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Shakespeare

Shakespeare

 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
renowned playwright and poet in London
At least 37 plays
●
series of 154 sonnets (deal primarily with love)
• 2 long na

Shakespeare

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11/12/13

Lernzettel

Lernzettel für Englisch 6 Seiten: -William Shakespeare als Person -Elizabethan Age -Seine Werke -Theater zu seiner Zeit -Sonnete: Merkmale, Themen, Entwicklung, Bezug auf Shakespeare -Wie man Sonnete analysiert -Ausführliche Liste von Stilmitteln

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WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE renowned playwright and poet in London At least 37 plays ● series of 154 sonnets (deal primarily with love) • 2 long narrative poems Elizabethan era Spent 3 decades writing Joined The Lord Chamberlain's Men (most successful company of actors), Became a shareholder in the company THE ELIZABETHAN AGE •Father Henry 8 had broken with Rome & Catholic Church ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● SHAKESPEARE Made himself Supreme Head of the Church to divorce his first wife ruled by Queen Elizabeth 1 1558-1603 Last of the Tudor monarchs Period of peace Created Church of England / Anglican Church Virgin Queen, never married James 1 of England (Son of Elizabeth's Cousin Mary Stuart) King James 6 of Scotland before 1603-1625 Joining crowns of Scotland and England Emphasized right to rule by divine right Catholic rebels failed to blow up Parliament in 1605 Puritans: Major political force in Parliament Parliament (Crown depending on it) 2 chambers: House of Lord, House of Commons Lords inherited, commons voted tending to fire (choleric) air (sanguine) water (phlegmatic) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Born and baptized 1564 Married 1582 & 3 children By 1592 risen to prominence as an actor and a playwright 1610 retired • Died 23.4.1616 Hometown: Stratford-upon-Avon (150 km north-west of London) World View Hierarchical order of the universe God to Angels, down to man and further down to animals, plants, minerals Great chain of being Higher more authority Fulfill duty to chain Analogical world view relating God and man Monarch ruler of political world, position derived from God Divine right of kings rebellion a sin against...

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state and heaven tending to fall King/Queen followed by nobility followed by knights and gentlemen Poor at the bottom Father as head and ruler of family Women few rights Chaos meant cosmic anarchy Terified by disorder Doctrine of four elements, All matter made up of earth, water, fire, air, Man combination of the elements 33= earth (melancholy) HIS LITERATURE • sonnets deal with love • Plays fall into 3 main categories • Tragedy Downfall of protagonist or anti-hero Hands of fate ● ● ● ● ● ● • History Focus on English monarchs and their era Mixed tragicomedies THEATRE ● ● ● ● ● Tragic flaw fault or weakness in character Othello jealously, Macbeth = ambition Topic of guilt due to sinful, unjust actions Comedy Formulaic = ● = Complicated plot Intelligent servant, ridiculous costumes and probs Romantic love SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare's Globe Drama as an art from Results from human impulse to tell stories First Theatres were improvised stages in inn-yards, great halls Kind of open-air theatres London as the place to be for entertainment City authorities never approved 1595 performances at inns forbidden Built playhouses outside of London The Theatre as home to The Lord Chamberlain's Men The Rose as home to The Admiral's Men Actors pulled The Theatre down and built it next to The Rose as "The Globe" ● ● ● ● ● ● Most plays in blank verse Blank verse poetic form, consisting of unrhymed iambic pentameter Language full of wordplay and stylistic devices, neologisms now in standard english Jakes and puns for Elizabethan audience Dialogues between multiple characters Soliloquy lengthy monologue by a lone character To explain or drive plot forward, dramatic effect Lots of interpretations and theories to the inspiration ● ● Greek tragedies and writings of his contemporaries in England and Europe as an influence Possible of modified, retold stories During his time theatre was not a respectable way of living ● a ● ● ● = stage Small gallery above the recess held musicians • Hollow Main stage with trap doors Entrance to underworld or hell ● = ● 24-sided polygon surrounding an open yard Apron stages extending into audience. 3 tiers of galleries for wealthy people Accommodate 2500 people 3 doors at back wall for entering and leaving Above stage: Heavens for costumes and painted with gods Workmen no machines Smaller doors, narrow passages PLAYWRIGHT / PRODUCTION only men as actors 6 different plays a week with several roles Dance, sing, play instrument and fence, stunts Many plays a day Most important person: bookholder Apprentices played children and women Humor most important for elizabethan audience Clown and fool ● ● ● ● ● SONNETS ● ● ● SHAKESPEARE Playwright needed to be good drama, taste of audience Affordable for everyone ● ● deal with love Tambic pentameter (as a rhythm of life, similar to hip-hop) Each line has five stresses (pentameter = "five measure") ● ● = ● ● • Five stressed syllables (/) alternate with five unstressed syllables (x) -> 10 syllable line unstressed followed by stressed ● Shakespeare didn't always stick to that rhythm or number of syllables 14 lines divided into 3 quatrains and 1 couplet Quatrain four lines of verse written in cross rhyme Couplet final two lines of verse written in rhyming couplet • ABAB CDCD EFEF GG ● ● ● Actors who did not please audience were treated badly Power of words more important than seeing a Highly elaborate costumes Scenery was spare Special effects such as heavens and trapdoors Swordplay, bladder filled with pig's blood Thunder, rolling a cannon ball in a drum Music varied No breaks Started at 2 o'clock only during daylight Little story or scene Explores, resolves a thought or an experience Often contains a change of thought = a furning point Lines 1 to 12 often develop an argument or give examples • Couplet is the conclusion or points out paradox or contradicts the 12 lines before He didn't follow any formula 3 certain facts: first mentioned 1598 by Francis Meres, 2 sonnets published in 1599, full 154 sonnets published in 1609 x / x / x / x/x/ Nothing else known: authorised publication? Appear in Shakespaeares intended order? When written? Autobiographical? Purely fictitious? Diary? Sonnets 1-126 to a young man Sonnets 127-154 concern a woman (known as "the dark lady") SONNETS 1-126: friend, high social status, he should marry and have children, desire to immortalise him, tortured by separation 127-154: dark lady causes him emotional pain, his mistress, unfaithful to him with the one in the sonnets 1-126 and other men criticises looks and morals, selfdisgust at his feelings for her ● • William Wordsworth argued that the sonnets were Shakespeares intimate thoughts Robert Browning didn't agree, only for tradition, not personal • Nevertheless fortured feelings, inner conflict, intimate Tradition went on 200 years before Shakespeare was born Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) first sonnets about love From then on used to declare devotion to a beautiful but cold lady Sonnets flourished in Italy and France, slowly in England Geoffrey Chaucer (1345-1400) translated some of F.P. Sonnets Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) traveled in Europe as diplomat, translated all of F.P. Sonnets and wrote own sonnets about wanting to break free of love • Earl of Surrey, Henry Howard (1517-1547) unique contributions to the sonnet, established the rhyme scheme and added male friendship • Both of them were an influence to Shakespeare and their poems were published in 1557 in Songs and Sonnets Not very successful and the next 30 years sonnets more or less vanished 1590s then explosion of sonnets in England 1591 Sir Philip Sidney's sonnet sequence published Astrophil and Stella (108 sonnets and 11 songs) ● • Edmund Spencer's sonnet sequence published in 1595 Amoretti One decade before sonnets vanished again 2 types today: Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet: 2 quatrains and 2 tercets, turn in the 2 tercets and English (Shakespearean) sonnet: 3 quatrains and 1 couplet, turn in couplet or at line 9 Shakespeare used sonnets in his plays e.g. Romeo and Juliet the Prologue/Chorus as a summary or description (functional) Structure (Vocabulary): Blank verse unrhymed lines with iambic pentameter Enjambment: one line continuing onto the next Free Verse poetry without rhythm nor rhyme Metre pattern of stressed & unstressed syllables. Stanza/ Verse: section of a poem consisting out of a group of lines Rhyme scheme pattern by repetition of sounds at the end of lines. Rhyme repetition of sounds usually at the end of 2 or more lines Rhythm: pace or movement of a poem, determined by metre and length of sentences ● ● ● ● SHAKESPEARE ● a ● ANALYSIS • How to analyze a sonnet? -> take a look at the structure (rhyme scheme, rhythm, stanza, number of lines, number of syllables, enjambments) -> divide them into stanzas (if not already done) -> look at each stanza separate and what it might be about? Do you recognize anything related to love or friendship? -> go over your notes about every stanza: do you recognize a story or a scene? What is the message? -> Can you find a furning point or a paradox (if not: take a close look at line 9 and any line after) -> Is there an argumentative structure? Arguments, conclusion etc. -> Stylistic devices (Can you link some words? E.g. fire = courage or anger) -> Who is the author? Do you have some background information that can help? ● STYLISTIC DEVICES • Alliteration: emphasis due to repetition of initial consonant letters of two or more neighbouring words Anaphora repetition of identical words or phrases at beginning of sentence or line Allusion reference to a familiar or famous historical or literary figure or event ● ● ● • Ellipsis: leaving out words to avoid repetition Enumeration listing things SHAKESPEARE ● ● a ● Euphemism expression or word to talk about something unpleasant, embarassing Exaggeration representing something as..... more than it really is Foreshadowing hinting at future events Group of Three: 3 related ideas or concepts Inversion: reversal of normal order of words Irony contrast for rhetorical or humorous effect Litotes: understatement • Metaphor:2 ideas that are normally not linked are compared without using as or like, creates an image, description more powerful Onomatopoeia words that sound like their meanings (boom) ● • Paradox: statement consisting of two parts that seem to be the opposite Parallelism repetition of a sentence pattern often used to contrast Perspective point of view from which a story is told • Personification giving human traits, to objects, animals etc. Rhetorical Question: a question expecting no answer ● ● ● Antithesis/Contrast contrasting opposites Antonym: Word that means the opposite of another word Bias: prejudice in favor or against one thing, person / group, tendency to hold a certain point of view (article or text is biased if it's one-sided more based on personal opinion than facts

Englisch /

Shakespeare

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Tami  

Follow

603 Followers

 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
renowned playwright and poet in London
At least 37 plays
●
series of 154 sonnets (deal primarily with love)
• 2 long na

App öffnen

Lernzettel für Englisch 6 Seiten: -William Shakespeare als Person -Elizabethan Age -Seine Werke -Theater zu seiner Zeit -Sonnete: Merkmale, Themen, Entwicklung, Bezug auf Shakespeare -Wie man Sonnete analysiert -Ausführliche Liste von Stilmitteln

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE renowned playwright and poet in London At least 37 plays ● series of 154 sonnets (deal primarily with love) • 2 long narrative poems Elizabethan era Spent 3 decades writing Joined The Lord Chamberlain's Men (most successful company of actors), Became a shareholder in the company THE ELIZABETHAN AGE •Father Henry 8 had broken with Rome & Catholic Church ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● SHAKESPEARE Made himself Supreme Head of the Church to divorce his first wife ruled by Queen Elizabeth 1 1558-1603 Last of the Tudor monarchs Period of peace Created Church of England / Anglican Church Virgin Queen, never married James 1 of England (Son of Elizabeth's Cousin Mary Stuart) King James 6 of Scotland before 1603-1625 Joining crowns of Scotland and England Emphasized right to rule by divine right Catholic rebels failed to blow up Parliament in 1605 Puritans: Major political force in Parliament Parliament (Crown depending on it) 2 chambers: House of Lord, House of Commons Lords inherited, commons voted tending to fire (choleric) air (sanguine) water (phlegmatic) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Born and baptized 1564 Married 1582 & 3 children By 1592 risen to prominence as an actor and a playwright 1610 retired • Died 23.4.1616 Hometown: Stratford-upon-Avon (150 km north-west of London) World View Hierarchical order of the universe God to Angels, down to man and further down to animals, plants, minerals Great chain of being Higher more authority Fulfill duty to chain Analogical world view relating God and man Monarch ruler of political world, position derived from God Divine right of kings rebellion a sin against...

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Mit Knowunity erhältest du Lerninhalte von anderen Schüler:innen auf eine moderne und gewohnte Art und Weise, um bestmöglich zu lernen. Schüler:innen teilen ihr Wissen, tauschen sich aus und helfen sich gegenseitig.

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Alternativer Bildtext:

state and heaven tending to fall King/Queen followed by nobility followed by knights and gentlemen Poor at the bottom Father as head and ruler of family Women few rights Chaos meant cosmic anarchy Terified by disorder Doctrine of four elements, All matter made up of earth, water, fire, air, Man combination of the elements 33= earth (melancholy) HIS LITERATURE • sonnets deal with love • Plays fall into 3 main categories • Tragedy Downfall of protagonist or anti-hero Hands of fate ● ● ● ● ● ● • History Focus on English monarchs and their era Mixed tragicomedies THEATRE ● ● ● ● ● Tragic flaw fault or weakness in character Othello jealously, Macbeth = ambition Topic of guilt due to sinful, unjust actions Comedy Formulaic = ● = Complicated plot Intelligent servant, ridiculous costumes and probs Romantic love SHAKESPEARE Shakespeare's Globe Drama as an art from Results from human impulse to tell stories First Theatres were improvised stages in inn-yards, great halls Kind of open-air theatres London as the place to be for entertainment City authorities never approved 1595 performances at inns forbidden Built playhouses outside of London The Theatre as home to The Lord Chamberlain's Men The Rose as home to The Admiral's Men Actors pulled The Theatre down and built it next to The Rose as "The Globe" ● ● ● ● ● ● Most plays in blank verse Blank verse poetic form, consisting of unrhymed iambic pentameter Language full of wordplay and stylistic devices, neologisms now in standard english Jakes and puns for Elizabethan audience Dialogues between multiple characters Soliloquy lengthy monologue by a lone character To explain or drive plot forward, dramatic effect Lots of interpretations and theories to the inspiration ● ● Greek tragedies and writings of his contemporaries in England and Europe as an influence Possible of modified, retold stories During his time theatre was not a respectable way of living ● a ● ● ● = stage Small gallery above the recess held musicians • Hollow Main stage with trap doors Entrance to underworld or hell ● = ● 24-sided polygon surrounding an open yard Apron stages extending into audience. 3 tiers of galleries for wealthy people Accommodate 2500 people 3 doors at back wall for entering and leaving Above stage: Heavens for costumes and painted with gods Workmen no machines Smaller doors, narrow passages PLAYWRIGHT / PRODUCTION only men as actors 6 different plays a week with several roles Dance, sing, play instrument and fence, stunts Many plays a day Most important person: bookholder Apprentices played children and women Humor most important for elizabethan audience Clown and fool ● ● ● ● ● SONNETS ● ● ● SHAKESPEARE Playwright needed to be good drama, taste of audience Affordable for everyone ● ● deal with love Tambic pentameter (as a rhythm of life, similar to hip-hop) Each line has five stresses (pentameter = "five measure") ● ● = ● ● • Five stressed syllables (/) alternate with five unstressed syllables (x) -> 10 syllable line unstressed followed by stressed ● Shakespeare didn't always stick to that rhythm or number of syllables 14 lines divided into 3 quatrains and 1 couplet Quatrain four lines of verse written in cross rhyme Couplet final two lines of verse written in rhyming couplet • ABAB CDCD EFEF GG ● ● ● Actors who did not please audience were treated badly Power of words more important than seeing a Highly elaborate costumes Scenery was spare Special effects such as heavens and trapdoors Swordplay, bladder filled with pig's blood Thunder, rolling a cannon ball in a drum Music varied No breaks Started at 2 o'clock only during daylight Little story or scene Explores, resolves a thought or an experience Often contains a change of thought = a furning point Lines 1 to 12 often develop an argument or give examples • Couplet is the conclusion or points out paradox or contradicts the 12 lines before He didn't follow any formula 3 certain facts: first mentioned 1598 by Francis Meres, 2 sonnets published in 1599, full 154 sonnets published in 1609 x / x / x / x/x/ Nothing else known: authorised publication? Appear in Shakespaeares intended order? When written? Autobiographical? Purely fictitious? Diary? Sonnets 1-126 to a young man Sonnets 127-154 concern a woman (known as "the dark lady") SONNETS 1-126: friend, high social status, he should marry and have children, desire to immortalise him, tortured by separation 127-154: dark lady causes him emotional pain, his mistress, unfaithful to him with the one in the sonnets 1-126 and other men criticises looks and morals, selfdisgust at his feelings for her ● • William Wordsworth argued that the sonnets were Shakespeares intimate thoughts Robert Browning didn't agree, only for tradition, not personal • Nevertheless fortured feelings, inner conflict, intimate Tradition went on 200 years before Shakespeare was born Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) first sonnets about love From then on used to declare devotion to a beautiful but cold lady Sonnets flourished in Italy and France, slowly in England Geoffrey Chaucer (1345-1400) translated some of F.P. Sonnets Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542) traveled in Europe as diplomat, translated all of F.P. Sonnets and wrote own sonnets about wanting to break free of love • Earl of Surrey, Henry Howard (1517-1547) unique contributions to the sonnet, established the rhyme scheme and added male friendship • Both of them were an influence to Shakespeare and their poems were published in 1557 in Songs and Sonnets Not very successful and the next 30 years sonnets more or less vanished 1590s then explosion of sonnets in England 1591 Sir Philip Sidney's sonnet sequence published Astrophil and Stella (108 sonnets and 11 songs) ● • Edmund Spencer's sonnet sequence published in 1595 Amoretti One decade before sonnets vanished again 2 types today: Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet: 2 quatrains and 2 tercets, turn in the 2 tercets and English (Shakespearean) sonnet: 3 quatrains and 1 couplet, turn in couplet or at line 9 Shakespeare used sonnets in his plays e.g. Romeo and Juliet the Prologue/Chorus as a summary or description (functional) Structure (Vocabulary): Blank verse unrhymed lines with iambic pentameter Enjambment: one line continuing onto the next Free Verse poetry without rhythm nor rhyme Metre pattern of stressed & unstressed syllables. Stanza/ Verse: section of a poem consisting out of a group of lines Rhyme scheme pattern by repetition of sounds at the end of lines. Rhyme repetition of sounds usually at the end of 2 or more lines Rhythm: pace or movement of a poem, determined by metre and length of sentences ● ● ● ● SHAKESPEARE ● a ● ANALYSIS • How to analyze a sonnet? -> take a look at the structure (rhyme scheme, rhythm, stanza, number of lines, number of syllables, enjambments) -> divide them into stanzas (if not already done) -> look at each stanza separate and what it might be about? Do you recognize anything related to love or friendship? -> go over your notes about every stanza: do you recognize a story or a scene? What is the message? -> Can you find a furning point or a paradox (if not: take a close look at line 9 and any line after) -> Is there an argumentative structure? Arguments, conclusion etc. -> Stylistic devices (Can you link some words? E.g. fire = courage or anger) -> Who is the author? Do you have some background information that can help? ● STYLISTIC DEVICES • Alliteration: emphasis due to repetition of initial consonant letters of two or more neighbouring words Anaphora repetition of identical words or phrases at beginning of sentence or line Allusion reference to a familiar or famous historical or literary figure or event ● ● ● • Ellipsis: leaving out words to avoid repetition Enumeration listing things SHAKESPEARE ● ● a ● Euphemism expression or word to talk about something unpleasant, embarassing Exaggeration representing something as..... more than it really is Foreshadowing hinting at future events Group of Three: 3 related ideas or concepts Inversion: reversal of normal order of words Irony contrast for rhetorical or humorous effect Litotes: understatement • Metaphor:2 ideas that are normally not linked are compared without using as or like, creates an image, description more powerful Onomatopoeia words that sound like their meanings (boom) ● • Paradox: statement consisting of two parts that seem to be the opposite Parallelism repetition of a sentence pattern often used to contrast Perspective point of view from which a story is told • Personification giving human traits, to objects, animals etc. Rhetorical Question: a question expecting no answer ● ● ● Antithesis/Contrast contrasting opposites Antonym: Word that means the opposite of another word Bias: prejudice in favor or against one thing, person / group, tendency to hold a certain point of view (article or text is biased if it's one-sided more based on personal opinion than facts