with three children - lives near the Ewell's place - accused of raping Mayella Ewell, defended by the lawyer Atticus Finch (innocent) - although having a trial, he realistically has no chance of winning - a helpful person, is made use by Mayella - honest man, stays truthful at all times (e.g. at trial) - gets shot by the sherif by trying to escape, victim of racism & prejudices. - mockingbird in the novel : convicted although he is innocent 7.) Boo Radley (Arthur Radley) - is always talked about but never appears in person in the novel - never leaves the house, hasn't been seen for years - main character in the children's life, invent stories and role plays around him, they are sometimes pretty mean as the try to get him out of the house, he leaves gifts in the tree for Jem and Scout (anonymously) - indirect friendship - lot of stories invented about him, rumors, people wonder if he is still alive - appears at the end of the book to save the children's life, savior, children get to see his real character - real mockingbird in the story - "A good person injured by the evil of mankind" - prejudices and stories about him that are false - during his childhood mistreated by his cruel father 8.) Bob Ewell - part of the Ewell clan, Ewells: no respect, poor, not liked by society, liars, low in the hierarchy of town - alcohol addiction, alcoholic - eight children, irresponsible and not caring father (spends his welfar - Ewells live near the garbage dump besides the black community - racist, hatred - beats his daughter (very much true) - accuses Tom R. of doing it - goes after Atticus, because he defend Tom R. (Hatred), goes after Atticus children (to get revenge) - dies in attacking the children, unclear if Jem or Arthur murdered him or Bob himself - violent / brutal, heartless and cold, aggressive and ruthless (schonungslos) - poorly educated, can hardly read and write, unemployed 9.) Mayella Ewell - 19 years old - daughter of Bob Ewell - seven siblings, she is the eldest tries to look clean (in contrast to her father), plump - no friends, feels lonely racist tendencies kissed Tom R. Due to loneliness but feels ashamed after, accuses Tom R. of raping her - beat and abused by her father (most probably) not educated, (no school education) eck on alcohol and not for food for his family) 10.) Aunt Alexandra (Alexandra Finch) sister of Atticus, aunt of Scout and Jem - takes care of Finch's landing comes to live with the Finch Family to help raise the children (her decision) - strong will and opinion · contradicts with Atticus, discussions very sentencing (judgy) on the children and others, cannot understand the children in their way of doing things - wants to teach Scout what it means to be a lady of the south, make her ,,lady-like" - holds on to traditional role models of male and female and to traditional morals 11.) Miss Maudie Atkinson -friendly neighbor of the Finches - cares about the three children (bakes cakes for them, talks to them,..). - her house burns down - she stays calm and positive - strong, positive, valiant - authentic 12.) Jack Finch - uncle of Jem and Scout and brother of Atticus - quirky - does not understand the way of children very much - cares about his nieces - doctor 13.) The Cunninghams - never accept or take anything they can't pay back - (very) poor farmers - they do not need as much, they get along with what they have - helpful, good persons 14.) Mrs Dubose lives near the Finches, (neighbor) - old lady, sick - morphine addiction - dies throughout the novel - not very nice to children, but not her intention, is not a bad person in the end - racist 15.) Nathan Radley - brother of Boo Radley - moved back to the family place after their father died - not a nice person, not good with children (plugs the knothole in the tree) Racism Definition: racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race - prejudice or discrimination based on race - expressed individually - expressed in institutional policies or practices Situation of black people in Maycomb in the 1930s: - official segregation: physical separation of races in public places whites feel superior, make Blacks feel inferior - Blacks have to treat Whites with respect in any situation, one-sided Blacks are not permitted to mix with white people - interracial marriage is unimaginable - no equal chances and opportunities - race is a defining factor in the attitude of the Whites towards Tom Robinson (and Blacks in general) => Maycomb is a racially prejudiced society in the 1930s Situations in the novel: - Tom Robinson has no chance of winning the trial due to his skin colour (race) - reactions of the town on Atticus, a white citizen, defending the African American Tom Robinson - reactions of the black community on Calpurnia bringing the children to church - shows the resentment of the colored to the Whites, due to them treated very poorly - lynching - segregation - black community is not mixed with white community, blacks have to sit on the balcony segregated from whites in the courthouse - blacks do not have the chance to get education - most of them are illiterate

To Kill a Mockingbird

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Philine

236 Followers
 

Englisch

 

11/12/13

Lernzettel

To Kill a Mockingbird

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 To kill a mockingbird
Basic information
- Type: Novel
- Author: Harper Lee
- Published: 1960 (first time)
Genre: initiations story / coming

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821

Kommentare (5)

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To kill a mockingbird Basic information - Type: Novel - Author: Harper Lee - Published: 1960 (first time) Genre: initiations story / coming-of-age story - based on historical facts (Racism etc.) - narrator is a six years old child - First-person narrator, childish perspective - Setting: story takes place 1933-35 during the time of the Great Depression. - Maycomb, South of the US (fictional town) : - racial segregation, prejudices against African-Americans small town: traditions, prejudices against citizens, every family own character - different groups but together together not a community, everybody knows everybody Great Depression economic slump in North America, Europe, other industrialized areas - cause: collapse of stock-market prices on the New York Stock Exchange in October 1929. (Companies gave too much stocks out - broke down) time and place of action stock prices continued to fall over the next three years - ruined thousands of investors, strained banks & other financial institutions - failure of banks / loss of confidence in the economy resulted in much-reduced levels of spending, demands & production - output was dramatically decreasing, unemployment was rising (had risen to 25-30 % by 1932) - turned into a worldwide economic stump because the US was major creditor / financier of postwar Europe (national economies weakened, war reparations) economic distress resulted in election of Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt as president in...

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Alternativer Bildtext:

late 1932 - changes in economy's structure, government regulation, public-works projects - government action came to play an important role in ensuring economic stability - mass unemployment & economic stagnation (Flaute, Stockung) => Great Depression in To Kill a Mockingbird = - poverty affects all of the residents of Maycomb - people pay Atticus with natural goods - Cunninghams have been hit very hard by the economic crash since they are farmers from the countryside Walter does not have money for lunch, no shoes, needs to help around the farm doctors, dentists and lawyers get little payments for their services Symbols Mockingbird - Mockingbird as a symbol of innocence - has been harmed by human actions - Jem, Tom R., Dill, Boo Radley) - stories about destroying innocence by having contacts with the evils (Killing a mockingbird = killing innocence) - Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like „shootin“ a mockingbird" (end of the novel) Boo Radley Southern Belle - ultimate symbol of good (saves Jem and Scout) beauty of the southern states - stereotype of a young, refined and sophisticated beautiful white woman from the American South - upper class, not supposed to look down on less well off classes - Aunt Alexandra: presents the southern belle of that time in the US, behaves like a lady, dresses like a lady, polite etc. - wants to teach Scout how to be a southern belle (lady-like, feminine) Topics - racism 1930s, then vs today -novel written during CRM - reflects on the poor situation of the black population. - Racial segregation in the South - Jim Crow Laws - ,,separate but equal“. - common.code - no interracial relationships - Mayella Ewell took advantage of it - no fair trial for Tom - race only evidence against Tom - When Atticus defends Tom he is insulted + his whole family - prejudices - Atticus belief in treating and respecting everyone as an indivdual is contrasted in the novel - Aunt Alexandra calls black people ,,trash" - people are put into categories e.g. the Ewells or the Cunninghams over generations - prejudices against people who don't fit into society (Boo) - Tom Robinson was presumed guilty because of his race conflict between Good and Evil - in their childhood Scout and Jem assume that people are essentially good - they have never experienced evil good people: Boo Radley, Atticus, Tom - Boo and Tom aren't prepared for the evil that they encounter, as a result they are destroyed - Jem's faith in justice is severely damaged after the trial - Atticus is aware that people have both sides - Gender roles Scout realizes what being a female in the South means (ideal: the Southern Belle) - she identifies with the males in her households - tomboy -primary female role models are Calpurnia and Miss Maudie - both strong minded, protective and independent - women meet in their missionary circles, dressed up and gossip - moral values (standards) / lessons in life - as Scout grows up, she gets taught lots of life lessons - Atticus teaches his children about moral values - - Coming of Age „Bildungsroman" - loss of innocence throughout the novel starting when Atticus takes over Tom Robinson's case - in the end have a more complex world view - coexistence of good and evil, seeing life from different perspectives, understanding people - learn a lot from Atticus mostly about humans - Scout learns from her father, other people - courage, bravery - real courage = standing up for one's convictions, risking one's standing in the community and personal safety - 1930s in the US, (social issues) - Great Depression etc. - existence of social inequality - displayed through social hierarchy of Maycomb - Finch Family - Most Townspeople - Ignorant Farmers like the Cunninghams - ,,White trash" Ewells - Black community - lying - small town community - tradition / conservation - stereotypes - character development / relationships Life lessons Scout Lessons about Education - Calpurnia taught her how to write and read Source of lessons - Atticus Lessons about gender roles - Aunt Alexandra teaches her about the gender roles in society Lessons about life Atticus teaches her to be tolerant and fair and to believe in humanity Miss Maudie teacher her that nobody has to do something just because everyone does it, Scout learns to live her own life without letting herself be determined by societies rules Characters 1.) Scout Finch (Jean Louise Finch) - narrator & protagonist - 6 y/o at beginning- 8 years / third grade at end of the novel - mother died when she was 2 years old (does not have any memory of her) - smart / intelligent, likes to read, does not like to go to school because it bores her - very curious, always questioning things, adventorous, outspoken - plans to get married with Dill in the future (child dream), just good friends - tomboy / boyish, not interested in doing girly things and dressing like a girl, starts fights, rebellious good person, helpful with other children (e.g. Walter Cunningham) - mature & interacts comfortably with authorities - tries to explain the peculiarities of the Cunningham family to Miss Caroline she is gradually confronted with serious problems of that particular time (racism, hypocrisy - Heuchlerei) - grows up throughout the novel, development from innocence to experience (innocent, intolerant of new things - grown up, mature, courageous, lost innocence) 2.) Jem Finch (Jeremy Finch) - four years older than Scout - mother died when he was 6 years old (has memory of her, misses her). - feels protective over Scout, close relationship, Scout looks up to him, caring, dominant over Scout ( thinks he has more privileges and rights) - feels a bit ashamed of his sister in school, wants to be left alone around others - good friends with Dill - seems smart, but not as smart as Scout - gets taught about Justice by Atticus, is shocked and moved by the conviction of Tom R. - finds it hard to believe in justice - adventurous - brave, shows courage as fearless protector of his sister - development throughout the story - begins to do what is right, loss of innocence as he faces the brutality of a society full of racism - involves Atticus in Dill's attempt of running away, temporarily exiled by his friends but maintaining the rightness of his decision without apologizing 3.) Atticus Finch 50 years old - well dressed, streaks of grey hair, wears glasses - wife died, father of two children Jem and Scout (loving and caring relationship, role model) lawyer, serves the town in his profession, highly respected personality in the community of Maycomb - loves to read (books, newspapers) - quiet and calm person, smart and not impulsive, brave sister: Alexandra Finch (relationship is fine, not very good, different and contrasting opinions on education of children, on social issues (e.g. race) defends the black man Tom Robinson, risks his stand / reputation in society and his family's safety - shows his fight for equality and justice - teaches Scout various life lessons : understanding humans, respect, equality etc., sets an example for his children - financially stable, not rich, but isn't affected as harshly by the effects of the Great Depression as others in Maycomb - 4.) Calpurnia - colored women - cook of the Finch family, does various household chores (for a long time) helps taking care of the children, educating (raising) them (morals, writing and reading etc.), treats them like her own - close relationship with the Finch family, treated equal, well appreciated supports her black community, fights for equality - speaks different when she is with her folks, adapts to the people around her, is educated (literate) - is a connection between the black and the white folks in the story - wise, loyal, hardworking, respectful 5.) Dill (Charles Baker Harris) age of Jem and Scout, one year older than Scout stays with his aunt Miss Rachel Haverford every summer in Maycomb, loves being there - plans to marry Scout in the future (child dream) - has lots of imagination, creative (in role plays), invents stories about his life (mostly exaggerated, beautified) - difficult family life (is getting passed around by relatives, has no real home) - obsessed with the Boo Radley story - naive thinking (still a child) 6.) Tom Robinson - colored men, African American, part of the black community in Maycomb married with three children - lives near the Ewell's place - accused of raping Mayella Ewell, defended by the lawyer Atticus Finch (innocent) - although having a trial, he realistically has no chance of winning - a helpful person, is made use by Mayella - honest man, stays truthful at all times (e.g. at trial) - gets shot by the sherif by trying to escape, victim of racism & prejudices. - mockingbird in the novel : convicted although he is innocent 7.) Boo Radley (Arthur Radley) - is always talked about but never appears in person in the novel - never leaves the house, hasn't been seen for years - main character in the children's life, invent stories and role plays around him, they are sometimes pretty mean as the try to get him out of the house, he leaves gifts in the tree for Jem and Scout (anonymously) - indirect friendship - lot of stories invented about him, rumors, people wonder if he is still alive - appears at the end of the book to save the children's life, savior, children get to see his real character - real mockingbird in the story - "A good person injured by the evil of mankind" - prejudices and stories about him that are false - during his childhood mistreated by his cruel father 8.) Bob Ewell - part of the Ewell clan, Ewells: no respect, poor, not liked by society, liars, low in the hierarchy of town - alcohol addiction, alcoholic - eight children, irresponsible and not caring father (spends his welfar - Ewells live near the garbage dump besides the black community - racist, hatred - beats his daughter (very much true) - accuses Tom R. of doing it - goes after Atticus, because he defend Tom R. (Hatred), goes after Atticus children (to get revenge) - dies in attacking the children, unclear if Jem or Arthur murdered him or Bob himself - violent / brutal, heartless and cold, aggressive and ruthless (schonungslos) - poorly educated, can hardly read and write, unemployed 9.) Mayella Ewell - 19 years old - daughter of Bob Ewell - seven siblings, she is the eldest tries to look clean (in contrast to her father), plump - no friends, feels lonely racist tendencies kissed Tom R. Due to loneliness but feels ashamed after, accuses Tom R. of raping her - beat and abused by her father (most probably) not educated, (no school education) eck on alcohol and not for food for his family) 10.) Aunt Alexandra (Alexandra Finch) sister of Atticus, aunt of Scout and Jem - takes care of Finch's landing comes to live with the Finch Family to help raise the children (her decision) - strong will and opinion · contradicts with Atticus, discussions very sentencing (judgy) on the children and others, cannot understand the children in their way of doing things - wants to teach Scout what it means to be a lady of the south, make her ,,lady-like" - holds on to traditional role models of male and female and to traditional morals 11.) Miss Maudie Atkinson -friendly neighbor of the Finches - cares about the three children (bakes cakes for them, talks to them,..). - her house burns down - she stays calm and positive - strong, positive, valiant - authentic 12.) Jack Finch - uncle of Jem and Scout and brother of Atticus - quirky - does not understand the way of children very much - cares about his nieces - doctor 13.) The Cunninghams - never accept or take anything they can't pay back - (very) poor farmers - they do not need as much, they get along with what they have - helpful, good persons 14.) Mrs Dubose lives near the Finches, (neighbor) - old lady, sick - morphine addiction - dies throughout the novel - not very nice to children, but not her intention, is not a bad person in the end - racist 15.) Nathan Radley - brother of Boo Radley - moved back to the family place after their father died - not a nice person, not good with children (plugs the knothole in the tree) Racism Definition: racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race - prejudice or discrimination based on race - expressed individually - expressed in institutional policies or practices Situation of black people in Maycomb in the 1930s: - official segregation: physical separation of races in public places whites feel superior, make Blacks feel inferior - Blacks have to treat Whites with respect in any situation, one-sided Blacks are not permitted to mix with white people - interracial marriage is unimaginable - no equal chances and opportunities - race is a defining factor in the attitude of the Whites towards Tom Robinson (and Blacks in general) => Maycomb is a racially prejudiced society in the 1930s Situations in the novel: - Tom Robinson has no chance of winning the trial due to his skin colour (race) - reactions of the town on Atticus, a white citizen, defending the African American Tom Robinson - reactions of the black community on Calpurnia bringing the children to church - shows the resentment of the colored to the Whites, due to them treated very poorly - lynching - segregation - black community is not mixed with white community, blacks have to sit on the balcony segregated from whites in the courthouse - blacks do not have the chance to get education - most of them are illiterate