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William Shakespeare „Othello“

William Shakespeare „Othello“

 Othello:
- protagonist and hero, is a combination of greatness and weakness
- seems to be old
- spends 9 month at peace in Venice, there be

William Shakespeare „Othello“

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Paulina Strom

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11/12/13

Lernzettel

- Characterisations - symbol of the handkerchief - summary (Zusammenfassung) - is it a racist story or not

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Othello: - protagonist and hero, is a combination of greatness and weakness - seems to be old - spends 9 month at peace in Venice, there being no war requiring him -> during that time he's often invited to Brabantio's Othello - wife: Desdemona, wins her by telling his life story love puts order, peace, happiness into his mental world, now no Chaos - a christian Moor, foreigner from North Africa - general of the armies of Venice, on the field of battle he is skilled and triumphant as a soldier and leader - eloquent, physically powerful, brave and disciplined figure - highly respected -> elevated status in great demand by the duke, reliable, dutiful - plainspoken, honest nature, rational. says that he's not a smooth talker but makes inspiring speeches under pressure has been fighting in battles since he was 7 -> grew up in danger, despair, slavery - was captured and sold as a slave, bought his freedom - is an outsider, different from those around him (due to origins, life history, skin colour), but shares their religion, values and patriotism - - intelligent and confident in military matters but socially insecure his insecurities are so close to surface that a few words of hint and innuendo from lago can tear the confident exterior and expose his fears, desires,...

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tendency to violence cannot stand uncertainty-> drives him to destroy his sanity - after being deployed to Cyprus, he is manipulated by his Ensign -> gullible he is a deeply trusting man, has no reason to doubt lago seed of suspicion in mind of Othello grows into jealousy his image is very important to him: he insists in trying to define how he will be remembered before he commits suicide another weakness: pride -> his wife's alleged affair confounds his belief that he is a lesser man - end: violent, jealous, envious, paranoid, self- destructive, frustrated. Desdemona: - embodies all the good traits, appearance seems attractive, seems too innocent to be true - young beautiful daughter of the Venetian senator Brabantio, leaves her home and father - determined, self-possessed, independent, bold -> midway through she must struggle against all odds to convince Othello that she is not too independent knows how to defend her marriage, capable of standing up goes against traditional Venetian custom by marrying a black man (wasn't socially acceptable) treats all people quite equally-> doesn't care about race, class, rank - loyal, empathic, direct, honest, intelligent, kind, caring, gentle, divine, fair, sweet - fell in love because she was deeply impressed by his adventurous tales (adventurous) - passionately loving Othello, but also committed and loyal friend (stands up for Emilia and Cassio) is at times a submissive character -> her willingness to take credit for her own murder . - respectful, manners wise choice of words - finds it unbearable to think that her husband has turned against her - blames government matters for his changes manners, clueless why she has lost Othello's trust - fails to justify her love to Othello and is murdered by him in a fit of jealous rage continues loving Othello while he uses increasingly violent language towards her her name is accompanied by kind and good personality adjectives it's unthinkable for her to imagine a woman.cheating on his man. - dies an undeserved death —> innocent victim of others wrongdoings lago: - antagonist, villain - married to Emilia, 28 years old - enjoys the pain and damage he causes - very manipulative, puppet master - seems to take great pleasure in preventing Othello from. enjoying marital happiness - clever, egoistic, self-serving motives: - is angry at Othello that he has passed the position of lieutenant over him on to Cassio - Othello might have slept with his wife Emilia - hates him because of his skin color (racial motivated) none of these claims seems tp adequately explain his hatred of Othello - claims a reputation for honesty, reliability and plain speaking -> yet he invents elaborate lies in order to exploit/ manipulate -> hypocrisy, double-faced - he is valued for his loyalty, everyone turns to him for help and advice - Othello entrusts him with important correspondence, never questions his intent care for no one but himself - devotes his whole life to revenge, obsession of control and power over others - is Othellos ensign - others refer to him as "honest lago". —> everyone has high trust in him, they rely on him. is a liar, makes promises he has no intention of keeping, tells fancy stories, leads others to their destruction sees others vulnerabilities and uses these to destroy them likes to have others working to serve his purpose (Roderigo, Emilia) sees others as objects that can be maneuvered, moved around according to where he wants to place them for his advantage - is successful because he can play a number of roles convincingly, able to adapt his tone and style to suit any occasion. - has an inhuman view on women (says they're all the same and just there to have sex, they complain about everything, it doesn't matter if she's pretty/ugly/smart/stupid) - -> thinks they are instinct driven, inferior to men and whores who don't take their job as wives seriously - speaks sharply or rude to Emilia is a supremely effective storyteller wants to convince Othello that Desdemona is being unfaithful to him with Cassio - end: gets unmasked by wife whose obedience he took for granted gets arrested and taken back to Venice where he is imprisoned and tortured Emilia: - lagos wife, Desdemonas attendant - cynical, worldly woman, non-traditional - deeply attached to her mistress - distrustful of lago but follows in wifely duty - develops a strong loyalty to Desdemona -> is caught between her conscience and responsibilities as both a wife and attendant (divided duty) - denounces lagos lies to defend Desdemonas reputation. - speaks disparagingly of men (but supports lago when needed), believes most are foolish, wicked, perverse - when she sees the truth she abandons all loyalty to him, verbally attacks him ->gets killed by him - shows courage& self-assurance in standing up against Othello after he killed Desdemona - her insistence on speaking out costs her life -> dies a guilty death, helped lago persuade Othello of Desdemonas guilt - she didn't suspect lago of plotting against Othello tries to redeem herself in the final scene-> ends up sacrificing her life so that Desdemona won't be remembered as a whore, speaks loudly and passionately blames husbands for most sins a woman commits is humiliated by lago in public she judges jealous Othellos behavior harshly and warns her off him -> is the only one lago underestimates and the first to suggest that somebody is telling Othello untruths about Cassio: - Othellos lieutenant, young Florentine - highly educated but no knowledge of warfare, military understanding is all theory - inexperienced in battle -- bookkeeper and peace lover truly devoted to Othello, reliable. - weakness: alcohol -> wretched at the thought that his reputation has been sullied - flirtatious but still respectful manner with women, charming endangers himself and Desdemona cares about everyone - naive -- his character and behavior are significant for creating the conditions under which lago can enact his plan - end: he has realized that lago is responsible for Desdemonas death, helps Othello to understand lagos treachery ends the play in a position of significant authority and responsibility - callous treatment of Bianca disrespectful, not interested in her Roderigo: - Venetian young, rich man - incapable of leading his own life, prefers to be his puppet - lago`s dupe, his fool, easily manipulated by him - in love with Desdemona -> prepared to do anything to get her - doesn't feel any loyalty towards Othello - goads Cassio into the fight that gets him dismissed from the position® escapes from the scene undetected - lago tricks him into giving him his money to convince Desdemona, then encourages him to kill Cassio - by the time gets wise to lagos manipulation, still follows through the plan end: stabbed by lago, who doesn't want him to reveal his secret plot outsmarts lago by writing a letter which he places in his pocket (pointing to his guilt) -- rather brainless and naive, only seeks to get to his goals Bianca: - prostitute in Cyprus - plays a crucial role advancing the plot - Cassios her favorite costumer -> in love with Cassio -> he teases her with promises of marriage —> laughs at her behind her back, isn't very. respectful - is used and abused by male characters - was asked by Cassio to copy the handkerchief —> she suspects the owner to be his new lover and gets jealous but still agrees on copying it, stays hopeful that he will return the love -- after Cassios attacked she rushes to his aid and tries to comfort him even facing lagos cruel accusations of her part in the attack —> is accused by lago to be part of the attack the only female survivor - is socially pressured, because she's not married and in control of her own live in an empowered woman who shattered beliefs about male superiority Handkerchief: - white and dotted with images of strawberries first gift that Desdemona received from Othello, keeps it constantly seems to have a special magic since it was given to Othellos mother by an Egyptian - Othello comes to see it as a symbol of her faith and fidelity Othello claims that his mother used it to keep his father faithful to her is an object of jealousy - is evidence that Desdemona and Cassio have an affair - Biancas unfounded jealousy mirrors Othellos causes Bianca the same anxiety that it causes the hero - Desdemona worries a lot about losing it, thinks that it will put Othello into ill thinking - is a pseudonym for the wedding sheets from their marital bed Summary - argument between Roderigo and lago - R. loves D. and paid I. to give her gifts from him and praise him to her - D. and O. got married - lago hates Othello for promoting Cassio instead of him to position of lieutenant - lago plans Othellos downfall and seeks for revenge, wants to pretend devotion - lago and Roderigo cry out to Brabanzio that D. has been stolen and married to Othello - he gathers some officers to find O. - lago warns Othello about Brabantio trying to force a divorce - Cassio tells him that Duke wants to meet him by. of military issues in Cyprus (turkish invasion) - Roderigo and Brabantio arrive, accompany Othello to meet the Duke - Brabantio and O. meet the Duke - Duke wants to send Othello to Cyprus to fight the turks - Brabantio states his problem but his plan backfires —> Duke and senate are sympathetic with O.. - says it must have been black magic that tricked D. - O. confirms marriage, B. can't believe it, Othello wants D. to join and confirm - D. is on Othellos side after he told love story - father asks who D. obeys · > inner conflict, decides for Othello - asks if she could join him to Cyprus, D. agrees Roderigo has thoughts of killing himself (drowning) because he knows that he can't have D. - lago.thinks that's none sense and wants him to sell all of his assets to turn it into cash →> then D. will leave. Moor for Roderigo - lago plans to drive Othello mad Turkish fleet has been wrecked in a strom at sea - lago, Emilia, D. arrive; shortly after also O. ship is sighted- -> go to harbor - while waiting Cassio greats D. in a flirtatious way —> lago sees this as a chance - they declare a night of general festivities to celebrate destruction of Turks and marriage - Roderigo complains to I. that he has no chance - 1. promises him that D. will lose interest in O. and seek it elsewhere but warns that it could be Cassio - Roderigo should cast Cassio into disgrace by starting fight at evenings revels eliminating is I. first step of crucial plan - lago gets Cassio drunk, sends R. to start the fight with him - apparently provoked by R. Cassio chases him - Governor Montano attempts to hold C. down, C. stabs him - iago sends R. to raise alarm in town-> arrives to still the commotion Othello reliefs Cassio of his post on the spot as he finds that Cassio started fight - C. upset, thinks reputation has been ruined 4ever - I. assures he can get back into O. good grace, should use D. - lago wants to frame Cassio and D: as lovers to make O: jealous Cassio sends musicians to O. to play beneath his window - lago uses wife E. to arrange a private meeting between C. and D. - D. is sympathetic to Cs. request, promises she will do everything she can to make O. forgive him -as C. is about to leave, O. and I. return, C leaves —> O. inquires whether it was him or not - talks with lago, tries to awake jealousy by implicating an affair of D. and C., O. seems to be most vulnerable - O: is insecure, thinks that she could have tricked him into marriage, since he's different and is already looking for other men. - O, first believes that D. is faithful but starts to question things as I. keeps on talking in riddles - O. starts to look for signs of betrayal in her actions - D. keeps on begging O. to forgive C. - O. cannot regain his peace of mind, asks lago for proof - D. finds him feeling unwell, tries to use handkerchief to wrap around his head - E. steals handkerchief and hands its to lago - i. plans to stage it in his room for evidence - O. once again asks for proof -> 1, says he has seen. C. using handkerchief, has talked about D. in his sleep O. dismisses love, calls for vengeance on C. and D. - later evening, O. demands the handkerchief, D. is worried and says she doesn't have it with her - tries to change subject, speaking again about C. -> drives Othello into further rage, storms out - Cassio finds handkerchief, wonders about it Bianca joins, he asks her to copy it -> she gets jealous • lago tells O. that Cassio had dreams of D. -> O. at edge of madness and so consumed by madness - falls into a trance, has a fit of epilepsy, C. comes by, I. tells him to come back in a few moments - O. recovers, I. instructs O. to hide nearby and watch - I. and C. talk about Bianca, misunderstanding, O thinks he's crushing over D. - B. enters w/ handkerchief, makes a scene of jealousy O: swears to kill C. and D. (agreement lago kills C., O. kills D.). - Lodovico (Ds. cousin) arrived to give O. a letter from Venice calling him home and instating Cassio as his replacement - -> O. gets angry at D. as she keeps on telling. L. about C and O., strikes D, insults her as devil, and. witch, storms out O. suspicions "confirmed" O. accuses D. of being a whore, doesn't believe her denial and protestations, seconded by Emilia - lago tells Desdemona that O. is simply upset about matters of state - D: knows that she might die, tells E. that she wants her dead body to be rolled into wedding sheets - sings Willow Song about Barbary who was in a situation like hers and died - still doesn't regret marriage, sad about O.. feeling that way. E. tries to comfort her, still no word about handkerchief - later O. tells D. to wait for him in bed and to send E. away - meanwhile I. assures still- complaining R. that everything is going as planned, enrolls him in plan to kill Cassio, directs R. to ambush C. -> R. attacks unsuccessfully, wounded by Cassio, lago stabs Cassio from behind in leg, lago runs away, Cassio cries murder, Lodovico and Graziano enter - lago enters shortly after and flies into a pretend rage, stabs Roderigo as he is identified as the villain, sends E. to inform O: - O. hears, believes that lago has done job, remind O. of his resolution to kill D., regrets what he knows he must do - meanwhile, Ö. stands over his sleeping wife in bedchamber, preparing to kill her - is no longer angry, seems to be more of an agent of justice - torn between love and accomplishing justice

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William Shakespeare „Othello“

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Paulina Strom  

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 Othello:
- protagonist and hero, is a combination of greatness and weakness
- seems to be old
- spends 9 month at peace in Venice, there be

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- Characterisations - symbol of the handkerchief - summary (Zusammenfassung) - is it a racist story or not

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Othello: - protagonist and hero, is a combination of greatness and weakness - seems to be old - spends 9 month at peace in Venice, there being no war requiring him -> during that time he's often invited to Brabantio's Othello - wife: Desdemona, wins her by telling his life story love puts order, peace, happiness into his mental world, now no Chaos - a christian Moor, foreigner from North Africa - general of the armies of Venice, on the field of battle he is skilled and triumphant as a soldier and leader - eloquent, physically powerful, brave and disciplined figure - highly respected -> elevated status in great demand by the duke, reliable, dutiful - plainspoken, honest nature, rational. says that he's not a smooth talker but makes inspiring speeches under pressure has been fighting in battles since he was 7 -> grew up in danger, despair, slavery - was captured and sold as a slave, bought his freedom - is an outsider, different from those around him (due to origins, life history, skin colour), but shares their religion, values and patriotism - - intelligent and confident in military matters but socially insecure his insecurities are so close to surface that a few words of hint and innuendo from lago can tear the confident exterior and expose his fears, desires,...

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tendency to violence cannot stand uncertainty-> drives him to destroy his sanity - after being deployed to Cyprus, he is manipulated by his Ensign -> gullible he is a deeply trusting man, has no reason to doubt lago seed of suspicion in mind of Othello grows into jealousy his image is very important to him: he insists in trying to define how he will be remembered before he commits suicide another weakness: pride -> his wife's alleged affair confounds his belief that he is a lesser man - end: violent, jealous, envious, paranoid, self- destructive, frustrated. Desdemona: - embodies all the good traits, appearance seems attractive, seems too innocent to be true - young beautiful daughter of the Venetian senator Brabantio, leaves her home and father - determined, self-possessed, independent, bold -> midway through she must struggle against all odds to convince Othello that she is not too independent knows how to defend her marriage, capable of standing up goes against traditional Venetian custom by marrying a black man (wasn't socially acceptable) treats all people quite equally-> doesn't care about race, class, rank - loyal, empathic, direct, honest, intelligent, kind, caring, gentle, divine, fair, sweet - fell in love because she was deeply impressed by his adventurous tales (adventurous) - passionately loving Othello, but also committed and loyal friend (stands up for Emilia and Cassio) is at times a submissive character -> her willingness to take credit for her own murder . - respectful, manners wise choice of words - finds it unbearable to think that her husband has turned against her - blames government matters for his changes manners, clueless why she has lost Othello's trust - fails to justify her love to Othello and is murdered by him in a fit of jealous rage continues loving Othello while he uses increasingly violent language towards her her name is accompanied by kind and good personality adjectives it's unthinkable for her to imagine a woman.cheating on his man. - dies an undeserved death —> innocent victim of others wrongdoings lago: - antagonist, villain - married to Emilia, 28 years old - enjoys the pain and damage he causes - very manipulative, puppet master - seems to take great pleasure in preventing Othello from. enjoying marital happiness - clever, egoistic, self-serving motives: - is angry at Othello that he has passed the position of lieutenant over him on to Cassio - Othello might have slept with his wife Emilia - hates him because of his skin color (racial motivated) none of these claims seems tp adequately explain his hatred of Othello - claims a reputation for honesty, reliability and plain speaking -> yet he invents elaborate lies in order to exploit/ manipulate -> hypocrisy, double-faced - he is valued for his loyalty, everyone turns to him for help and advice - Othello entrusts him with important correspondence, never questions his intent care for no one but himself - devotes his whole life to revenge, obsession of control and power over others - is Othellos ensign - others refer to him as "honest lago". —> everyone has high trust in him, they rely on him. is a liar, makes promises he has no intention of keeping, tells fancy stories, leads others to their destruction sees others vulnerabilities and uses these to destroy them likes to have others working to serve his purpose (Roderigo, Emilia) sees others as objects that can be maneuvered, moved around according to where he wants to place them for his advantage - is successful because he can play a number of roles convincingly, able to adapt his tone and style to suit any occasion. - has an inhuman view on women (says they're all the same and just there to have sex, they complain about everything, it doesn't matter if she's pretty/ugly/smart/stupid) - -> thinks they are instinct driven, inferior to men and whores who don't take their job as wives seriously - speaks sharply or rude to Emilia is a supremely effective storyteller wants to convince Othello that Desdemona is being unfaithful to him with Cassio - end: gets unmasked by wife whose obedience he took for granted gets arrested and taken back to Venice where he is imprisoned and tortured Emilia: - lagos wife, Desdemonas attendant - cynical, worldly woman, non-traditional - deeply attached to her mistress - distrustful of lago but follows in wifely duty - develops a strong loyalty to Desdemona -> is caught between her conscience and responsibilities as both a wife and attendant (divided duty) - denounces lagos lies to defend Desdemonas reputation. - speaks disparagingly of men (but supports lago when needed), believes most are foolish, wicked, perverse - when she sees the truth she abandons all loyalty to him, verbally attacks him ->gets killed by him - shows courage& self-assurance in standing up against Othello after he killed Desdemona - her insistence on speaking out costs her life -> dies a guilty death, helped lago persuade Othello of Desdemonas guilt - she didn't suspect lago of plotting against Othello tries to redeem herself in the final scene-> ends up sacrificing her life so that Desdemona won't be remembered as a whore, speaks loudly and passionately blames husbands for most sins a woman commits is humiliated by lago in public she judges jealous Othellos behavior harshly and warns her off him -> is the only one lago underestimates and the first to suggest that somebody is telling Othello untruths about Cassio: - Othellos lieutenant, young Florentine - highly educated but no knowledge of warfare, military understanding is all theory - inexperienced in battle -- bookkeeper and peace lover truly devoted to Othello, reliable. - weakness: alcohol -> wretched at the thought that his reputation has been sullied - flirtatious but still respectful manner with women, charming endangers himself and Desdemona cares about everyone - naive -- his character and behavior are significant for creating the conditions under which lago can enact his plan - end: he has realized that lago is responsible for Desdemonas death, helps Othello to understand lagos treachery ends the play in a position of significant authority and responsibility - callous treatment of Bianca disrespectful, not interested in her Roderigo: - Venetian young, rich man - incapable of leading his own life, prefers to be his puppet - lago`s dupe, his fool, easily manipulated by him - in love with Desdemona -> prepared to do anything to get her - doesn't feel any loyalty towards Othello - goads Cassio into the fight that gets him dismissed from the position® escapes from the scene undetected - lago tricks him into giving him his money to convince Desdemona, then encourages him to kill Cassio - by the time gets wise to lagos manipulation, still follows through the plan end: stabbed by lago, who doesn't want him to reveal his secret plot outsmarts lago by writing a letter which he places in his pocket (pointing to his guilt) -- rather brainless and naive, only seeks to get to his goals Bianca: - prostitute in Cyprus - plays a crucial role advancing the plot - Cassios her favorite costumer -> in love with Cassio -> he teases her with promises of marriage —> laughs at her behind her back, isn't very. respectful - is used and abused by male characters - was asked by Cassio to copy the handkerchief —> she suspects the owner to be his new lover and gets jealous but still agrees on copying it, stays hopeful that he will return the love -- after Cassios attacked she rushes to his aid and tries to comfort him even facing lagos cruel accusations of her part in the attack —> is accused by lago to be part of the attack the only female survivor - is socially pressured, because she's not married and in control of her own live in an empowered woman who shattered beliefs about male superiority Handkerchief: - white and dotted with images of strawberries first gift that Desdemona received from Othello, keeps it constantly seems to have a special magic since it was given to Othellos mother by an Egyptian - Othello comes to see it as a symbol of her faith and fidelity Othello claims that his mother used it to keep his father faithful to her is an object of jealousy - is evidence that Desdemona and Cassio have an affair - Biancas unfounded jealousy mirrors Othellos causes Bianca the same anxiety that it causes the hero - Desdemona worries a lot about losing it, thinks that it will put Othello into ill thinking - is a pseudonym for the wedding sheets from their marital bed Summary - argument between Roderigo and lago - R. loves D. and paid I. to give her gifts from him and praise him to her - D. and O. got married - lago hates Othello for promoting Cassio instead of him to position of lieutenant - lago plans Othellos downfall and seeks for revenge, wants to pretend devotion - lago and Roderigo cry out to Brabanzio that D. has been stolen and married to Othello - he gathers some officers to find O. - lago warns Othello about Brabantio trying to force a divorce - Cassio tells him that Duke wants to meet him by. of military issues in Cyprus (turkish invasion) - Roderigo and Brabantio arrive, accompany Othello to meet the Duke - Brabantio and O. meet the Duke - Duke wants to send Othello to Cyprus to fight the turks - Brabantio states his problem but his plan backfires —> Duke and senate are sympathetic with O.. - says it must have been black magic that tricked D. - O. confirms marriage, B. can't believe it, Othello wants D. to join and confirm - D. is on Othellos side after he told love story - father asks who D. obeys · > inner conflict, decides for Othello - asks if she could join him to Cyprus, D. agrees Roderigo has thoughts of killing himself (drowning) because he knows that he can't have D. - lago.thinks that's none sense and wants him to sell all of his assets to turn it into cash →> then D. will leave. Moor for Roderigo - lago plans to drive Othello mad Turkish fleet has been wrecked in a strom at sea - lago, Emilia, D. arrive; shortly after also O. ship is sighted- -> go to harbor - while waiting Cassio greats D. in a flirtatious way —> lago sees this as a chance - they declare a night of general festivities to celebrate destruction of Turks and marriage - Roderigo complains to I. that he has no chance - 1. promises him that D. will lose interest in O. and seek it elsewhere but warns that it could be Cassio - Roderigo should cast Cassio into disgrace by starting fight at evenings revels eliminating is I. first step of crucial plan - lago gets Cassio drunk, sends R. to start the fight with him - apparently provoked by R. Cassio chases him - Governor Montano attempts to hold C. down, C. stabs him - iago sends R. to raise alarm in town-> arrives to still the commotion Othello reliefs Cassio of his post on the spot as he finds that Cassio started fight - C. upset, thinks reputation has been ruined 4ever - I. assures he can get back into O. good grace, should use D. - lago wants to frame Cassio and D: as lovers to make O: jealous Cassio sends musicians to O. to play beneath his window - lago uses wife E. to arrange a private meeting between C. and D. - D. is sympathetic to Cs. request, promises she will do everything she can to make O. forgive him -as C. is about to leave, O. and I. return, C leaves —> O. inquires whether it was him or not - talks with lago, tries to awake jealousy by implicating an affair of D. and C., O. seems to be most vulnerable - O: is insecure, thinks that she could have tricked him into marriage, since he's different and is already looking for other men. - O, first believes that D. is faithful but starts to question things as I. keeps on talking in riddles - O. starts to look for signs of betrayal in her actions - D. keeps on begging O. to forgive C. - O. cannot regain his peace of mind, asks lago for proof - D. finds him feeling unwell, tries to use handkerchief to wrap around his head - E. steals handkerchief and hands its to lago - i. plans to stage it in his room for evidence - O. once again asks for proof -> 1, says he has seen. C. using handkerchief, has talked about D. in his sleep O. dismisses love, calls for vengeance on C. and D. - later evening, O. demands the handkerchief, D. is worried and says she doesn't have it with her - tries to change subject, speaking again about C. -> drives Othello into further rage, storms out - Cassio finds handkerchief, wonders about it Bianca joins, he asks her to copy it -> she gets jealous • lago tells O. that Cassio had dreams of D. -> O. at edge of madness and so consumed by madness - falls into a trance, has a fit of epilepsy, C. comes by, I. tells him to come back in a few moments - O. recovers, I. instructs O. to hide nearby and watch - I. and C. talk about Bianca, misunderstanding, O thinks he's crushing over D. - B. enters w/ handkerchief, makes a scene of jealousy O: swears to kill C. and D. (agreement lago kills C., O. kills D.). - Lodovico (Ds. cousin) arrived to give O. a letter from Venice calling him home and instating Cassio as his replacement - -> O. gets angry at D. as she keeps on telling. L. about C and O., strikes D, insults her as devil, and. witch, storms out O. suspicions "confirmed" O. accuses D. of being a whore, doesn't believe her denial and protestations, seconded by Emilia - lago tells Desdemona that O. is simply upset about matters of state - D: knows that she might die, tells E. that she wants her dead body to be rolled into wedding sheets - sings Willow Song about Barbary who was in a situation like hers and died - still doesn't regret marriage, sad about O.. feeling that way. E. tries to comfort her, still no word about handkerchief - later O. tells D. to wait for him in bed and to send E. away - meanwhile I. assures still- complaining R. that everything is going as planned, enrolls him in plan to kill Cassio, directs R. to ambush C. -> R. attacks unsuccessfully, wounded by Cassio, lago stabs Cassio from behind in leg, lago runs away, Cassio cries murder, Lodovico and Graziano enter - lago enters shortly after and flies into a pretend rage, stabs Roderigo as he is identified as the villain, sends E. to inform O: - O. hears, believes that lago has done job, remind O. of his resolution to kill D., regrets what he knows he must do - meanwhile, Ö. stands over his sleeping wife in bedchamber, preparing to kill her - is no longer angry, seems to be more of an agent of justice - torn between love and accomplishing justice